Structure of Cyber Risk Perception Survey Could Distort Findings
22.2.2018 securityweek Cyber

CISOs Barely Mentioned in Report on Global Cyber Risk Perception

The purpose of a new report  from cyber insurance firm Marsh, supported by Microsoft's Global Security Strategy and Diplomacy team, is to examine the global state of cyber risk management: "This report provides a lens into the current state of cyber risk management at organizations around the world."

To achieve this, Marsh polled 1,312 senior executives "representing a range of key functions, including information technology, risk management, finance, legal/compliance, senior management, and boards of directors." However, there is no category representing information security, nor any specific indication where a security team fits in the organizational structure.

A reasonable assumption would be cyber security is treated as part of IT, and that if the organization has a CSO or CISO, that position reports directly to the CIO from within the IT structure. That would explain why IT is consistently described as the functional area that is the primary owner and decision-maker for cyber risk management in all companies across all sectors with revenue above $10 million per annum.

But it doesn't reflect reality. While the majority of CISOs might still report to the CIO, this is slowly changing. Some now report directly to the board while others report to the Chief Risk Officer (CRO) or Legal.

Cyber Risk ReportFurthermore, the cyber security function is key to the specification and implementation of any cyber risk mitigation policy (where 'mitigation' equates to risk reduction as opposed to other methods such as risk transfer, which equates to insurance). Human Resources (30 respondents) can help with insider risk definition and response. Procurement can help with security product purchasing (14 respondents). Finance (340 polled) can help with budget planning and financial compliance issues. But none of these will see the full cyber risk threat. While all of these should be involved in cyber risk management, only a dedicated security team is in a position to define and lead it -- and yet there is no cyber security function included in the report.

The decision not to give cyber security its own role, if not the primary role, within the survey has the potential to distort the findings. For example, 41% of the respondents are concerned about financially motivated attacks (which in this survey includes hacktivists), while only 6% are most concerned about politically motivated attacks including state-sponsored attacks.

The question asked was 'With regard to a cyber-attack that delivers destructive malware, which threat actor concerns you the most?" Options on offer included 'Operational error' and 'Human error, such as employee loss of mobile device'; neither of which are commonly associated with the delivery of destructive malware. It is not clear that heads of individual departments would have the nuanced understanding of different cyber threat vectors to provide an accurate view of overall cyber risk.

Another example can be found in the section on reporting. The report states, "53% of chief information security officers, 47% of chief risk officers, and 38% of chief technology/information officers said they provide reports to board members on cyber investment initiatives. Yet only 18% of board members said they receive such information." There is clearly a disconnect between reporting and listening -- and few people in the security industry would question that there is a security information communications problem.

This is the one occurrence of the title 'CISO' in the entire report -- but notice a higher percentage of cyber security officers report on cyber investments than do the IT officers. The implication is that if Security had been separated out from IT, then IT would not so consistently be seen as the primary decision-maker for cyber risk management -- something that most security practitioners might consider worrying given the non-cyber-risk and potentially conflicting business pressures already affecting IT.

This lack of distinction between IT and Security also misses a useful opportunity. The figures show that more reports are delivered by CISOs (percentage-wise) than by CIOs and CTOs. For several years now, CISOs have been on a campaign to improve their own and their security staff's 'soft skills'. Indeed, NIST's National Initiative for Cybersecurity Education (NICE) is this week running a webinar titled, 'Development of Soft Skills That Are in Demand by Cybersecurity Employers'.

NICE states that for cybersecurity employers, "soft skills such as effective communication, problem-solving, creative thinking, resourcefulness, acting as a team player, and flexibility are among the most desirable attributes they are looking for in a new hire." It would be useful if Marsh's figures could show the comparative effectiveness of cyber risk reporting coming from CISOs and CIOs.

Nevertheless, there is useful data and advice within the report. It shows that the majority of companies do not have a method of expressing risk quantitatively (that is, in economic terms). Those that do express their risk tend to do so qualitatively (that is, with capability maturity levels). But understanding the economic effect of different cyber events is essential for both risk mitigation and/or risk transfer. It helps the security team to understand where to concentrate both effort and budget; and it is essential for insurance companies to set realistic insurance premiums.

The figures show that just over half of organizations either have (34%) or plan to buy (22%) cyber insurance. The remainder either have no plans, or specifically plan not to buy insurance -- but a small number (less than 1%) have dropped existing insurance. The primary reason cited for dropping insurance is, "Cyber insurance does not provide adequate coverage for the cost."

The implication is that cyber insurance companies (which include Marsh) have a large potential market Cyber Insurance Market to Top $14 Billion by 2022: Report , but have not yet succeeded in fully making their case. This report does not help by largely ignoring companies' existing cyber risk mitigation specialists.

By not differentiating between the responding company's security function and its IT function, security-specific mitigation is diluted. When SecurityWeek asked Marsh why it hadn't separated the two, Marsh responded, "Don't know exactly what you mean by 'cyber security function' -- a CISO??"

The 'cyber security function' is the work performed by the security team under a variously titled head of cyber security. Although IT and Security must necessarily work together, they have different functions and different priorities, and therefore deserve to be treated separately.

Marsh provided SecurityWeek with a detailed breakdown of the respondents' job functions, answered under the question: "Which functional area most closely describes your position?" The available options were Finance, Risk management, Information technology, Board of directors, Operations, Legal/Compliance/Audit, Human resources, Procurement, and Other. 'Cyber Security' was not an option.

It is the security function that best understands and is most engaged in active risk mitigation. By concentrating the survey on general business leaders with little understanding of, or direct involvement in, cyber risk mitigation, the results inevitably favor the primary alternative; that is 'risk transfer'. Risk transfer is cyber insurance; which is what Marsh provides.


SEC Tells Execs Not to Trade While Investigating Security Incidents
22.2.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) on Wednesday announced updated guidance on how public companies should handle the investigation and disclosure of data breaches and other cybersecurity incidents.

The SEC has advised companies to inform investors in a timely fashion of all cybersecurity incidents and risks – even if the firm has not actually been targeted in a malicious attack. The agency also believes companies should develop controls and procedures for assessing the impact of incidents and risks.

While directors, officers and the people in charge of developing these controls and procedures should be made aware of security risks and incidents, the SEC believes these individuals should refrain from trading securities while in possession of non-public information regarding a significant cybersecurity incident.

SEC Updates Guidance on Data Breach Disclosures

“Public companies should have policies and procedures in place to (1) guard against directors, officers, and other corporate insiders taking advantage of the period between the company’s discovery of a cybersecurity incident and public disclosure of the incident to trade on material nonpublic information about the incident, and (2) help ensure that the company makes timely disclosure of any related material nonpublic information. In addition, we believe that companies are well served by considering the ramifications of directors, officers, and other corporate insiders trading in advance of disclosures regarding cyber incidents that prove to be material,” the SEC said.

These recommendations follow accusations of insider trading against executives at two major companies recently involved in significant cybersecurity incidents. Last year, questions were raised after four Equifax executives sold stock worth $1.8 million just prior to public disclosure of the hack affecting 145 million customers. Equifax claimed that the execs had been unaware of the breach when they sold shares.

Intel’s CEO, Brian Krzanich, faced similar accusations after it was revealed that he had sold all the stock he was legally allowed to, worth roughly $24 million, just before the Meltdown and Spectre vulnerabilities were disclosed. The chipmaker claimed Krzanich’s decision was not related to the disclosure, but some of the lawsuits filed against Intel over the flaws accuse the company of misleading investors.

“We’re all fighting a cyber arms race. However, some organizations have been operating the cyber war while being cloaked. Organizations determine if damage has been done, and how much damage has been done while not being made public. While these undisclosed investigations are being conducted to determine the extent and potential impact of an attack, it’s simply reckless and inappropriate for executives to trade equities, even if they’re on an automated plan,” said Bill Conner, CEO of SonicWall.

“It is good to see the SEC taking action, even if they are reacting on behalf of shareholders to protect them from the massive, headlining breaches that have come so frequent. There’s more to be done by the SEC with respect to cyber guidelines on disclosure and insider trading rules but, this is a solid step in the right direction,” Conner added.

The SEC’s cybersecurity incident disclosure guidance was first released in 2011 and it has now been updated to reinforce and expand previous recommendations. However, some officials, including SEC commissioners Kara Stein and Robert Jackson, believe the agency could have and should have done more.

“I reluctantly support today’s guidance in the hope that it is just the first step toward defeating those who would use technology to threaten our economy. The guidance essentially reiterates years-old staff-level views on this issue. But economists of all stripes agree that much more needs to be done,” Jackson said on Wednesday.

The SEC itself admitted last year that it was the victim of a cyberattack in 2016 that may have allowed hackers to profit through trading on non-public information obtained from its EDGAR filing system.


Singapore Invites Cyberattacks to Strengthen Defenses
22.2.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

Hundreds of hackers have targeted Singapore's defence ministry –- but the attacks were at the government's invitation in an unusual attempt to strengthen cybersecurity.

Authorities said Wednesday they had paid out US$14,750 in prize money to the best of the 264 so-called "white hat" hackers -- specialists who seek to break into networks to check for vulnerabilities -- involved in the project.

The program, which ran from mid-January to early February, was introduced after an embarrassing breach last year which saw hackers steal personal data from about 850 military servicemen and other employees from a defence ministry web portal.

It was run with cybersecurity network HackerOne, which specializes in coordinating "bug bounty programs" in which hackers are rewarded for spotting weaknesses in computer systems.

The top hacker in the contest was a Cyber Security Manager from Ernst and Young Singapore who gave his name only as Darrel and goes by the online moniker "Shivadagger". He was awarded US$5,000.

A total of 97 vulnerability reports were submitted from 34 participants during the program, with 35 reports deemed valid, according to the defence ministry.

David Koh, the defence ministry's cybersecurity chief, hailed the project. "Our systems are now more secure," he said.

While Singapore has some of the most advanced weaponry in the region, Koh said the ministry was at increasing risk of being targeted, and attackers could range from high-school students in their basements to criminals and state-actors.


Zkontrolujte si, jestli je váš firemní počítač chráněn před chybami Meltdown a Spectre

22.2.2018 SecurityWorld Zranitelnosti
Analytická služba Microsoftu Windows Analytics nyní může prozkoumat podnikové počítače s Windows 10, 8.1 a 7 a určit, zda jsou systémy zranitelné vůči vadám Meltdown a Spectre nacházejícím se v procesorech.

