Delta, Sears Hit by Card Breach at Online Services Firm
5.4.2018 securityweek Incindent
Delta Air Lines, Sears Holdings and likely other major companies have been hit by a payment card breach suffered last year by San Jose, CA-based online services provider 7.ai.
In a brief statement published on Wednesday, 7.ai revealed that it had notified a “small number” of client companies of a security incident impacting payment card information. According to the firm, the intrusion occurred on September 26 and it was contained on October 12, 2017.
“We have notified law enforcement and are cooperating fully to ensure the protection of our clients and their customers' online safety. We are confident that the platform is secure, and we are working diligently with our clients to determine if any of their customer information was accessed,” 7.ai said.
7.ai provides customer acquisition and engagement solutions to organizations in a wide range of sectors, including agencies, education, financial services, healthcare, insurance, retail, telecom, travel and hospitality, and utilities. Its customers include Adobe, Copa Airlines, Duke Energy, Grainger, Merrill Lynch, Scotiabank, and Vodafone.
Two of 7.ai’s customers have come forward to date to inform customers that they have been hit by the security breach.
One of them is Delta, which told customers that their payment card information may have been compromised. The company said no other information, such as government IDs, passports, security or Skymiles details, was impacted.
“At this point, even though only a small subset of our customers would have been exposed, we cannot say definitively whether any of our customers' information was actually accessed or subsequently compromised,” Delta stated.
The airline, which used 7.ai’s online chat services, has promised to set up a dedicated page at delta.com/response where it will post updates regarding this incident.
Sears Holdings, the company that owns the Sears and Kmart retail store brands, says 7.ai has provided online support services. Sears believes the incident has impacted the credit card information of less than 100,000 customers.
“We believe the credit card information for certain customers who transacted online between September 27, 2017 and October 12, 2017 may have been compromised,” Sears stated. “Customers using a Sears-branded credit card were not impacted. In addition, there is no evidence that our stores were compromised or that any internal Sears systems were accessed by those responsible. 7.ai has assured us that their systems are now secure.”
Sears and Delta said they only learned of the data breach from 7.ai in mid and late March, respectively. SecurityWeek has reached out to the vendor to find out why it has waited so long to notify impacted companies.
North Korea-Linked Lazarus APT suspected for online Casino assault
5.4.2018 securityaffairs APT
The North Korea-linked APT group known as Lazarus made the headlines again for attacking an online casino in Central America and other targets.
The activity of the Lazarus Group (aka Hidden Cobra) surged in 2014 and 2015, its members used mostly custom-tailored malware in their attacks and experts that investigated on the crew consider it highly sophisticated.
This threat actor has been active since at least 2009, possibly as early as 2007, and it was involved in both cyber espionage campaigns and sabotage activities aimed to destroy data and disrupt systems. Security researchers discovered that North Korean Lazarus APT group was behind attacks on banks, including the Bangladesh cyber heist.
Now security experts from ESET uncovered a cyber attack against an online casino in Central America and on other targets, in all the assaults hackers used similar hacking tools, including the dreaded KillDisk disk-wiper.
The experts found several backdoors and a simple command line tool that was designed to inject into/kill processes, terminate/reinstall services, and drop/remove files.
Most of the tools were specifically designed to run as a Windows service and require administrator privileges for their execution.
ESET detailed a TCP backdoor dubbed Win64/NukeSped, a console application that is installed in the system as a service.
The backdoor implements a set of 20 commands whose functionality is similar to previously analyzed Lazarus samples.
“Win64/NukeSped.W is a console application that is installed in the system as a service. One of the initial execution steps is dynamically resolving the required DLL names, on the stack:” states the analysis published by ESET.
“Likewise, procedure names of Windows APIs are constructed dynamically. In this particular sample, they are visible in plaintext; in other past samples that we’ve analyzed they were base64-encoded, encrypted or resolved on the stack character by character”
The backdoor allows attackers to gather information on the system, create processes, search for files, drop files on the infected systems, and inject code into processes, including Explorer.
Researchers from ESET also detailed session hijacker, dubbed Win64/NukeSped.AB, that is a console application capable of creating a process as another currently–logged-in user on the target system.
The session hijacker was spotted in the attack against the casino, researchers at ESET believe it is the same malware used in the attacks against Polish banks and Mexican entities.
ESET pointed out that at least two variants of the KillDisk malware were used in the attack that appear not linked to past wiper-based attacks, like the ones that hit Ukraine in December 2015 and December 2016.
“KillDisk is a generic detection name that ESET uses for destructive malware with disk wiping capabilities, such as damaging boot sectors and overwriting then deleting (system) files, followed by a reboot to render the machine unusable.” continues the report.
“Sub-family variants that do have strong code similarities, are sometimes seen separate cyberattacks and thus can help us make connections, as here. Other cases, for example the directed cyberattacks against high-value targets in Ukraine in December 2015 and December 2016, also employed KillDisk malware, but those samples were from different KillDisk sub-families, so are most likely unrelated to these attacks.”
According to ESET, more than 100 machines belonging to the Central American online casino were infected with the two variants of Win32/KillDisk.NBO.