Nová schopnost služby Analytics spadající pod sekci „Upgrade Readiness“, tedy připravenost na aktualizaci, představil Terry Myerson, vrcholný představitel firmy zaměřený právě na operační systém Windows. Myerson zranitelnosti nazval „výzvou pro nás všechny,“ neboť vychází z hardwaru jako takového, nikoli ze softwaru.

„K naší službě Windows Analytics jsme přidali možnost nahlásit stav všech zařízení s Windows, které IT odborníci spravují,“ píše Myerson na blogu Microsoftu.

Windows Analytics je shrnující pojem pro tři různé separátní služby: Upgrade Readiness, Update Compliance a Device Health. Zaměřují se na připravenost počítače na aktualizace a také na samotné „zdraví“ stroje. Vychází z telemetrických dat, která Microsoft z osobních počítačů s Windows získává. Windows Analytics jsou dostupné pouze pro zákazníky s licencí Windows Enterprise.

Služba Upgrade Readiness měla původně odhalovat stroje nejvhodnější k aktualizaci z Windows 7 a 8.1 na Windows 10. Doporučuje také ty systémy, které by měli jako první aktualizovat na nejnovější build, tedy verzi systému.

S aktualizací určenou na ověření zabezpečení vůči zranitelnostem Meltdown a Spectre ukáže služba IT administrátorům, zda je antivirový software počítače kompatibilní s aktualizacemi, které Microsoft vydal minulý týden a které mají lépe zabezpečit počítače vůči oběma zranitelnostem.

Upgrade Readiness také určuje, které systémy jsou již proti Meltdownu a Spectru chráněny a ty PC, které mají aktualizace dočasně deaktivovány. Poskytuje rovněž informace o aktualizacích firmwaru, které ve spolupráci s Microsoftem vydává Intel.

Protože Meltdown i Spectre se nachází přímo v procesoru, je nejlepší obranou právě aktualizace firmwaru (tedy kromě celkové fyzické výměny procesoru). Zpočátku se bude Upgrade Readiness zaměřovat jen na Intel, ale podle Myersona „přidáme i CPU partnerů hned jak budou data o nich dostupné Microsoftu“.

Zack Dvorak, programový manažer Microsoftu však varuje, že uživatelé mohou zprvu vidět množství neznámých nebo prázdných polí při využití služby. „Na vylepšení dat poskytovaných službou Upgrade Readiness pracujeme a nové informace vám zobrazíme hned jak to bude možné.“


Google white hackers disclosed critical vulnerabilities in uTorrent clients
22.2.20218 securityaffairs
Vulnerebility

White hackers at Google Project Zero have discovered two critical remote code execution vulnerabilities in versions of BitTorrent’s web-based uTorrent Web client and uTorrent Classic desktop client.
With dozens of millions of active users a day, uTorrent is one of the most popular torrent client, the vulnerabilities could be easily exploited by the researchers to deliver a malware on the target computer or view the past downloads.

Project Zero hacker Tavis Ormandy published a detailed analysis of the issues because the vulnerabilities were not fixed in a 90-day period according to the disclosure policy.

utorrent security

The flaws are tied to various JSON-RPC issues, or issues related to the way the web-based apps handle JavaScript Object Notations (JSON) as they relate to the company’s remote procedure call (RPC) servers.

“By default, utorrent create an HTTP RPC server on port 10000 (uTorrent classic) or 19575 (uTorrent web). There are numerous problems with these RPC servers that can be exploited by any website using XMLHTTPRequest(). To be clear, visiting *any* website is enough to compromise these applications.0 reads the technical analysis.”

Both desktop and web-based uTorrent clients use a web interface to display website content, the presence of JSON-RPC issues make possible the attack decribed by Ormandy,

The expert discovered that the issue can allow an attacker to trigger a flaw in the clients by hiding commands inside web pages that interact with uTorrent’s RPC servers.

An attacker can exploit the vulnerability to change the torrent download folder and download a file to any writable location, including the Windows Startup folder and download an executable file, that will be executed on every startup. The attacker could exploit the same flaw to gain access to user’s download activity information.

The researchers explained that a remote exploitation of the flaw requires a DNS rebinding attack that allows a JavaScript code hosted on a website to create a bridge to the local network bypassing the same-origin policy (SOP).

“This requires some simple DNS rebinding to attack remotely, but once you have the (authentication) secret you can just change the directory torrents are saved to, and then download any file anywhere writable,” Ormandy wrote.

“The authentication secret is not the only data accessible within the webroot – settings, crashdumps, logs and other data is also accessible. As this is a complete remote compromise of the default uTorrent web configuration, I didn’t bother looking any further after finding this,” the researcher added.


Tavis Ormandy

@taviso
Hmm, it looks like BitTorrent just added a second token to uTorrent Web. That does not solve the DNS rebinding issue, it just broke my exploit. 😩

10:08 PM - Feb 20, 2018
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20 Feb

Tavis Ormandy

@taviso
Hmm, it looks like BitTorrent just added a second token to uTorrent Web. That does not solve the DNS rebinding issue, it just broke my exploit. 😩


Tavis Ormandy

@taviso
I just fixed the exploit and verified it still works. I would recommend asking BitTorrent to resolve this issue if you're affected, and it works in the default configuration so you probably are. Sigh.

10:20 PM - Feb 20, 2018
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28 people are talking about this
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Ormandy released proof-of-concept (PoC) code for the flaws he discovered.

This week, BitTorrent released an official statement on the matter:

“On December 4, 2017, we were made aware of several vulnerabilities in the uTorrent and BitTorrent Windows desktop clients. We began work immediately to address the issue. Our fix is complete and is available in the most recent beta release (build 3.5.3.44352 released on 16 Feb 2018). This week, we will begin to deliver it to our installed base of users. All users will be updated with the fix automatically over the following days. The nature of the exploit is such that an attacker could craft a URL that would cause actions to trigger in the client without the user’s consent (e.g. adding a torrent).”


Russia-linked Sofacy APT group shift focus from NATO members to towards the Middle East and Central Asia
22.2.20218 securityaffairs APT

Experts from Kaspersky highlighted a shift focus in the Sofacy APT group’s interest, from NATO member countries and Ukraine to towards the Middle East and Central Asia.
The Russia-linked APT28 group (aka Pawn Storm, Fancy Bear, Sofacy, Sednit, Tsar Team and Strontium.) made the headlines again, this time security experts from Kaspersky highlighted a shift focus in their interest, from NATO member countries and Ukraine to towards the Middle East and Central Asia.

“Sofacy, one of the most active APT we monitor, continues to spearphish their way into targets, reportedly widely phishes for credentials, and infrequently participates in server side activity (including host compromise with BeEF deployment, for example). KSN visibility and detections suggests a shift from their early 2017 high volume NATO spearphish targeting towards the middle east and Central Asia, and finally moving their focus further east into late 2017.” states Kaspersky.

The experts analyzed the infections of the Sofacy backdoor tracked as SPLM, CHOPSTICK and X-Agent, the APT group had been increasingly targeting former Soviet countries in Central Asia. The hackers mostly targeted telecoms companies and defense-related organization, primary target were entities in Turkey, Kazakhstan, Armenia, Kyrgyzstan, Jordan and Uzbekistan.

The researchers observed several attacks leveraging the SPLM and the Zebrocy tool between the second and fourth quarters of 2017 against organizations in Asia. The list of targeted countries included China, Mongolia, South Korea and Malaysia.

Sofacy APT

“This high level of cyber-espionage activity goes back years. In 2011-2012, the group used a relatively tiny implant (known as “Sofacy” or SOURFACE) as their first stage malware, which at the time had similarities with the old Miniduke implants.” states Kaspersky.

“This made us believe the two groups were connected, although it looks they split ways at a certain point, with the original Miniduke group switching to the CosmicDuke implant in 2014. The division in malware was consistent and definitive at that point.”

The Zebrocy tool was used by attackers to collect data from victims, researchers observed its involvement in attacks on accounting firms, science and engineering centers, industrial organizations, ministries, embassies and consulates, national security and intelligence agencies, press and translation services, and NGOs.

The researchers highlighted that the attack infrastructure used in the last attacks pointed to the Sofacy APT, the group has been fairly consistent throughout even if their TTPs were well documented by security firms across the years. Researchers at Kaspersky expect to see some significant changes this year.

“Sofacy set up and maintained multiple servers and c2 for varying durations, registering fairly recognizable domains with privacy services, registrars that accept bitcoin, fake phone numbers, phony individual names, and 1 to 1 email address to domain registration relationships. Some of this activity and patterns were publicly disclosed, so we expect to see more change in their process in 2018. Also, throughout the year and in previous years, researchers began to comment publicly on Sofacy’s fairly consistent infrastructure setup.” continues Kaspersky.

Further details are included in the analysis published by Kaspersky, including Indicators of Compromise (IOCs).


Intel releases Spectre patches for Skylake, Kaby Lake, Coffee Lake
22.2.20218 securityaffairs
Vulnerebility

Intel released a stable microcode update to address the Spectre vulnerability for its Skylake, Kaby Lake, and Coffee Lake processors in all their various variants.
Intel has released microcode to address the CVE-2017-5715 Spectre vulnerability for many of its chips, let’s this time the security updates will not cause further problems.

The Spectre attack allows user-mode applications to extract information from other processes running on the same system. It can also be exploited to extract information from its own process via code, for example, a malicious JavaScript can be used to extract login cookies for other sites from the browser’s memory.

The Spectre attack breaks the isolation between different applications, allowing to leak information from the kernel to user programs, as well as from virtualization hypervisors to guest systems.

Problems such as frequent reboots were related to the fix for the CVE-2017-5715 Spectre flaw (Spectre Variant 2) and affected almost any platform, including systems running on Broadwell Haswell CPUs, as well as Ivy Bridge-, Sandy Bridge-, Skylake-, and Kaby Lake-based platforms.

Spectre patches

A couple of weeks ago Intel released new microcode for its Skylake processors, now it has announced security updates for Kaby Lake, Coffee Lake and other CPUs.

The microcode is now available for all 6th, 7th, and 8th generation Core processors and also X-series Intel Core products, as well as Xeon Scalable and Xeon D chips.

Intel released the Spectre firmware security updates for the following products:

Anniedale/Moorefield, Apollo Lake, Avoton/Rangeley, Broxton, Cherry View, Coffee Lake, Cougar Mountain, Denverton, Gemini Lake, Kaby Lake, Knights Landing, Knights Mill, Skylake, SoFIA, Tangier, Valleyview/Bay Trail, and XGold.

Intel released beta patches for Broadwell, Gladden, Haswell, some Ivy Bridge, Sandy Bridge, and Skylake Xeon E3 processors. The beta patches have been provided to OEMs for their final validation.