It is still unclear if the attackers used the KillDisk wiper to cover the tracks of an espionage campaign, or if the malicious code was used in an extortion schema or sabotage.
The presence of the KillDisk wipers and various Lazarus-linked malware suggests that the APT group was responsible for the attack.
Experts also found that both variants present many similarities with the ones that previously targeted financial organizations in Latin America.
The attackers also used the Mimikatz tool to extract Windows credentials, a tool designed to recover passwords from major web browsers, malicious droppers and loaders to download and execute their tools onto the victim systems.
The hackers leveraged Radmin 3 and LogMeIn as remote access tools.
“This recent attack against an online casino in Central America suggests that hacking tools from the Lazarus toolset are recompiled with every attack (we didn’t see these exact samples anywhere else).” concluded ESET.
“The attack itself was very complex, consisted of several steps, and involved tens of protected tools that, being stand-alone, would reveal little from their dynamics.”
Facebook: Cambridge Analytica scandal affected 87 Million users
5.4.2018 securityaffairs Social
Facebook revealed on Wednesday that 87 million users have been affected by the Cambridge Analytica case, much more than 50 million users initially thought.
The social network giant recently unveiled clearer terms of service to ensure transparency to its users about data sharing.
Facebook’s chief technology officer Mike Schroepfer provided further details on the case, including new estimations for the number of affected users.
“In total, we believe the Facebook information of up to 87 million people — mostly in the US — may have been improperly shared with Cambridge Analytica,” Schroepfer said.
The CTO also explained how Facebook is implementing new privacy tools for its users that would be available by next week.
“People will also be able to remove apps that they no longer want. As part of this process we will also tell people if their information may have been improperly shared with Cambridge Analytica,” he added.
“Overall, we believe these changes will better protect people’s information while still enabling developers to create useful experiences.”
Facebook- Cambridge Analytica
Next week, on April 11, Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg would appear at the Congress to address privacy issues.
The hearing will “be an important opportunity to shed light on critical consumer data privacy issues and help all Americans better understand what happens to their personal information online,” said the committee’s Republican chairman Greg Walden and ranking Democrat Frank Pallone in a statement.
“We appreciate Mr. Zuckerberg’s willingness to testify before the committee, and we look forward to him answering our questions.”
The situation for Facebook could get worse after these last revelations, a few days ago Zuckerberg said it would take “a few years” to fix the problems uncovered by the revelations on data misuse.
Zuckerberg tried to reinforce the positive image of its firms, sustaining that one of the biggest error he made is that Facebook is “idealistic,” the
“Well, I don’t think it’s going to take 20 years. I think the basic point that you’re getting at is that we’re really idealistic. When we started, we thought about how good it would be if people could connect, if everyone had a voice. Frankly, we didn’t spend enough time investing in, or thinking through, some of the downside uses of the tools. So for the first 10 years of the company, everyone was just focused on the positive.” Zuckerberg told Vox.com
“I think now people are appropriately focused on some of the risks and downsides as well. And I think we were too slow in investing enough in that. It’s not like we did nothing. I mean, at the beginning of last year, I think we had 10,000 people working on security. But by the end of this year, we’re going to have 20,000 people working on security.”
In response to the Cambridge Analytica case, Facebook deleted dozens of accounts linked to Russia that were used to spread propaganda.
Facebook announced to have revoked the accounts of 70 Facebook and 65 Instagram accounts and removed 138 Facebook pages controlled by the Russia-based Internet Research Agency (IRA), also known as the Russian troll farm due to its misinformation campaigns.
The unit “has repeatedly used complex networks of inauthentic accounts to deceive and manipulate people who use Facebook, including before, during and after the 2016 US presidential elections,” explained Facebook chief security officer Alex Stamos.
Zuckerberg added that the Russian agency“has been using complex networks of fake accounts to deceive people.”
“While we respect people and governments sharing political views on Facebook, we do not allow them to set up fake accounts to do this. When an organization does this repeatedly, we take down all of their pages, including ones that may not be fake themselves.”
AWS Launches New Tools for Firewalls, Certificates, Credentials
5.4.2018 securityweek Safety
Amazon Web Services (AWS) announced on Wednesday the launch of several tools and services designed to help customers manage their firewalls, use private certificates, and safely store credentials.
Private Certificate Authority
One of the new services is called Private Certificate Authority (CA) and it’s part of the AWS Certificate Manager (ACM). The Private CA allows AWS customers to use private certificates without the need for specialized infrastructure.
Developers can now provision private certificates with just a few API calls. At the same time, administrators are provided central management and auditing capabilities, including certificate revocation lists (CRLs) and certificate creation reports. Private CA is based on a pay-as-you-go pricing model.
AWS Secrets Manager
The new AWS Secrets Manager is designed to make it easier for users to store, distribute and rotate their secrets, including credentials, passwords and API keys. The storage and retrieval of secrets can be done via the API or the AWS Command Line Interface (CLI), while built-in or custom AWS Lambda functions provide the capabilities for rotating credentials.AWS announces new security tools
“Previously, customers needed to provision and maintain additional infrastructure solely for secrets management which could incur costs and introduce unneeded complexity into systems,” explained Randall Hunt, Senior Technical Evangelist at AWS.