The patches for the remaining chips are either in pre-beta or planning phase.

Both Intel and AMD confirmed are working on processors that will include protections against attacks such as Spectre and Meltdown.


Global Cybercrime Costs $600 Billion Annually: Study
21.2.2018 securityweek CyberCrime

The annual cost of cybercrime has hit $600 billion worldwide, fueled by growing sophistication of hackers and proliferation of criminal marketplaces and cryptocurrencies, researchers said Wednesday.

A report by the security firm McAfee with the Center for Strategic and International Studies found theft of intellectual property represents about one-fourth of the cost of cybercrime in 2017, and that other attacks such as those involving ransomware are growing at a fast pace.

Russia, North Korea and Iran are the main sources of hackers targeting financial institutions, while China is the most active in cyber espionage, the report found.

Criminals are using cutting-edge technologies including artificial intelligence and encryption for attacks in cyberspace, with anonymity preserved by using bitcoin or other cryptocurrency, the researchers said.

"We are seeing the bad actor community taking advantage of the innovation in the technology industry," Steve Grobman, chief technology officer for McAfee, told a news conference in Washington.

Even though these technologies can offer "tremendous value" when used for legitimate purposes, they also can be adopted by criminals to hide their tracks, Grobman said.

The McAfee-CSIS report suggested cybercrime costs were rising from a 2014 estimate of $445 billion.

"We were hoping it would flatten, but we didn't see that," said CSIS vice president James Lewis.

One of the reasons for the increase, according to Lewis, is that "there's a whole 'dark web' phenomenon that creates a safe space for criminals to operate."

These dark web marketplaces, the report noted, allow hackers and other criminals to offer their services or sell tools which can be used for attacks, and to sell stolen credit card numbers or other valuable data.

- 'Russia is the leader' -

Lewis said meanwhile the geopolitical risks of cybercrime are a key element in these attacks.

"Our research bore out the fact that Russia is the leader in cybercrime, reflecting the skill of its hacker community and its disdain for western law enforcement," Lewis said.

"North Korea is second in line, as the nation uses cryptocurrency theft to help fund its regime, and we're now seeing an expanding number of cybercrime centers, including not only North Korea but also Brazil, India and Vietnam."

The report said there is often a connection between governments and the cybercrime community.

It noted that in a massive attack against US-based Yahoo, "one of the cybercriminals who hacked Yahoo at the behest of Russian intelligence services... also used the stolen data for spam and credit card fraud for personal benefit."

The study did not attempt to measure the cost of all malicious activity on the internet, but focused on the loss of proprietary business data, online fraud and financial crimes, manipulation directed toward publicly traded companies, cyber insurance and reputational damage.

The global research report comes days after the White House released a report showing cyberattacks cost the United States between $57 billion and $109 billion in 2016, while warning of a "spillover" effect for the broader economy if certain sectors are hit.


Google Researcher Finds Critical Flaws in uTorrent Apps
21.2.2018 securityweek
Vulnerebility

Google researcher Tavis Ormandy discovered several critical vulnerabilities in the classic and web-based versions of BitTorrent’s uTorrent application. Patches have been released, but the expert says not all flaws have been fixed properly.

Ormandy found that the uTorrent Classic and the uTorrent Web apps create an HTTP RPC server on ports 10000 and 19575, respectively. These RPC servers and some vulnerabilities allow remote attackers to take control of the apps with little user interaction.

In the case of uTorrent Web, which is accessed by users via their web browser, the application relies on a random token that is included in every request for authentication. The problem, according to Ormandy, is that the token can be easily obtained by an attacker from the web root folder and abused to take control of the service.

A malicious actor can exploit the flaw to change the torrent download folder and download a file to any writable location. For example, a hacker could change the download directory to the Startup folder in Windows and download an executable file, which would run on every startup.

An exploit can be executed remotely using a DNS rebinding attack, which allows JavaScript code hosted on a website to create a bridge to the local network, effectively bypassing the same-origin policy (SOP).

Ormandy noted that the web root folder also contains other data – not just the authentication token – including settings, logs and crash dump files.

In the case of uTorrent Classic, the Google researcher discovered a vulnerability that allows a malicious website to obtain the targeted user’s download history.

The expert also noticed that the application disables the ASLR and GS exploit mitigations, and that the guest account does not disable some features – the app’s documentation says many features are disabled for security reasons.

Finally, Ormandy found a design flaw related to the use of the Mersenne Twister pseudorandom number generator (PRNG) for creating authentication tokens and cookies, session identifiers, and pairing keys.

The vulnerabilities were reported to BitTorrent on November 27 and they were made public on Tuesday. Ormandy released technical details and proof-of-concept (PoC) code for the more serious of the vulnerabilities he discovered.

The latest beta version of uTorrent Classic (3.5.3 build 44352) patches the flaws, but Ormandy noted that it still disables the ASLR mitigation. BitTorrent says the fixes will be delivered automatically to users over the next days.

As for uTorrent Web, BitTorrent has attempted to implement a patch, but the Google Project Zero researcher says he has managed to bypass it.

BitTorrent VP of Engineering Dave Rees told SecurityWeek that the company only learned of the uTorrent Web vulnerability this week. Nevertheless, the company believes that all vulnerabilities discovered by Ormandy it the two products have been addressed.

uTorrent is not the only torrent application found to be vulnerable to DNS rebinding attacks. In January, Ormandy revealed that he had managed to execute arbitrary code via such an attack against the Transmission client.


Hacker Detection Firm Vectra Networks Raises $36 Million
21.2.2018 securityweek IT

Vectra Networks, a cybersecurity firm that helps customers detect “in-progress” cyberattacks, today announced that it has closed a $36 million Series D funding round, bringing the total amount raised to date by the company to $123 million.

The company said the investment would be used to expand sales and marketing, fuel product development of its Cognito threat hunting platform, and open a new research-and-development (R&D) center in Dublin, Ireland.

Vectra describes its flagship Congito platform as a solution that “performs non-stop, automated threat hunting with always-learning behavioral models to quickly and efficiently find hidden and unknown attackers before they do damage.”

Vectra Networks Logo

The Series D funding round was led by growth equity fund Atlantic Bridge, with the Ireland Strategic Investment Fund (ISIF) and Nissho Electronics Corp. Returning investors Khosla Ventures, Accel Partners, IA Ventures, AME Cloud Ventures, DAG Ventures and Wipro Ventures also participated in the funding.

“This is an exciting investment for ISIF that promises significant economic impact for Ireland,” said Fergal McAleavey, head of private equity at ISIF. “It is encouraging to see Ireland leverage its emerging expertise in artificial intelligence by attracting businesses such as Vectra that are on the leading edge of technology. With cybersecurity becoming critical for all organizations, we are confident Vectra will deliver a strong economic return on our investment while creating high-value R&D employment here in Ireland.”

The new Dublin facility is expected to add up to 100 jobs in Ireland over the next five years, the company said.

Vectra also has R&D facilities in San Jose, Calif., Austin, Texas and Cambridge, Mass.


Malicious RTF Persistently Asks Users to Enable Macros
21.2.2018 securityweek
Virus  Vulnerebility

A malicious RTF (Rich Text Format) document has been persistently displaying an alert to ask users to enable macros, Zscaler security researchers have discovered.

As part of this unique infection chain, the malicious document forces the victims to execute an embedded VBA macro designed to download the QuasarRAT and NetWiredRC payloads.

While analyzing the attack, the security researchers discovered that the actor included macro-enabled Excel sheets inside the malicious RTF documents, to trick users into allowing the execution of payloads.

The RTF document features the .doc extension and is opened with Microsoft Word. When that happens, a macro warning popup is displayed, prompting the user to either enable or disable the macro.

However, the malicious RTF document repeatedly displays the warning popups even if the targeted user clicks on the “Disable Macros” button. By persistently displaying the alert, the malicious actor increases the chances for the user giving in and allowing the macro to run.

The analyzed malicious RTF contains 10 embedded Excel spreadsheets, meaning that the warning is displayed 10 times. Users can’t stop these popups unless they click through all of them or force-quit Word, Zscaler notes.

The attack relies on the use of “\objupdate” control for the embedded Excel sheet objects (OLE object). This function would trigger the macro code inside the embedded Excel sheet when the RTF document is being loaded in Microsoft Word, thus causing the multiple macro warning popups to appear.

The same “\objupdate” control was observed being abused in attacks leveraging the CVE-2017-0199 vulnerability that Microsoft patched in April last year. The new attack, however, does not exploit this vulnerability or another Office security flaw.

The actor behind this campaign used two variations of the malicious macro. The code executes a PowerShell command to download intermediate payloads using Schtasks and cmd.exe. By performing registry modifications, the malware would also permanently enable macros for Word, PowerPoint, and Excel.

The macro downloads a malicious VBS file which terminates all running Word and Excel instances, downloads a final payload using the HTTPS protocol and executes the payload.

Next, it enables macros for Office and disables protected view settings in the suite, creates a scheduled task to run the downloaded payload after 200 minutes, deletes the scheduled task, and downloads an additional payload to the same location.

Zscaler observed the attack dropping two Remote Access Trojans (RATs), namely NetwiredRC and QuasarRAT. NetwiredRC can find files, launch remote shell, log keystrokes, capture screen, steal passwords, and more. QuasarRAT is free and open source, and is believed to be an evolution of xRAT. It has features such as remote webcam, remote shell, and keylogging.


Intel Releases Spectre Patches for More CPUs
21.2.2018 securityweek
Vulnerebility

Intel has released firmware updates that fix the Spectre vulnerability for many of its processors and patches for dozens more are nearly ready for use in production environments.

After the first round of microcode updates released by the company caused problems for many users, including more frequent reboots and unstable systems, Intel started working on a new set of patches that should address these issues.

The company first released new firmware updates for its Skylake processors, but on Tuesday it announced that patches are now also available for Kaby Lake, Coffee Lake and other CPUs. This includes 6th, 7th, and 8th generation, and X-series Intel Core products, as well as Xeon Scalable and Xeon D processors used in data center systems.Intel releases microcode updates to patch Spectre

As of February 21, the following products have Spectre firmware patches ready for use in production environments: Anniedale/Moorefield, Apollo Lake, Avoton/Rangeley, Broxton, Cherry View, Coffee Lake, Cougar Mountain, Denverton, Gemini Lake, Kaby Lake, Knights Landing, Knights Mill, Skylake, SoFIA, Tangier, Valleyview/Bay Trail, and XGold.