AWS Secrets Manager is available in the US East and West, Canada, South America, and most of the EU and Asia Pacific regions. As for pricing, the cost is $0.40 per month per secret, and $0.05 per 10,000 API calls.
AWS Firewall Manager
The new AWS Firewall Manager is designed to simplify administration of AWS WAF web application firewalls across multiple accounts and resources. Administrators can create policies and set up firewall rules and they are automatically applied to all applications, regardless of the region where they are hosted.
“Developers can develop and innovators can innovate, while the security team gains the ability to respond quickly, uniformly, and globally to potential threats and actual attacks,” said Jeff Barr, Chief Evangelist for AWS.
AWS Shield Advanced customers get the new Firewall Manager at no extra cost, while other users will be charged a monthly fee for each policy in each region.
Amazon EFS data encrypted in transit
Amazon also announced that it has added support for encrypting data in transit for the Amazon Elastic File System (EFS), a file system designed for cloud applications that require shared access to file-based storage. Support for encrypting data at rest has already been available.
The company has made it easier for users to implement encryption in transit with the launch of a new EFS mount helper tool.
Intel Will Not Patch Spectre in Some CPUs
5.4.2018 securityweek Vulnerebility
Intel has informed customers that some of the processors affected by the Meltdown and Spectre vulnerabilities will not receive microcode updates due to issues related to implementation and other factors.
Two weeks after announcing that microcode updates have been made available for all recent processors vulnerable to speculative execution side-channel attacks, Intel updated its microcode revision guidance to say that some chips will not receive patches.
The list includes Core, Xeon, Celeron, Pentium, and Atom processors with Bloomfield (Xeon), Clarksfield, Gulftown, Harpertown Xeon, Jasper Forest, Penryn/QC, SoFIA 3GR, Wolfdale (Xeon) and Yorkfield (Xeon) microarchitectures. These products have been assigned a “stopped” status, which indicates they will not receive updates due to one or more reasons.
Intel says it has conducted a comprehensive investigation of the microarchitecture and microcode capabilities of these CPUs and determined that some of their characteristics prevent a practical implementation of mitigations for Spectre Variant 2 (CVE-2017-5715).
Other possible reasons for not releasing fixes include limited commercially available system software support and low risk of attacks.
“Based on customer inputs, most of these products are implemented as ‘closed systems’ and therefore are expected to have a lower likelihood of exposure to these vulnerabilities,” Intel explained.
Intel revealed recently that its upcoming processors for data centers and PCs will include built-in protections against Meltdown (Variant 3) and Spectre (Variant 2) attacks. The chip giant expects to roll out these protections in the second half of 2018.
“We have redesigned parts of the processor to introduce new levels of protection through partitioning that will protect against both Variants 2 and 3,” explained Intel CEO Brian Krzanich. “Think of this partitioning as additional ‘protective walls’ between applications and user privilege levels to create an obstacle for bad actors.”
Dozens of lawsuits have been filed against Intel by customers and shareholders over the disclosure and handling of Meltdown and Spectre.
Google Patches 9 Critical Android Vulnerabilities in April 2018 Update
5.4.2018 securityweek Vulnerebility Android
Google this week has released its April 2018 set of Android security patches which address more than two dozen Critical and High severity vulnerabilities.
19 vulnerabilities were found to affect components such as Android runtime, Framework, Media framework, and System. These include 7 issues rated Critical and 12 considered High risk. All of the flaws were patched as part of the 2018-04-01 security patch level.
Successful exploitation of these security bugs could result in elevation of privileges, information disclosure, remote code execution, and denial of service.
“The most severe vulnerability in this section could enable a remote attacker using a specially crafted file to execute arbitrary code within the context of a privileged process,” Google notes in its advisory.
Six of the Critical severity bugs were remote code execution vulnerabilities, while the seventh was an elevation of privilege flaw. Impacted platform versions include Android 6.0, 6.0.1, 7.0, 7.1.1, 7.1.2, 8.0, and 8.1.
Google also addressed 9 vulnerabilities as part of the 2018-04-05 security patch level, namely 2 Critical and 7 High severity. The issues impact Broadcom, Kernel, and Qualcomm components.
Both Critical bugs are remote code execution flaws, while the High severity issues include elevation of privilege and information disclosure vulnerabilities.
“The most severe vulnerability in this section could enable a proximate attacker using a specially crafted file to execute arbitrary code within the context of a privileged process,” Google notes.
The 2018-04-05 security patch level also includes patches for 34 vulnerabilities in Qualcomm closed-source components: 6 rated Critical and 28 assessed with a High risk severity level.
Google also included a Qualcomm closed-source components 2014-2016 cumulative update as part of its April 2018 Android security bulletin, although many devices have already addressed these issues in previous updates.
“These vulnerabilities affect Qualcomm components and were shared by Qualcomm with their partners through Qualcomm AMSS security bulletins or security alerts between 2014 and 2016. They are included in this Android security bulletin in order to associate them with a security patch level,” Google explains.
Over 250 vulnerabilities were included in the cumulative update, most rated High severity. One of the bugs was rated Critical risk and 9 were rated Moderate severity.
This month, Google also addressed over 40 vulnerabilities in the Nexus and Pixel devices, all rated Moderate severity (four of the flaws have a High severity rating on Android 6.0 and 6.0.1 devices). Impacted components include Framework, Media framework, System, and Broadcom, Kernel, and Qualcomm components.
On top of these security fixes, the Internet giant also included over 70 functional updates for Google devices as part of the April 2018 Pixel / Nexus Security Bulletin.
WAF Security Startup Threat X Raises $8.2 Million
5.4.2018 securityweek IT
Cybersecurity startup Threat X, which offers cloud-based web application firewall (WAF) solutions, today announced that it has closed an $8.2 million Series A funding round.
The Denver, Colorado-based company says the new funding will be used to fuel growth and support adoption of its WAF technology and managed security services.
The company explains that its SaaS-based solution “employs kill-chain based, progressive profiling to identify and neutralize threats."
“Our goal is to help organizations protect their applications with a SaaS based web application firewall that provides a holistic view of every attack, the techniques being utilized, and target vulnerabilities,” Bret Settle, Founder and CEO of Threat X, said. “Our behavioral profiling and correlation engine analyzes each attack and eliminates false positives by grading risk level and progress throughout the ‘kill-chain’. Our customers can also leverage our deep analytics and expert security team for greater threat intelligence and visibility into preventative measures.”
The funding round was co-led by Grotech Ventures and Access Venture Partners.
Breaches Increasingly Discovered Internally: Mandiant
5.4.2018 securityweek Cyber
Organizations are getting increasingly better at discovering data breaches on their own, with more than 60% of intrusions in 2017 detected internally, according to FireEye-owned Mandiant.
The company’s M-Trends report for 2018 shows that the global median time for internal detection dropped to 57.5 days in 2017, compared to 80 days in the previous year. Of the total number of breaches investigated by Mandiant last year, 62% were discovered internally, up from 53% in 2016.
On the other hand, it still took roughly the same amount of time for organizations to learn that their systems had been compromised. The global median dwell time in 2017 – the median time from the first evidence of a hack to detection – was 101 days, compared to 99 days in 2016.
Companies in the Americas had the shortest median dwell time (75.5 days), while organizations in the APAC region had the longest dwell time (nearly 500 days).
Dwell time data from Mandiant
Data collected by Mandiant in 2013 showed that more than one-third of organizations had been attacked again after the initial incident had been remediated. More recent data, specifically from the past 19 months, showed that 56% of Mandiant customers were targeted again by either the same group or one with similar motivation.
In cases where investigators discovered at least one type of significant activity (e.g. compromised accounts, data theft, lateral movement), the targeted organization was successfully attacked again within one year. Organizations that experienced more than one type of significant activity were attacked by more than one threat actor.
Again, the highest percentage of companies attacked multiple times and by multiple threat groups was in the APAC region – more than double compared to the Americas and the EMEA region.
When it comes to the most targeted industries, companies in the financial and high-tech sectors recorded the highest number of significant attacks, while the high-tech, telecommunications and education sectors were hit by the highest number of different hacker groups.
Last year, FireEye assigned names to four state-sponsored threat groups, including the Vietnam-linked APT32 (OceanLotus), and the Iran-linked APT33, APT34 (OilRig), and APT35 (NewsBeef, Newscaster and Charming Kitten).
“Iran-sponsored threat actors have compromised a variety of organizations, but recently they have expanded their efforts in a way that previously seemed beyond their grasp,” Mandiant said in its report. “Today they leverage strategic web compromises (SWC) to ensnare more victims, and concurrently maintain persistence across multiple organizations for months and sometimes years. Rather than relying on publicly available malware and utilities, they develop and deploy custom malware. When they are not carrying out destructive attacks against their targets, they are conducting espionage and stealing data like professionals.”
IoT Security Firm Red Balloon Raises $22 Million
5.4.2018 securityweek IoT
Red Balloon Security, a provider of embedded device security solutions, announced on Wednesday that it has secured $21.9 million through a Series A funding round led by Bain Capital Ventures.
This latest round of funding brings the company’s total funding to $23.5 million.
The company’s flagship Symbiote Defense technology helps customers to detect and defend against emerging threats targeting embedded devices. The technology behind Symbiote was originally developed within Columbia University’s Intrusion Detection Systems Lab, with support of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate (DHS S&T).
Symbiote, Red Balloon explains, “defends devices without requiring changes to source code or hardware design, all without impacting the functionality or performance of the device,” adding that the solution has “demonstrated the ability to defend against both n-day and zero-day attacks on embedded devices, even if the attacker has succeeded in bypassing traditional cybersecurity measures.”
Red Balloon claims that Symbiote technology has operated for more than 15 billion continuous hours without a single failure, protecting millions of endpoints around the world.
“Symbiote Defense is a critically important technology for today’s businesses because it is able to prevent malware and other cyber attacks from hijacking, disrupting or corrupting any embedded device,” said Ang Cui, PhD, founder and CEO of Red Balloon Security. “This technology has considerable commercial potential because it is highly effective within any type of embedded device environment, from consumer electronics to factories, connected cars and even power plants. Thanks to the strong support of our investors, we will now be able to make this advanced technology more widely available to commercial users across all major industries.”