Beta patches, which have been provided to OEMs under NDA for validation, are currently available for Broadwell, Gladden, Haswell, some Ivy Bridge, Sandy Bridge, and Skylake Xeon E3 processors.

As for the remaining CPUs, patches are either in pre-beta or planning phase, but pre-mitigation microcode updates, which should be replaced once production fixes are released, are available for many products.

The patches are generally available through OEM firmware updates. Device manufacturers started releasing BIOS updates to patch the Meltdown and Spectre vulnerabilities shortly after their disclosure, but many decided to halt the updates after Intel warned of instability issues. Some vendors have resumed the distribution of firmware updates.

Meltdown attacks are possible due to a vulnerability tracked as CVE-2017-5754, while Spectre attacks are possible due to flaws tracked as CVE-2017-5753 (Variant 1) and CVE-2017-5715 (Variant 2). Meltdown and Spectre Variant 1 can be patched with software updates, but Spectre Variant 2 requires microcode updates for a complete fix.

Both Intel and AMD announced recently that they are working on processors that will have built-in protections against Spectre- and Meltdown-like exploits.

In the meantime, Intel faces more than 30 lawsuits, including ones filed by customers and shareholders, over the Meltdown and Spectre vulnerabilities.


North Korea Cyber Threat 'More Aggressive Than China': US Firm
21.2.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

North Korean hackers are becoming more aggressive than their Chinese counterparts, a leading US cybersecurity firm warned Tuesday, as it identified a Pyongyang-linked group as an "advanced persistent threat".

It was the first time that FireEye had used the designation for a North Korean-based group.

Analysts say the isolated and impoverished but nuclear-armed North has stepped up hacking operations partly to raise money for the cash-strapped regime, which is subject to multiple sanctions over its atomic weapons and ballistic missile programs.

North Korea Cyber ThreatNorth Korea has previously been blamed for the WannaCry ransomware that briefly wreaked havoc around the world last year -- an accusation it angrily denies.

FireEye said North Korean operatives had expanded their targets beyond South Korea and mounted increasingly sophisticated attacks, adding it had identified a suspected North Korean cyberespionage group it dubbed "APT37" -- standing for "advanced persistent threat".

APT37 was "primarily based in North Korea", it said, and its choice of targets "aligns with North Korean state interests".

"We assess with high confidence that this activity is carried out on behalf of the North Korean government," it added.

APT37 has been active at least since 2012, it said, previously focused on "government, military, defence industrial base and media sector" in the rival South before widening its range to include Japan, Vietnam and the Middle East last year, and industries ranging from chemicals to telecommunications.

"This group should be taken seriously," FireEye added.

FireEye's first APT was identified in a 2013 report by company division Mandiant, which said that hackers penetrating US newspapers, government agencies and companies "are based primarily in China and that the Chinese government is aware of them".

One group, it said then, was believed to be a branch of the People's Liberation Army in Shanghai called Unit 61398. Five of its members were later indicted by US federal prosecutors on charges of stealing information from US firms, provoking a diplomatic row between Washington and Beijing.

"We have seen both North Korean and Chinese operations range from simplistic to very technically sophisticated," FireEye's director of intelligence analysis John Hultquist told AFP.

"The sharpest difference between the two really lies in the aggressive nature of North Korean operations," he added.

"Whereas Chinese actors have typically favoured quiet espionage, North Korea has demonstrated a willingness to carry out some very aggressive activity, ranging from attack to outright global crime."

But the WannaCry ransomware, he believes, was the work of a different North Korean group. "Thus far, we have only found APT37 doing the quiet espionage but they are a tool the regime can use aggressively."

The North is known to operate an army of thousands of well-trained hackers that have attacked South Korean firms, institutions and even rights groups helping North Korean refugees.

Its cyberwarfare abilities first came to prominence when it was accused of hacking into Sony Pictures Entertainment to take revenge for "The Interview," a satirical film that mocked its leader Kim Jong Un.

More recently, according to analysts, the North's hackers have stepped up campaigns to raise funds by attacking cryptocurrency exchanges as the value of bitcoin and other cybercurrencies soared.


Top Experts Warn Against 'Malicious Use' of AI
21.2.2018 securityweek
Virus

Artificial Intelligence Risks

Artificial intelligence could be deployed by dictators, criminals and terrorists to manipulate elections and use drones in terrorist attacks, more than two dozen experts said Wednesday as they sounded the alarm over misuse of the technology.

In a 100-page analysis, they outlined a rapid growth in cybercrime and the use of "bots" to interfere with news gathering and penetrate social media among a host of plausible scenarios in the next five to 10 years.

"Our report focuses on ways in which people could do deliberate harm with AI," said Seán Ó hÉigeartaigh, Executive Director of the Cambridge Centre for the Study of Existential Risk.

"AI may pose new threats, or change the nature of existing threats, across cyber-, physical, and political security," he told AFP.

The common practice, for example, of "phishing" -- sending emails seeded with malware or designed to finagle valuable personal data -- could become far more dangerous, the report detailed.

Currently, attempts at phishing are either generic but transparent -- such as scammers asking for bank details to deposit an unexpected windfall -- or personalised but labour intensive -- gleaning personal data to gain someone's confidence, known as "spear phishing".

"Using AI, it might become possible to do spear phishing at scale by automating a lot of the process" and making it harder to spot, O hEigeartaigh noted.

In the political sphere, unscrupulous or autocratic leaders can already use advanced technology to sift through mountains of data collected from omnipresent surveillance networks to spy on their own people.

"Dictators could more quickly identify people who might be planning to subvert a regime, locate them, and put them in prison before they act," the report said.

Likewise, targeted propaganda along with cheap, highly believable fake videos have become powerful tools for manipulating public opinion "on previously unimaginable scales".

An indictment handed down by US special prosecutor Robert Mueller last week detailed a vast operation to sow social division in the United States and influence the 2016 presidential election in which so-called "troll farms" manipulated thousands of social network bots, especially on Facebook and Twitter.

Another danger zone on the horizon is the proliferation of drones and robots that could be repurposed to crash autonomous vehicles, deliver missiles, or threaten critical infrastructure to gain ransom.

- Autonomous weapons -

"Personally, I am particularly worried about autonomous drones being used for terror and automated cyberattacks by both criminals and state groups," said co-author Miles Brundage, a researcher at Oxford University's Future of Humanity Institute.

The report details a plausible scenario in which an office-cleaning SweepBot fitted with a bomb infiltrates the German finance ministry by blending in with other machines of the same make.

The intruding robot behaves normally -- sweeping, cleaning, clearing litter -- until its hidden facial recognition software spots the minister and closes in.

"A hidden explosive device was triggered by proximity, killing the minister and wounding nearby staff," according to the sci-fi storyline.

"This report has imagined what the world could look like in the next five to 10 years," Ó hÉigeartaigh said.

"We live in a world fraught with day-to-day hazards from the misuse of AI, and we need to take ownership of the problems."

The authors called on policy makers and companies to make robot-operating software unhackable, to impose security restrictions on some research, and to consider expanding laws and regulations governing AI development.

Giant high-tech companies -- leaders in AI -- "have lots of incentives to make sure that AI is safe and beneficial," the report said.

Another area of concern is the expanded use of automated lethal weapons.

Last year, more than 100 robotics and AI entrepreneurs -- including Tesla and SpaceX CEO Elon Musk, and British astrophysicist Stephen Hawking -- petitioned the United Nations to ban autonomous killer robots, warning that the digital-age weapons could be used by terrorists against civilians.

"Lethal autonomous weapons threaten to become the third revolution in warfare," after the invention of machine guns and the atomic bomb, they warned in a joint statement, also signed by Google DeepMind co-founder Mustafa Suleyman.

"We do not have long to act. Once this Pandora's box is opened, it will be hard to close."

Contributors to the new report -- entitled "The Malicious Use of AI: Forecasting, Prevention, and Mitigation" -- also include experts from the Electronic Frontier Foundation, the Center for a New American Security, and OpenAI, a leading non-profit research company.

"Whether AI is, all things considered, helpful or harmful in the long run is largely a product of what humans choose to do, not the technology itself," said Brundage.


Palo Alto Networks Releases New Rugged Firewall
21.2.2018 securityweek Safety

Palo Alto Networks on Tuesday announced that it has updated its PAN-OS operating system and released a new next-generation firewall designed for use in industrial and other harsh environments.

The new PA-220R is a ruggedized NGFW that can be used by various types of organizations, including power plants, utility substations, oil and gas facilities, manufacturing plants, and healthcare organizations. During beta testing, the product was also used for railway systems, defense infrastructure, and even amusement parks.

Palo Alto Networks PA-220R rugged firewall

The PA-220R is designed to withstand extreme temperatures, vibration, humidity, dust, and electromagnetic interference.

Palo Alto Networks said the product works with various industrial applications and protocols, including OSIsoft PI, Siemens S7, Modbus, DNP3, and IEC 60870-5-104.

“For early-engagement customers and many of our expected users of the PA-220R, the situation is that they have industrial assets in harsh environments that have been modernized or are being modernized as part of their OT digital transformation initiatives,” explained Del Rodillas, director of industrial cybersecurity product marketing at Palo Alto Networks. “In many of these initiatives, the automation piece is cutting-edge, but the provisions for cybersecurity are lagging, leaving these organizations exposed.”

“As additional motivation for the security upgrade, some harsh-environment remote sites have grown in complexity and require local segmentation to improve visibility and control over local traffic. There are also use cases which require direct site-to-site connectivity instead of requiring users to go up through SCADA first in order to get to other sites,” Rodillas added.

The PA-220R firewall runs Palo Alto Networks’ PAN-OS operating system, which the company updated to version 8.1 this week.

According to Palo Alto Networks, PAN-OS 8.1 brings many improvements, including simplified implementation of application-based security policies, streamlined decryption of SSL traffic, better performance thanks to new hardware, new management features, and enhanced threat detection and prevention.


Automated Compliance Testing Tool Accelerates DevSecOps
21.2.2018 securityweek Privacy

Chef Software's InSpec 2.0 Compliance Automation Tool Helps Organizations Maintain an Up-to-Date View of Compliance Status

Software developers are urged to include security throughout the development cycle. This requires testing for compliance with both house rules and regulatory requirements before an application is released. Compliance testing is difficult, time-consuming and often subject to human error.

A January survey by Seattle-based software automation firm Chef Software shows that 74% of development teams assess for software compliance issues manually, and half of them remediate manually. Chef further claims that 59% of organizations do not assess for compliance until the code is running in production, and 58% of organizations need days to remediate issues.

Now Chef has released InSpec version 2.0 of its compliance automation technology. InSpec evolved from technology acquired with the purchase of German startup company VulcanoSec in 2015. The latest version improves performance and adds new routines. Chef claims it offers 90% Windows performance gains (30% on Linux/Unix) over InSpec 1.0. New in version 2.0 is the ability to verify AWS and Azure policies (with the potential to eliminate accidental public access to sensitive data in S3 buckets); and more than 30 new built-in resources.

The S3 bucket compliance problem is an example of InSpec's purpose. Earlier this month, two separate exposed databases were discovered in AWS S3 buckets. Last week, FedEx was added to the growing list, with (according to researchers) a database of "more than 119 thousands of scanned documents of US and international citizens, such as passports, driving licenses, security IDs etc."

In each case -- and the many more examples disclosed during 2017 -- the cause was simple: the databases were set for public access. The potential regulatory compliance effects, however, are complex. Just the EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR, coming into effect in May 2018) would have left FedEx liable to a fine of up to 4% of its global revenue if any of the 'international citizens' were citizens of the EU. FedEx revenue for 2017 is approximately $60 billion.

In all cases the cause was most likely simple human error. But this discloses a bigger problem within secure and compliant software development: it involves multiple stakeholders with different priorities and, to a degree, different languages of expression. "Compliance requirements are often specified by high level compliance officers in high level ambiguous Word documents," explains Julian Dunn, Chef's director of product marketing.

"But at the implementation level you have the DevOps folks who are in charge of the systems -- but they don't understand ambiguous Word documents. What they understand is code, computer systems and the applications. There's a failure to communicate because everyone uses different tools to do so -- and that just slows down the process."

InSpec 2.0 can verify AWS and Azure policies (with the potential to eliminate public access to sensitive data in S3 buckets); and more than 30 new built-in resources. It provides a simple easy-to-understand code-like method of defining compliance requirements. These requirements are then regularly checked against the company's infrastructure, both cloud and on-prem. A few lines of this code language would solve the S3 bucket exposure problem: "it { should have_mfa_enabled }" and "it { should_not have_access_key }".

Another example could be a database that compliance requires has access controls. For a Red Hat Linux system, the InSpec code would include, "control "ensure_selinux_installed" do", and "it { should be_installed }".

InSpec then regularly checks the infrastructure and detects whether anything is not compliant or has slipped out of compliance with the specified rules. It is part of the InSpec cycle that Chef describes as 'detect, correct, automate'. Detection provides visibility into current compliance status to satisfy audits and drive decision-making; correction is the remediation of issues to improve performance and security; and automation allows for faster application deployment and continuous code risk management.

"We help the customer in the automate phase with pre-defined profiles around the common regulatory requirements," explains Dunn. "But InSpec is fundamentally a generic toolkit for expressing rules and positive and negative outcomes from those rules -- so it deals with everything from soft compliance (rules of the house) all the way through to GDPR, PCI, SOX and so on."

But there is a further benefit. Software development has embraced the concept of DevOps to avoid siloed software development and deployment. Increasing security compliance regulations are now driving the concept of DevSecOps, to bring the security team into the mix. InSpec automatically involves security and compliance with the code development process -- a fully-functioning DevSecOps environment able to improve rather than inhibit the agility of software development is an automatic byproduct of InSpec 2.0.


Control Flow Integrity, a fun and innovative Javascript Evasion Technique
21.2.2018 securityaffairs Hacking

Javascript evasion technique – Security Expert Marco Ramilli detailed a fun and innovative way to evade reverse-engineering techniques based on Javascript technology.
Understanding the real code behind a Malware is a great opportunity for Malware analysts, it would increase the chances to understand what the sample really does. Unfortunately it is not always possible figuring out the “real code”, sometimes the Malware analyst needs to use tools like disassemblers or debuggers in order to guess the real Malware actions. However when the Sample is implemented by “interpreted code” such as (but not limited to): Java, Javascript, VBS and .NET there are several ways to get a closed look to the “code”.
Unfortunately attackers know what the analysis techniques are and often they implement evasive actions in order to reduce the analyst understanding or to make the overall analysis harder and harder. An evasive technique could be implemented to detect if the code runs over a VM or it could be implemented in order to run the code only on given environments or it could be implemented to avoid debugging connectors or again to evade reverse-engineering operations such as de-obfuscations techniques. Today “post” is about that, I’d like to focus my readers attention on a fun and innovative way to evade reverse-engineering techniques based on Javascript technology.
Javascript is getting day-by-day more important in term of attack vector, it is often used as a dropper stage and its implementation is widely influenced by many flavours and coding styles but as a bottom line, almost every Javascript Malware is obfuscated. The following image shows an example of obfuscated javascript payload (taken from one analysis of mine).

Example: Obfuscated Javascript

As a first step the Malware analyst would try to de-obfuscate such a code by getting into it. Starting from simple “cut and paste” to more powerful “substitution scripts” the analyst would try to rename functions and variables in order to split complexity and to make clear what code sections do. But in Javascript there is a nice way to get the callee function name which could be used to understand if a function name changed over the time. That function is the arguments.callee.caller. By using that function the attacker can create a stack trace where it saves the executed function chaining name list. The attacker would grab function names and use them as the key to dynamically decrypt specific and crafted Javascript code. Using this technique the Attacker would have an implicit control flow integrity because if a function is renamed or if the function order is slightly different from the designed one, the resulting “hash” would be different. If the hash is different the generated key would be different as well and it wont be able to decrypt and to launch specific encrypted code.
But lets take a closer look to what I meant. The following snip shows a clear (not obfuscated) example explaining this technique. I decided to show not obfuscated code up here just to make it simple.
var _ = require("underscore");
function keyCharAt(key, i) {
return key.charCodeAt( Math.floor(i % key.length) );
}

function xor_encrypt(key, data) {
return _.map(data, function(c, i) {
return c.charCodeAt(0) ^ keyCharAt(key, i);
});
}

function xor_decrypt(key, data) {
return _.map(data, function(c, i) {
return String.fromCharCode( c ^ keyCharAt(key, i) );
}).join("");

}

function cow001(){
eval(xor_decrypt(arguments.callee.name,[0,0,25,67,95,93,6,65,27,95,87,25,68,34,22,92,89,82,10,0,2,67,16,114,12,1,3,85,94,69,67,59,5,89,87,86,6,29,4,16,120,84,17,10,87,17,23,24]));
}
function pyth001(){
eval(xor_decrypt(arguments.callee.name,[19,22,3,88,0,1,25,89,66]));
}

function pippo(){
pyth001();

}
pippo();
view rawAntiDeobfuscationJavascriptTechnique.js hosted with ❤ by GitHub
Each internal stage evaluates ( eval() ) a content. On row 21 and 25 the function cow001 and pyth001 evaluates xor decrypted contents. The xor_decrypt function takes two arguments: decoding_key and the payload to be decrypted. Each internal stage function uses as decryption key the name of callee by using the arguments.callee.name function. If the function name is the “designed one” (the one that the attacker used to encrypt the payload) the encrypted content would be executed with no exceptions. On the other side if the function name is renamed (by meaning has been changed by the analyst for his convenience) the evaluation function would fail and potentially the attacker could trigger a different code path (by using a simple try and catch statement).
Before launching the Sample in the wild the attacker needs to prepare the “attack path” by developing the malicious Javascript and by obfuscating it. Once the obfuscation took place the attacker needs to use an additional script (such as the following one) to encrypt the payloads according to the obfuscated function names and to replace the newly encrypted payload to the final and encrypted Javascipt file replacing the encrypted payloads with the one encrypted having as a key the encrypted function names.
"use strict"; var _ = require("underscore");
function keyCharAt(key, i) { return key.charCodeAt( Math.floor(i % key.length) ); }
function xor_encrypt(key, data) { return _.map(data, function(c, i) { return c.charCodeAt(0) ^ keyCharAt(key, i); }); }
function xor_decrypt(key, data)
{ return _.map(data, function(c, i)
{ return String.fromCharCode( c ^ keyCharAt(key, i) ); }).join(""); }

var final_payload = "console.log('Malicious Content Triggers Here !')";
var k_final = "cow001";
var encrypted_final = xor_encrypt(k_final,final_payload);
var decrypted_final = xor_decrypt(k_final, encrypted_final); console.log(encrypted_final.toString()); console.log(decrypted_final); var _1_payload = "cow001();";
var k_1 = "pyth001";
var encrypted_1 = xor_encrypt(k_1,_1_payload);
var decrypted_1 = xor_decrypt(k_1, encrypted_1);

console.log(encrypted_1.toString());
console.log(decrypted_1);
view rawAntiDeobfuscationJavascriptPreparationScrypt.js hosted with ❤ by GitHub
The attacker is now able to write a Javascript code owning its own control flow. If the attacker iterates such a concept over and over again, he would block or control the code execution by hitting a complete reverse-engineering evasion technique.

The original post published by Marco Ramilli on his blog at the following URL:

https://marcoramilli.blogspot.it/2018/02/control-flow-integrity-javascript.html


U.S. Justice Department Launches Cybersecurity Task Force
21.2.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

U.S. Attorney General Jeff Sessions announced on Tuesday the launch of a new cybersecurity task force whose role is to help the Department of Justice find ways to combat cyber threats and become more efficient in this area.

The Cyber-Digital Task Force will focus on various types of threats, such as interfering with elections, disrupting critical infrastructure, using the Internet for spreading violent ideologies and recruiting followers, attacks that rely on botnets, the use of technology designed to hide criminal activities and avoid law enforcement, and the theft of personal, corporate and governmental data.

The task force has been instructed to submit a report to the Attorney General on these and other important topics, along with providing initial recommendations, by June 30.

The Cyber-Digital Task Force will be chaired by a senior Justice Department official and will include representatives of the Department’s Criminal Division, the National Security Division, the U.S. Attorney’s Office community, the Office of Legal Policy, the Office of Privacy and Civil Liberties, the Office of the Chief Information Officer, the FBI, ATF, DEA, and the U.S. Marshals Service. Other departments may be invited to participate as well.

“The Internet has given us amazing new tools that help us work, communicate, and participate in our economy, but these tools can also be exploited by criminals, terrorists, and enemy governments,” said Attorney General Sessions. “At the Department of Justice, we take these threats seriously. That is why today I am ordering the creation of a Cyber-Digital Task Force to advise me on the most effective ways that this Department can confront these threats and keep the American people safe.”