Greycroft, American Family Ventures and Abstract Ventures also participated in the funding round.
Critical Vulnerability Patched in Microsoft Malware Protection Engine
5.4.2018 securityweek Vulnerebility
An update released this week by Microsoft for its Malware Protection Engine patches a vulnerability that can be exploited to take control of a system by placing a malicious file in a location where it would be scanned.
The Microsoft Malware Protection Engine provides scanning, detection and cleaning capabilities for security software made by the company. The engine is affected by a flaw that can be exploited for remote code execution when a specially crafted file is scanned.
The malicious file can be delivered via a website, email or instant messenger. The Malware Protection Engine will automatically scan the file (if real-time protection is enabled) and allow the attacker to execute arbitrary code in the context of the LocalSystem account, which can lead to a complete takeover of the targeted system.
On systems where real-time scanning is not enabled, the exploit will still get triggered, but only when a scheduled scan is initiated.
The vulnerability, tracked as CVE-2018-0986 and rated “critical,” affects several Microsoft products that use the Malware Protection Engine, including Exchange Server, Forefront Endpoint Protection 2010, Security Essentials, Windows Defender, and Windows Intune Endpoint Protection.
While the flaw is dangerous and easy to exploit, Microsoft believes exploitation is “less likely.” The company pointed out that the patch for this vulnerability will be automatically delivered to customers within 48 hours of release – users and administrators do not have to take any action.
Google Project Zero researcher Thomas Dullien, aka “Halvar Flake,” has been credited for finding CVE-2018-0986. The details of the vulnerability have yet to be disclosed, but considering that the patch is being delivered automatically to most systems, the information will likely become available soon.
This is not the first time Google Project Zero researchers have discovered critical vulnerabilities in Microsoft’s Malware Protection Engine. While Google may occasionally disclose flaws in Microsoft products before patches become available, in the case of the Malware Protection Engine, Microsoft typically releases patches within a few days or weeks.
A similar flaw in the Malware Protection Engine was also found recently by employees of UK's National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC).
North Korean Hackers Behind Online Casino Attack: Report
5.4.2018 securityweek BigBrothers
The infamous North Korean hacking group known as Lazarus is responsible for attacking an online casino in Central America, along with various other targets, ESET says.
The Lazarus Group has been active since at least 2009 and is said to be associated with a large number of major cyber-attacks, including the $81 million cyber heist from Bangladesh's account at the New York Federal Reserve Bank.
Said to be the most serious threat against banks, the group has shown increased interest in crypto-currencies and has recently updated its arsenal of tools.
ESET now reports that an attack on an online casino in Central America and assaults on various other targets last year are the doings of this group. The attackers used a similar toolset in all incidents, including the KillDisk wiping tool.
Also referred to as Hidden Cobra, the Lazarus Group is said to be backed by the North Korean government. The hackers use a broad range of custom tools, but also leverage various projects that are either available from GitHub or provided commercially.
In the attack against an online casino in Central America, the hackers used various tools alongside the destructive KillDisk disk-wiper. Almost all of the malicious tools were designed to run as a Windows service and require administrator privileges for that, meaning that the attackers expected such privileges, ESET points out.
Detected as NukeSped, one of the tools is a TCP backdoor. The malware dynamically resolves the required DLL names during initial execution, and also constructs dynamically the procedure names of Windows APIs. The backdoor listens to a specific port that it ensures is not blocked by the firewall.
Featuring support for 20 commands with functionality similar to previously analyzed Lazarus samples, the malware can be used to gather information on the system, search for files, create processes, drop files on the infected systems, and inject into Explorer or other processes.
ESET also stumbled upon a session hijacker, a console application capable of creating a process as another currently–logged-in user on the victim’s system, just as the TCP backdoor can upon receiving a specific command from the attackers.
Discovered on the compromised casino’s network, the malware is related to the session hijacker used in the Polish and Mexican attacks, ESET says.
On said network, the security researchers also found a simple command line tool accepting several switches, which was designed to inject into/kill processes, terminate/reinstall services, and drop/remove files.
Two variants of the KillDisk malware were used in the attack, likely unrelated to the iterations previously used in cyber-attacks against high-value targets in Ukraine in December 2015 and December 2016.
The disk wiper was found on over 100 machines in the casino’s network, either to cover an espionage operation, or to extort the victim or sabotage the systems. The use of KillDisk simultaneously with various Lazarus-linked malware suggests that it was this group of hackers who deployed the disk wiper.
Not only do these variants share many code similarities, but they are almost identical to the KillDisk variant that previously targeted financial organizations in Latin America.
ESET also discovered a series of format strings that allowed them to attribute the discovered malware samples and attacks to the Lazarus Group, and which represent a relevant, static characteristic of the group’s modus operandi, the researchers say.
As part of the attack against said online casino, the actor also used Mimikatz, which can extract Windows credentials, along with a tool designed to recover passwords from popular web browsers. Although dated December 2014, the tool remains efficient against Chrome (64.0.3282.186), Chromium (67.0.3364.0), Edge (41.16299.15.0) and Internet Explorer (11.0.9600.17843).