The U.S. government has been increasingly concerned about online campaigns whose goal is to interfere with the country’s elections. Russia is widely believed to have meddled in the 2016 presidential election and officials fear it will attempt to do so again in the upcoming midterm elections.

Officials are also concerned about cyberattacks launched by Russia and others against critical infrastructure in the United States.

In response to growing threats, the U.S. government has launched various cybersecurity initiatives. For instance, the Department of Energy is prepared to invest millions in cybersecurity and recently announced the creation of a dedicated office, and the Department of Defense has paid hackers hundreds of thousands of dollars for finding vulnerabilities in its systems.


North Korean APT Group tracked as APT37 broadens its horizons
21.2.2018 securityweek APT

Researchers at FireEye speculate that the APT group tracked as APT37 (aka Reaper, Group123, ScarCruft) operated on behalf of the North Korean government.
Here we are to speak about a nation-state actor dubbed APT37 (aka Reaper, Group123, ScarCruft) that is believed to be operating on behalf of the North Korean government.

APT37 has been active since at least 2012, it made the headlines in early February when researchers revealed that the APT group leveraged a zero-day vulnerability in Adobe Flash Player to deliver malware to South Korean users.

Cyber attacks conducted by the APT37 group mainly targeted government, defense, military, and media organizations in South Korea.

FireEye linked the APT37 group to the North Korean government based on the following clues:

the use of a North Korean IP;
malware compilation timestamps consistent with a developer operating in the North Korea time
zone (UTC +8:30) and follows what is believed to be a typical North Korean workday;
objectives that align with Pyongyang’s interests(i.e. organizations and individuals involved in Korean
Peninsula reunification efforts);
Researchers from FireEye revealed that the nation-state actor also targeted entities in Japan, Vietnam, and even the Middle East in 2017. The hackers targeted organizations in the chemicals, manufacturing, electronics, aerospace, healthcare, and automotive sectors.

“APT37 has likely been active since at least 2012 and focuses on targeting the public and private sectors primarily in South Korea. In 2017, APT37 expanded its targeting beyond the Korean peninsula to include Japan, Vietnam and the Middle East, and to a wider range of industry verticals, including chemicals, electronics, manufacturing, aerospace, automotive and healthcare entities” reads the report published by FireEye.

APT37 targets

Experts revealed that in 2017, the APT37 targeted a Middle Eastern company that entered into a joint venture with the North Korean government to provide telecommunications service to the country.

The hackers leveraged several vulnerabilities in Flash Player and in the Hangul Word Processor to deliver several types of malware.

The arsenal of the group includes the RUHAPPY wiper, the CORALDECK exfiltration tool, the GELCAPSULE and HAPPYWORK downloaders, the MILKDROP and SLOWDRIFT launchers, the ZUMKONG infostealer, the audio-capturing tool SOUNDWAVE, and backdoors tracked by FireEye as DOGCALL, KARAE, POORAIM, WINERACK and SHUTTERSPEED.

“North Korea has repeatedly demonstrated a willingness to leverage its cyber capabilities for a variety of purposes, undeterred by notional redlines and international norms. Though they have primarily tapped other tracked suspected North Korean teams to carry out the most aggressive actions, APT37 is an additional tool available to the regime, perhaps even desirable for its relative obscurity.” concludes FireEye.

“We anticipate APT37 will be leveraged more and more in previously unfamiliar roles and regions, especially as pressure mounts on their sponsor.”


Coldroot RAT cross-platform malware targets MacOS without being detected
21.2.2018 securityweek Apple

The former NSA hacker and malware researcher Patrick Wardle is back, this time he spotted a new remote access Trojan dubbed Coldroot RAT.
The Coldroot RAT is a cross-platform that is targeting MacOS systems and the bad news is that AV software is not able to detect it. The malware acts as a keylogger on MacOS systems prior to the OS High Sierra allowing it to capture user passwords and credentials.

Wardle published a detailed analysis of the RAT that is currently available for sale on the underground markets since Jan. 1, 2017, while some versions of the Coldroot RAT code have also been available on GitHub for nearly two years.

The expert explained that the RAT masquerades as an Apple audio driver “com.apple.audio.driver2.app” that when clicked on displays an authentication prompt requesting the victim to provide its MacOS credentials.

“an unflagged file named com.apple.audio.driver2.app caught my eye. It was recently submitted for a scan, in early January. ” wrote Wardle.

“Though currently no AV-engine on VirusTotal flags this application as malicious, the fact it contained a reference to (TCC.db) warranted a closer look.”

Once obtained the credentials the RAT modifies the privacy TCC.db database. The researchers analyzed a sample that once installed attempts to provide the malware with accessibility rights (so that it may perform system-wide keylogging) by creating the

/private/var/db/.AccessibilityAPIEnabled
file and then modifies the privacy database TCC.db that keep track of the applications installed on the machine and the related level of accessibility rights.

“Think, (ab)using AppleScript, sending simulated mouse events via core graphics, or directly interacting with the file system. An example of the latter was DropBox, which directly modified macOS’s ‘privacy database’ (TCC.db) which contains the list of applications that are afforded ‘accessibility’ rights.” Wardle wrote.

“With such rights, applications can then interact with system UIs, other applications, and even intercept key events (i.e. keylogging). By directly modifying the database, one could avoid the obnoxious system alert that is normally presented to the user: ”

Coldroot

Patrick Wardle explained that the RAT gain persistence by installing itself as a launch daemon.

The researcher highlighted that systems running MacOS High Sierra protect TCC.db via System Integrity Protection (SIP).

“Thought this script is executed as root, on newer versions of macOS (Sierra+) it will fail as the privacy database is now protected by SIP,” Wardle added.

The static analysis of the malware revealed the commands it supports that are:

Repeating this process for the other commands reveals the following capabilities:

file/directory list
file/directory rename
file/directory delete
process list
process execute
process kill
download
upload
get active window
remote desktop
shutdown
Patrick Wardle believes that author of the RAT is “Coldzer0” that advertised the malicious code for sale offering the possibility to customize it.

“Besides revealing the likely identify of the malware author, this turns up:

source code for an old (incomplete) version of Coldroot
an informative demo video of the malware
The source code, though (as noted), is both old and incomplete – provides some confirmation of our analysis. For example, the PacketTypes.pas file contains information about the malware’s protocol and tasking commands: “


IPhony už nelze vyřadit z provozu jedinou zprávou. Apple vydal aktualizaci systému

20.2.2018 Novinky/Bezpečnost Apple
Vyřadit prakticky jakýkoliv iPhone z provozu nebyl ještě minulý týden vůbec žádný problém. Operační systém totiž obsahoval chybu, kvůli které bylo jablečné zařízení vyřazeno z provozu poté, co obdrželo zprávu s jedním konkrétním znakem. Společnost Apple však nyní vydala aktualizaci, která tento nepříjemný problém řeší.

Informace o tom, že je možné snadno vyřadit iPhone z provozu, začala internetem kolovat na konci minulého týdne. 

Ukázalo se, že iPhony se zhroutí poté, co je na nich zobrazena zpráva obsahující jeden konkrétní znak v telugštině, tedy v třetím nejpoužívanějším indickém jazyce po hindštině a bengálštině. Roli přitom nehrálo, zda se jednalo o SMS zprávu nebo zda byl text zaslán prostřednictvím Twitteru, Skypu či přes e-mail.

Apple’s latest operating system has a bug that could really mess up your phone https://t.co/gqpRzAGKqd

— New York Magazine (@NYMag) February 16, 2018
Takto vypadá znak, který dokázal vyřadit iPhone z provozu.
Ve chvíli, kdy se v jakékoliv aplikaci daný znak zobrazil, aplikace se zasekla a přestala pracovat. V krajním případě – pokud byl znak zobrazen v notifikačním okně – došlo dokonce k pádu celého operačního systému a iPhone se neustále restartoval.

Po pouhých pár dnech přispěchala společnost Apple s opravou, vydána byla v noci na úterý. Uživatelé, kteří si nechtějí nechat od vtipálků a zlomyslných uživatelů výše popsaným způsobem zablokovat své přístroje, by měli tedy co nejdříve provést aktualizaci na iOS 11.2.6.

Dříve trápily uživatele odkazy
Vtipálci – a případně i nefalšovaní záškodníci s nekalými úmysly – tak mají další možnost, jak potrápit uživatele jablečných smartphonů. A historicky to není poprvé.

V roce 2016 se například internetem šířily odkazy na speciální webovou stránku, která dokázala u iPhonů a stolních počítačů od Applu „shodit“ nejen samotný prohlížeč, ale také celý operační systém, jak je vidět i na videu níže.

Stránka obsahuje speciálně upravený kód v JavaScriptu, který zkrátka donutí zařízení provést restart. Jedinou obranou je na podobné odkazy neklikat.


Souborový systém APFS má v High Sierra kritickou chybu. Hrozí při ní ztráta zálohovaných dat
20.2.2018 Živě
Apple
Systém High Sierra přinesl na Macy jako jednu v hlavních novinek souborový systém APFS. Ten je optimalizovaný pro SSD a odolnější vůči chybám moderních úložišť. Jak ale nyní zjistil vývojář zálohovací utility Carbon Copy Cloner, obsahuje chybu, při které může dojít ke ztrátě dat.

Týká se primárně dynamických diskových obrazů (sparse), které reprezentují data na externím úložišti, typicky na NASu nebo externím disku. Tam lze vytvořit obraz disku tohoto typu a nasměrovat na něj například zálohovací aplikaci. Obraz disku potom ukazuje právě takovou velikost, jakou zabírají data na fyzickém disku.

Problém ale nastane v případě, že se zaplní cílové fyzické úložiště. Systém ne vždy korektně vrátí hodnotu o zaplněném disku a jeho obraz tak stále ukazuje informaci o volném místu (a předá ji dalším aplikacím). A i přesto, že fyzicky není možné data na externí úložiště zkopírovat, systém přenos dat zobrazí jako úspěšný.

Před odpojením disku dokonce lze takto zkopírovaná data z obrazu otevřít a korektně číst. Po odpojení a znovupřipojení se však samozřejmě stanou nedostupná. To je právě v případě použití se zálohovacími aplikacemi kritickou chybou. Náprava by tak měla ze strany Applu přijít co nejdřív. Více na:


Stovky českých webů těžily virtuální mince

20.2.2018 Novinky/Bezpečnost Bezpečnost
Hned několik stovek českých internetových serverů zatěžovalo nadměrně výkon počítačů a chytrých telefonů svých návštěvníků, ukrývaly se na nich totiž speciální skripty pro těžbu kybernetických mincí, jako jsou například bitcoiny. Upozornil na to serveru Lupa.cz.