The attackers used malicious droppers and loaders to download and execute their tools onto the victim systems. Remote access tools such as Radmin 3 and LogMeIn were also used, to control machines remotely.
“This recent attack against an online casino in Central America suggests that hacking tools from the Lazarus toolset are recompiled with every attack (we didn’t see these exact samples anywhere else). The attack itself was very complex, consisted of several steps, and involved tens of protected tools that, being stand-alone, would reveal little from their dynamics,” ESET says.
Companies Have Little Control Over User Accounts and Sensitive Files: Study
5.4.2018 securityweek Social
Lack of Control Over Sensitive Files Leaves Companies Open to GDPR Failure
Security teams are urged to assume intruders are already on their networks. The quantity and frequency of data loss breaches lends credence to that assumption. The implication is that perimeter defenses are insufficient, and that sensitive data needs to be locked down as far as possible within the networks. A new study shows, however, that 41% of companies have more than 1.000 sensitive files open to everyone with access to the network.
Each year, New York, NY-based data protection and governance firm Varonis analyzes the results of its risk assessments on new and potential customers. Its 2018 Global Data Risk Report (PDF) contains the findings of 130 corporate risk analyses conducted during 2017. It looks for free-form data at risk from existing intruders and potential malicious insiders; and the process examined more than 6 billion individual files from 30 different industries across more than 50 countries.
The results clearly show that companies are struggling to control sensitive data contained in free-form text documents. A common problem is leaving files open to global access groups. For example, 58% of companies have more than 100,000 folders open to everyone -- and the bigger the company, the worse the problem. Eighty-eight percent of companies with more than 1 million folders have more than 100,000 open folders.
The problem becomes more pressing when those files contain sensitive data -- defined here as information subject to regulations such as GDPR, PCI, and HIPAA. The Varonis platform works by looking at both the structure of the network, and the content of the files. In this study it found that 41% of companies have more than 1,000 sensitive files open to everyone.
For these companies any malicious insider or low-privileged intruder can simply access and potentially steal sensitive data, bringing the company into immediate compliance failure. Most regulations either require the principle of least privilege or imply its requirement.
The basis of protecting sensitive files requires two things in particular: the principle of least privilege to restrict access to sensitive documents to authorized persons only; and privileged account management to prevent attackers' access to and unauthorized use of privileged accounts to access restricted documents. However, the Varonis study shows that companies have as little control over their user accounts as they do over their sensitive files.
A common issue with account management is the failure to remove old accounts. This usually happens when the account is no longer necessary, or its owner leaves the organization's employment. These are variously known as 'stale' or 'ghost user' accounts. Varonis found that 65% of companies have more than 1000 stale user accounts. The study does not indicate how many of these stale accounts are also privileged accounts, but with so many sensitive documents open to everyone, an attacker's access to a privileged account isn't necessary.
"User and service accounts that are inactive and enabled (aka 'ghost users') are targets for penetration and lateral movement," warns the Varonis report. "If these accounts are left unmonitored, attackers can steal data or cause disruption without being detected."
The combination of open sensitive files and ghost accounts increases the likelihood of a data breach and compliance failure. The regulation top-of-mind with most security teams right now is the EU's General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), with the potential for heavy fines, and due to come into force next month.
A common perception is that if a firm can demonstrate strong attempts to protect personal data, it will not be prosecuted to the full by European data regulators. Certainly, regulators will take account of any breached firm's attempts to conform -- but overexposed documents and ghost accounts are a de-facto failure.
Last month, the Irish data protection commissioner discussed how she intends to handle her GDPR remit. Ireland is particularly important because it is the European home of many large U.S. firms (such as Facebook, Google, Twitter, Pfizer, Boston Scientific and Johnson & Johnson) that have extensive offices and/or their European headquarters in what is sometimes known as Dublin's Silicon Docks.
Discussing whether 'state of the art security' would be a mitigating factor over any GDPR-relevant data breach, Ireland's Data Protection Commissioner Helen Dixon told Independent.ie, "it's a theoretical possibility that if they have applied objectively demonstrable state-of-the-art security and there really appears to have been nothing further they could have done, that would certainly be a mitigation criteria [sic]. But, we haven't come across it."
Regardless of all other security controls, if any firm investigated under GDPR has failed to operate least privilege for all documents containing personal data, it will likely be subject to the full sanction of the General Data Protection Regulation -- that is, 4% of global turnover.
Facebook Says 87 Million May be Affected by Data Breach
5.4.2018 securityweek Social
Facebook said Wednesday personal data on as many as 87 million users was improperly shared with British political consultancy Cambridge Analytica.
The new figure eclipses a previous estimate of 50 million in a further embarrassment to the social network roiled by a privacy scandal.
The announcement came as Facebook unveiled clearer terms of service to enable users to better understand data sharing, and as a congressional panel said chief executive Mark Zuckerberg would appear next week to address privacy issues.
Facebook's chief technology officer Mike Schroepfer released the new figures on affected users as he discussed implementation of new privacy tools for users of the huge social network.
"In total, we believe the Facebook information of up to 87 million people -- mostly in the US -- may have been improperly shared with Cambridge Analytica," he said.
The new estimate could deepen the crisis for Facebook, which has been pressured by the disclosures on hijacking of private data by the consulting group working for Donald Trump's 2016 campaign.
Schroepfer said new privacy tools, which had been announced last month, would be in place by next Monday.
"People will also be able to remove apps that they no longer want. As part of this process we will also tell people if their information may have been improperly shared with Cambridge Analytica," he said.
"Overall, we believe these changes will better protect people's information while still enabling developers to create useful experiences."
Zuckerberg on the Hill
Earlier Wednesday, the House of Representatives' Energy and Commerce Committee announced what appeared to be the first congressional appearance by Zuckerberg since the scandal broke on the hijacking of data on tens of millions of users.
The April 11 hearing will "be an important opportunity to shed light on critical consumer data privacy issues and help all Americans better understand what happens to their personal information online," said the committee's Republican chairman Greg Walden and ranking Democrat Frank Pallone in a statement.
"We appreciate Mr. Zuckerberg's willingness to testify before the committee, and we look forward to him answering our questions."
Zuckerberg will likely face multiple congressional hearings as his social media giant battles a firestorm following revelations that the British consulting firm Cambridge Analytica obtained the data of 50 million Facebook users to try and manipulate US voters in the 2016 presidential election.
The Facebook co-founder has also been invited to appear before the Senate's Judiciary Committee on April 10, alongside Google chief Sundar Pichai and Twitter head Jack Dorsey.
His participation is yet unconfirmed but Senator Dianne Feinstein told the San Francisco Chronicle that Zuckerberg had agreed to attend that hearing.
Zuckerberg, who has been making a series of media appearances after staying silent for several days on the breach, said earlier this week it would take "a few years" to fix the problems uncovered by the revelations on data misuse.
He told Vox.com that one of Facebook's problems was that it was "idealistic," focusing on the positive aspects of connecting people and that "we didn’t spend enough time investing in, or thinking through, some of the downside uses of the tools."
The world's biggest social network faces probes on both sides of the Atlantic over the misuse of data, which Facebook attributed to a breach of terms of service by an academic researcher linked to the consulting firm working for Donald Trump's campaign.
Deleting Russian 'trolls'
Late Tuesday, Facebook said it deleted dozens of accounts linked to a Russian-sponsored internet unit which has been accused of spreading propaganda and other divisive content in the United States and elsewhere.
The social networking giant said it revoked the accounts of 70 Facebook and 65 Instagram accounts, and removed 138 Facebook pages controlled by the Russia-based Internet Research Agency (IRA).
The agency has been called a "troll farm" due to its deceptive post aimed at sowing discord and propagating misinformation.
The unit "has repeatedly used complex networks of inauthentic accounts to deceive and manipulate people who use Facebook, including before, during and after the 2016 US presidential elections," said a statement Facebook chief security officer Alex Stamos.
Zuckerberg said in a separate statement on his Facebook page that the Russian group "has been using complex networks of fake accounts to deceive people."
He added: "While we respect people and governments sharing political views on Facebook, we do not allow them to set up fake accounts to do this. When an organization does this repeatedly, we take down all of their pages, including ones that may not be fake themselves."
Facebook to Offer 'Clearer' Terms on Privacy, Data Use
5.4.2018 securityweek Social
Facebook said Wednesday it is updating its terms on privacy and data sharing to give users a clearer picture of how the social network handles personal information.
The move by Facebook follows a firestorm over the hijacking of personal information on tens of millions of users by a political consulting firm which sparked a raft of investigations worldwide.
"We're not asking for new rights to collect, use or share your data on Facebook," said a statement by Facebook chief privacy officer Erin Egan and deputy general counsel Ashlie Beringer.
"We're also not changing any of the privacy choices you've made in the past."
Facebook is under intense pressure to fix the problems which led to the harvesting of some 87 million user profiles by Cambridge Analytica, a consulting firm working on Donald Trump's 2016 campaign.
The company has already unveiled several measures aimed at improving privacy and transparency, but chief executive Mark Zuckerberg has said it may take several years to address all the issues raised in the scandal.
Egan and Beringer said that with the new terms of service, "we explain how we use data and why it's needed to customize the posts and ads you see, as well as the groups, friends and pages we suggest."
They wrote that "we will never sell your information to anyone" and impose "strict restrictions on how our partners can use and disclose data."
The statement said the new terms will offer better information on how Facebook advertising operates as well.
"You have control over the ads you see, and we don't share your information with advertisers," the statement said.
"Our data policy explains more about how we decide which ads to show you."
Egan and Beringer said Facebook will go further in explaining how it gathers information from phones and other devices.
"People have asked to see all the information we collect from the devices they use and whether we respect the settings on your mobile device (the short answer: we do)," they wrote.
Users may offer feedback on the new policy for seven days before Facebook finalizes the new rules and asks its members to accept them.
KevDroid Android RAT can steal private data and record phone calls
5.4.2018 securityaffairs Android
Security researchers discovered a new Android Remote Access Trojan (RAT) dubbed KevDroid that can steal private data and record phone calls.
Security researchers at South Korean cybersecurity firm ESTsecurity have discovered a new strain of Android Trojan KevDroid that is being distributed disguised as a fake anti-virus application, dubbed “Naver Defender.”