Kybernetické měny jsou fenoménem dnešní doby. V loňském roce nalákaly celou řadu uživatelů o stovky procent rostoucí kurzy prakticky všech kybernetických měn. Popularita nicméně rostla také díky tomu, že lidé mohou těžit virtuální mince sami, za jejich pořízení tedy nemusí platit ani korunu.

Pokud mají dostatečně výkonný počítač – případně chytrý telefon –, mohou si nainstalovat speciální software a s jeho pomocí kryptoměny doslova těžit – tento program totiž používá předem nastavené výpočty, jejich výsledkem je zisk virtuálních mincí. Za ty je pak možné nakupovat prakticky cokoliv.

Virus se nestahuje, web stačí jen navštívit
Stejným způsobem mohou těžit také hackeři, kteří internetem masivně šíří nejrůznější těžařské viry. Speciálními skripty, které pracují na stejných principech jako samotné viry, jsou dokonce hojně šířeny také prostřednictvím nejrůznějších webových stránek.

Do počítačů nebo jiných zařízení se tedy žádné škodlivé kódy nestahují. Návštěvníci dotčených webů pomáhají počítačovým pirátům vydělat peníze už jen tím, že web navštíví, neboť výkon jejich počítačů či jiných zařízení byl využíván k těžbě kybernetických mincí.

Objevily se na 950 tuzemských webech, jak vyčíslil bezpečnostní tým CSIRT.CZ.

Kolik lidí infikované stránky navštívilo, zatím není jasné. CSIRT.CZ nicméně kontaktoval provozovatele všech dotčených stránek, aby zjednali nápravu.

Nejrozšířenější těžařské viry
Z prvních třech míst v žebříčku nejrozšířenějších počítačových hrozeb obsadily hned dvě příčky právě těžařské viry. Konkrétně šlo o nezvané návštěvníky CoinHive a Cryptoloot. 

CoinHive byl navržen pro těžbu kryptoměny monero bez souhlasu uživatele. Tento škodlivý kód implantuje JavaScript, který využívá procesor koncových uživatelů a negativně ovlivňuje výkon stroje těžbou kryptoměn. Kyberzločinci mohou využít pro těžbu kryptoměn až 65 % celkových zdrojů CPU koncového uživatele, aniž by o tom věděl.

Malware Cryptoloot funguje velmi podobně. Využívá výkon procesoru nebo grafické karty pro těžbu různých virtuálních mincí, které mohou následně počítačoví piráti směnit za skutečné peníze.

„Uživatelé stále častěji nedůvěřují vyskakujícím oknům a bannerové reklamě a využívají software pro blokování reklam, takže webové stránky více a více využívají jako alternativní zdroj příjmů těžbu kryptoměn. Ale často bez svolení a upozornění uživatelů, jejichž stroje jsou pro těžbu využívané,“ prohlásil Peter Kovalčík, SE Manager ve společnosti Check Point.

„Navíc kyberpodvodníci se ve snaze maximalizovat zisk snaží využít nástroje pro těžbu kryptoměn a získat ještě více z výpočetního výkonu uživatelů ve svůj prospěch. Je pravděpodobné, že v příštích měsících bude tento trend ještě výraznější,“ dodal.


Olympijské hry jsou rájem pro hackery. Denně se uskuteční milióny útoků

20.2.2018 Novinky/Bezpečnost Hacking
Zraky snad všech sportovních fanoušků se v posledních týdnech ubírají k Pchjongčchangu, kde se konají 23. zimní olympijské hry. Ty lákají – stejně jako v minulých letech – také počítačové piráty. Bezpečnostní experti varují, že počet útoků v době olympiády vzroste o milióny každý den.

Na útoky počítačových pirátů by měli být připraveni také uživatelé, kteří se do Pchjongčchangu vůbec nevydali a jednotlivá sportovní klání sledují z pohodlí svého obýváku.dynamic-picture-free1__660762

Počítačoví piráti totiž prakticky vždy podobně hojně sledované akce zneužívají k tomu, aby šířili nejrůznější škodlivé kódy. Sázejí především na to, že diváci touží po co nejrychlejších a nejzajímavějších zprávách.

Na sociálních sítích, různých chatovacích skupinách i v nevyžádaných e-mailech je tak možné narazit na odkazy na fotografie i videa o aktuálních výkonech či počtu medailí. Velmi často však takové výzvy směřují na podvodné stránky, kde číhají škodlivé kódy.

Výjimkou nejsou ani odkazy na videa, která však nejdou přehrát. Uživatel údajně pro jejich shlédnutí potřebuje nainstalovat speciální plugin, ve skutečnosti jde však o počítačový virus.

Počty útoků raketově rostou
Útoky nicméně nejsou nijak výjimečné ani v samotném místě konání her. V průběhu pekingských her v roce 2008 bylo podle antivirové společnosti Kaspersky Lab detekováno okolo 190 miliónů kybernetických útoků (12 miliónů denně). V Londýně v roce 2012 jich analytici zaznamenali 200 miliónů a v roce 2014 při hrách v Soči 322 miliónů. Během poslední olympiády v Riu před dvěma lety odborníci odhalili celých 570 milionů útoků.

„Olympijské hry vždy vedle úžasných sportovních výkonů nabízejí i jedinečnou přehlídku nejnovějších technologií, které často předznamenávají další vývoj. Vzhledem k obrovské důležitosti technologií pro bezproblémový chod této události je nezbytné zajistit jejich bezpečnost. Lákají totiž velké množství hackerů, jejichž cílem je narušit hlavní komunikační a informační systémy a způsobit chaos,“ uvedl Mohamad Amin Hasbini, bezpečnostní analytik ve společnosti Kaspersky Lab.

První útok postihl hry v Pchjongčchangu už během předminulého pátku, kdy probíhalo slavnostní zahájení. Tehdy kyberzločinci prováděli nájezdy na webové stránky her a korejské televizní systémy, cílem bylo kompletní vyřazení z provozu.

Šlo o tzv. DDoS útok, při kterém stovky tisíc počítačů začnou přistupovat v jeden okamžik na konkrétní server. Ten zpravidla nezvládne tak vysoké množství požadavků zpracovat a spadne. Pro běžné uživatele se pak takto napadená webová stránka tváří jako nedostupná.

Dva útoky již byly odvráceny
Hackerům však útok nevyšel, neboť na něj byli administrátoři tamních počítačových systémů připraveni. Zástupci Mezinárodního olympijského výboru to bez dalších podrobností potvrdili o několik dní později.

Přestože znají původ útoku, odmítli jej komentovat. Nechtějí prý ohrozit průběh her politickými tahanicemi. „Podobné snahy hackerů nejsou nijak výjimečné. Důležité je, že se nám je podařilo opětovně odrazit a že nijak nebyl ohrožen průběh her,“ zdůraznil pro agenturu Reuters mluvčí Mezinárodního olympijského výboru Mark Adams.

I z dalších zpráv je nicméně zřejmé, že administrátoři mají s počítačovými systémy na olympiádě plné ruce práce. Už od konce loňského roku totiž měl probíhat sofistikovaný hackerský útok na počítače více než tří tisíc klíčových zaměstnanců, kdy by se pomocí škodlivého kódu dostali útočníci k citlivým datům, případně mohli manipulovat na dotčených strojích se zobrazovanými informacemi.

Také tento útok se však podařilo ještě před startem olympiády odvrátit.


Podvod poznají jen pozorní. ČSOB varovala před počítačovými piráty

20.2.2018 Novinky/Bezpečnost Podvod
Počítačoví piráti se v posledních dnech zaměřili na klienty ČSOB, internetem šíří odkaz na podvodné stránky imitující vzhled této banky. Z klientů se snaží vylákat přihlašovací údaje k jejich účtům. Podvodné stránky přitom pozorní uživatelé poznají na první pohled.

Před falešným internetovým bankovnictvím, které imituje vzhled stránek ČSOB, varovali přímo zástupci banky.

„Upozorňujeme na výskyt podvodné stránky v designu ČSOB internetového bankovnictví s cílem získat přihlašovací data do internetového bankovnictví, data o platebních kartách a další důvěrné údaje,“ uvedl mluvčí banky Patrik Madle.

Ukázka podvodné webové stránky
Ukázka podvodné webové stránky

FOTO: ČSOB

Ten zároveň zdůraznil, jak mohou lidé podvodné stránky odhalit. „Pokud se přihlašujete do internetového bankovnictví, zkontrolujte vždy nejdříve řádek s internetovou adresou. V každé chvíli, kdy pracujete s internetovým bankovnictvím nebo se do něj přihlašujete, musí být v adresním řádku vašeho prohlížeče adresa https://ib.csob.cz a vedle ní ikona zámku,“ prohlásil mluvčí.

Zběhlejší uživatelé patrně již vědí, že po kliknutí na zmiňovanou ikonu zámku se zobrazí certifikát potvrzující platnost a ověřující identitu stránky. To se však u těch podvodných nestane.

„V moderních internetových prohlížečích se kontrola provádí automaticky (řádek s adresou stránky zezelená, pozn. red.),“ připomněl Mandle.

Jdou po zůstatku i půjčkách
Pokud důvěřivci své přihlašovací údaje do falešných stránek skutečně zadají, jsou již jen krůček od vybílení bankovního účtu. Se znalostí telefonního čísla je totiž pro podvodníky hračkou vylákat od lidí potvrzovací SMS zprávu, pomocí které mohou například provádět peněžní transakce.

V ohrožení jsou přitom i jedinci, kteří nemají na bankovním účtu příliš mnoho financí. Útočníci mohou touto cestou sjednat bez vědomí majitele klidně i půjčku. A tyto peníze následně vyberou.

Zda kvůli podvodným stránkám přišel nějaký klient skutečně o peníze, však mluvčí banky nekomentoval. „V případě pochybností neváhejte kontaktovat helpdesk elektronického bankovnictví na telefonním čísle 495 800 111,“ dodal mluvčí.

Na pozoru by se měli mít také klienti dalších bank
V současnosti se objevily na síti pouze stránky imitující internetové bankovnictví ČSOB. Není nicméně vyloučeno, že se v dohledné době budou podvodníci vydávat za bankéře také jiného finančního ústavu v Česku.

V minulosti se touto cestou snažili například počítačoví piráti opakovaně napálit klienty České spořitelny. Obezřetnost je tedy na místě.