“Spear phishing attacks targeting Android mobile devices have recently emerged. Portal site Naver sends emails related to personal information leakage prevention to induce malicious apps to be installed.” reads the analysis published by ESTsecurity.
“This malicious app impersonates Naver with the Naver logo and the app name “Naver Defender” and takes away sensitive information such as address book, call log, and text messages.”
KevDroid is a remote administration tool (RAT) designed to steal sensitive information from compromised Android devices and spy on its owners by recording phone calls.
After the initial discovery made by cybersecurity firm ESTsecurity, experts at Talos published a detailed analysis of two variants of RAT detected in the wild.
“Talos identified two variants of the Android Remote Administration Tool (RAT). Both samples have the same capabilities — namely to steal information on the compromised device (such as contacts, SMS and phone history) and record the victim’s phone calls.” reads the analysis published by Talos.
One of the variants exploits a known Android exploit (CVE-2015-3636) to get root access on the compromised device, this variant was dubbed KevDroid. Both variants sent data to the same command and control (C2) server through an HTTP POST.
Talos experts explained that the malicious code implemented the feature to record calls based on an open-source project available on GitHub.
The investigation about the infection vector revealed that attackers used a RTF file attempting to exploit the CVE-2017-11882 vulnerability in Office using an embedded Microsoft Equation object.
The bait document used by hackers is written in Korean and contains information on Bitcoin and China.
The second RAT is targeting Windows systems it specifically uses the PubNub platform as its C2 server. PubNub is a global data stream network (DSN). This malware uses the PubNub API in order to publish orders to the compromised systems, expert dubbed it “PubNubRAT.”
The most recent variant of KevDroid malware, detected a few weeks ago, implements the following capabilities:
record phone calls & audio
steal web history and files
gain root access
steal call logs, SMS, emails
collect device’ location at every 10 seconds
collect a list of installed applications
“If an adversary were successful in obtaining some of the information KevDroid is capable of collecting, it could result in a multitude of issues for the victim.” continues Talos. “Many users access their corporate email via mobile devices. This could result in cyber espionage being a potential outcome for KevDroid.”
South Korean media associated the KevDroid RAT with North Korea APT Group 123.
“We do not have a strong link between the two malware samples and Group 123. The TTP overlaps are tenuous — using public cloud infrastructure as a C2 server is something other malware has used before as a technique, not just Group 123. Additionally, the C2 server is hosted in Korea, and this malware has been known to target Korean users. However, this information cannot lead us to a strong link,” Talos concluded.
The analysis published by Talos also included indicators of compromise (IoCs).
Many natural gas pipeline operators in the U.S. Gas affected by cyberattack
5.4.2018 securityaffairs ICS
Natural gas pipeline operators in the United States have been affected by a cyber attack that hit a third-party communications system.
The hackers targeted the Latitude Technologies unit at the Energy Services Group, but the attack did not impact operational technology.
At least four US pipeline operators were affected by the attack on their electronic systems, the Energy Transfer Partners was the first company that reported problems with its Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) system.
The Electronic Data Interchange platform used by businesses to exchange sensitive documents, including invoices and purchase orders.
Latitude currently provides EDI services to more than 100 natural gas pipeline firms, storage facilities, utilities, law firms, and energy marketers across the US. The companies in the energy industry use it to manage key energy transactions.
According to a report published by Bloomberg, the attack against Latitude affected Boardwalk Pipeline Partners, Chesapeake Utilities Corp.’s Eastern Shore Natural Gas, and ONEOK, Inc.
“We do not believe any customer data was compromised,” Latitude Technologies unit of Energy Services Group told Bloomberg.
“We are investigating the re-establishment of this data,” Latitude said in a message to customers.”
The Department of Homeland Security is investigating the incident, at the time of writing there are no details about the cyber attack.
On Tuesday, Latitude notified its customers that the restoration of EDI services had been completed.
“Monday 4/3/2018 7:49am We have completed the initial restoration of the system. We are now working towards increasing performance. While we believe things to be fully restored, we will continue to monitor for gaps in functionality.” states the advisory published by Latitude Technologies.
“Please notify us if you encounter any missing capabilities so we can address them ASAP. Please contact us with any questions at 972-519-5451. Thank you for your patience. Please check this web site for continuing updates”
Who is behind the attack?
At the time it is impossible to determine the nature of the attackers, financially motivated cybercrime gangs could be interested in stealing sensitive information and use them to blackmail firms. It is likely that crooks targeted the natural gas pipeline operators for extortion purposes.
Another scenario sees nation-state actors targeting critical infrastructure, in this case, EDI services are a mine of information for hackers that could use them to launch further attacks.
In October 2017, the US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the FBI have issued a warning that APT groups are actively targeting government departments, and firms working in the energy, nuclear, water, aviation, and critical manufacturing sectors.
“This isn’t the first time U.S. pipelines have been targeted. In 2012, a federal cyber response team said in a note that it had identified a number of “cyber intrusions” targeting natural gas pipeline sector companies.” concluded Bloomberg.
“The group, the Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team, is a division of Homeland Security.”