Agentuře unikla z cloudu osobní data 12 tisíc hvězd sociálních sítí

20.2.2018 Novinky/Bezpečnost Sociální sítě
Únik citlivých osobních dat a kontaktních údajů 12 tisíc známých osobností ze sociálních sítí oznámila marketingová agentura Octoly. Jde o známé tváře, které propagují značky kosmetických a dalších firem, jako jsou Dior, Estée Lauder, Lancôme a Blizzard Entertainment.

Webové stránky agentury Octoly

FOTO: repro octoly.com

Včera 13:27

Firma, která sídlí v Paříži, využívala tyto celebrity k propagování známých značek kosmetiky a dalších produktů. Mezi její klienty patří například společnosti Dior, Estée Lauder, Lancôme nebo Blizzard Entertainment. Společnost však měla špatně nakonfigurováno úložiště dat v cloudu a nešťastnou náhodou se jí podařilo zveřejnit řadu citlivých údajů o těchto vlivných uživatelích sociálních sítí, většinou z Instagramu, Twitteru a YouTubu.

Uniklá data obsahovala skutečná jména propagátorů značek, jejich adresy, telefonní čísla a e-mailové adresy včetně těch, které byly určeny pro používání účtů na PayPalu, a data narození. Nezřídka šlo rovněž o ověřovací tokeny, které mohly být zneužity pro převzetí účtů na sociálních sítích, a tisíce hesel a uživatelských jmen, která patřila různým internetovým účtům tvůrců.

Úložiště obsahovalo rovněž informace o 600 značkách, které využívají služeb marketingové agentury Octoly, a rovněž 12 tisíc zpráv Deep Social, které byly vytvořeny zvlášť pro každého spolupracovníka a představují podrobnou analýzu vlivu těchto osobností sociálních sítí na internetu, různé zájmové a věkové skupiny a informace o značkách, které by mohly nejlépe propagovat.

Interní záznamy o klientech
Součástí balíku informací byly i interní zprávy o klientech, které by mohly poškodit zákazníky agentury, pokud by se dostaly do rukou jejich konkurence. Podle bezpečnostní společnosti UpGuard je únik o to nebezpečnější, že řadu propagátorů značek na sociálních sítích tvoří ženy, jimž nyní hrozí obtěžování, protože byly zveřejněny jejich adresy i telefony. Marketingové agentuře nyní hrozí žaloby ze strany klientů i spolupracovníků.

„Takto citlivá data musí být rozhodně několikanásobně zabezpečena před zneužitím,“ říká bezpečnostní expert společnosti ESET Václav Zubr. „Minimem by měla být dvoufaktorová autentizace, tedy nejen jednoduché uživatelské jméno a heslo, ale také jednorázově generovaný kód zaslaný na mobilní telefon,“ dodává.

Agentura má do jisté míry štěstí, že k úniku osobních dat došlo před letošním květnem, kdy začne platit nová evropská směrnice o ochraně osobních dat (GDPR). Za podobný prohřešek by poté musela zaplatit velmi vysokou pokutu.


CZ.NIC spouští HaaS: honeypot as a service
20.2.2018 Root.cz
Zabezpečení

Přesněji, přivítat jste ho mohli v říjnu loňského roku, kdy jsme spustili jeho beta verzi. Z počátku jsme nechávali volnou registraci a ladili první nedostatky, zátěžovou zkouškou pak bylo přesunutí všech uživatelů routerů Turris.

Veškeré problémy a připomínky jsme vyřešili a nic nebránilo tomu spustit ostrý provoz služby HaaS neboli Honeypot as a Service.

Co to vlastně HaaS je a k čemu slouží? Honeypot je speciální aplikace, která simuluje operační systém a dovoluje potenciálnímu útočníkovi se přihlásit přes SSH do koncového zařízení a provést libovolné příkazy nebo třeba stáhnout malware. Nainstalovat si takovou aplikaci není jednoduché a pokud se v ní objeví chyby, může být i nebezpečná. Proto jsme se rozhodli vzít bezpečnostní riziko na sebe a zpřístupnit honeypot jako veřejnou službu, na kterou mohou uživatelé Internetu přesměrovat útoky vedené na jejich routery.

Moc rádi bychom řekli, že stačí na vašem routeru či serveru povolit port 22 a přesměrovat na naše servery, ale není tomu tak. Snažili jsme se však o co nejjednodušší řešení, co se instalace a vývoje týče. Věřte, že jsme minimálně měsíc strávili pouze výběrem proxy, která musí u uživatelů běžet. K čemu proxy je? Pouze k jednomu malému, ale velmi důležitému detailu. Abychom znali IP adresu útočníka, která slouží k následné analýze chování útočníků s cílem odhalení nových, dosud neznámých útoků.

Dobrá zpráva je, že i přes krátkou dobu provozu a porodní bolesti máme hodně dat. S přírůstkem deset tisíc SSH sessions za hodinu, v takto malém počtu uživatelů (aktuálně 1 600 aktivních uživatelů), budeme brzy řešit zajímavé úlohy, jak všechna data stihnout analyzovat. Uděláme pro to maximum, protože botnety volající rm -rf jako první příkaz nás děsí a je třeba s nimi zatočit.

Nasbíraná data využívá Národní bezpečnostní tým CSIRT.CZ pro zkoumání útoků z českých IP adres, o čemž jsou pak majitelé informováni a hlavně vyzváni k nápravě. Největší počet útoků pochází z Číny, proto již spolupracujeme s Taiwanem, aby i u nich mohli zasáhnout. Na spolupráci s dalšími bezpečnostními týmy se pracuje.

NMI18_Materna
Pokud se chcete do projektu zapojit, můžete tak učinit na stránkách haas.nic.cz, kde se zaregistrujete a dle pokynů nainstalujete HaaS proxy (dostupné jako deb a rpm balíček, na PyPI nebo jen tar). V případě zájmu o analýzu dat jsou anonymizovaná data dostupná na stránce s globálními statistiky. Chybí v nich úmyslně použitá hesla, protože jsme zaznamenali nejeden případ, při kterém se uživatel omylem dostal do svého vlastního honeypotu.


Velká část e-mailů putuje internetem nešifrovaně. Kdo to změní?
20.2.2018 Root.cz
Zabezpečení

Máme rok 2018 a stále jsme se ještě nevypořádali ani s pořádným šifrováním elektronické pošty. IETF má nyní nová doporučení ohledně šifrování a co možná nejlepší ochrany uživatelů. Jak jsou na tom vaše maily?

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) se dlouhodobě snaží o bezpečný a důvěryhodný internet. Nejnovějším příspěvkem na tomto poli je nový standard zavádějící bezpečnější přístup k elektronické poště. Přestože máme rok 2018, stále je v této oblasti co dohánět, protože velká část pošty putuje internetem v otevřené podobě nebo s velmi slabým zabezpečením.

Výsledkem je RFC 8314, ve kterém Chris Newman z Oracle a Keith Moore z Windrock vysvětlují, že v některých případech není komunikace mezi klientem a serverem šifrovaná. Zároveň dokument novelizuje celou řadu předchozích standardů a zavádí přísnější přístup s cílem zajistit uživatelům výrazně vyšší bezpečnost.

Oportunistické šifrování nestačí
Dokument identifikuje hlavní nedostatky v komunikaci mezi e-mailovým klientem (MUA) a servery. Ty mohou být přitom dvojího druhu – pro odesílání pošty (Submission) a příjem pošty (Access). Používají různé protokoly jako Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) (RFC3501), Post Office Protocol (POP) (RFC1939) a Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) Submission (RFC6409).

Obvykle se při jejich použití používá zabezpečení pomocí Transport Layer Security (TLS) (RFC5246), ale často to není prováděno tím nejlepším způsobem vzhledem k utajení e-mailové komunikaci při přenosu internetem.

Typickým příkladem je takzvané oportunistické (česky příležitostné) šifrování. Předchozí standardy (RFC 2595, 3207 a 3501) totiž doporučovaly používat právě tento způsob. Klient se k serveru připojí běžným otevřeným protokolem bez šifrování a teprve v průběhu komunikace může navrhnout přechod na šifrovanou komunikaci pomocí příkazu STARTTLS.

Konkrétní podoba šifrovaného kanálu pak závisí na dohodnutých schopnostech obou stran. Jinými slovy: pokud o to klient výslovně požádá, může být zahájeno vyjednávání o sestavení nového šifrovaného kanálu pro bezpečnější komunikaci. K němu ovšem vůbec nemusí dojít, pokud se protistrany nedohodnou, přenese se pošta v klidu nešifrovaně. Navíc začátek celé komunikace vždy probíhá v otevřeném prostředí a může tak být odposloucháván nebo manipulován.

Řešení existuje, je jím implicitní šifrování, tedy použití odděleného TCP portu, na kterém se nejprve vždy povinně naváže TLS spojení a teprve v něm probíhá komunikace s poštovním serverem. Čerstvě vydané RFC tedy pro protokoly POP, IMAP, SMTP a další příbuzné doporučuje právě použití této bezpečnější metody.

Klient musí ověřovat certifikáty
Nový dokument zavádí povinnou validaci certifikátů na straně klienta, který se tak musí při navazování spojení řídit RFC 7817. V případě POP3S a IMAPS s tím není problém, protože implicitní TLS je dnes na serverech už velmi rozšířené. Jinak je to ale v případě SMTP, kde je stále ještě častým zvykem používat oportunistické šifrování se STARTTLS. Aby byl přechod pro uživatele pokud možno hladký, měly by servery po přechodné období implementovat jak STARTTLS na portu 587, tak bezpečnější implicitní TLS na portu 465.

TCP port 465 původně vznikl pro TLS variantu SMTP, ale poté se ukázalo, že není možné nijak pomocí MX záznamu signalizovat šifrování (a tedy ani použití jiného portu). Proto se stále pro komunikaci mezi servery používá původní port 25 a vyhrazení nového portu 465 bylo zrušeno. Řada uživatelů ale už mezi tím začala nový port používat pro doručení pošty ze svého klienta s implicitním TLS. Tento postup se nyní formalizuje zavedením nové služby Submissions.

Port 25 není určen pro klienty
Stále rozšířené je použití TCP portu 25 také pro doručení pošty na odesílající server (SMTP Submission), pro které jsou ovšem vyhrazeny už zmíněné porty 587 a 465. Tvůrci nového RFC proto říkají, že by poskytovatelé služeb měli své uživatele co nejdříve přesunout na bezpečnější varianty – ať už oportunistické nebo implicitní. To navíc bez ohledu na to, zda se uživatelé při použití dané služby musejí autentizovat.

Port 25 by tak měl být vyhrazen pro komunikaci mezi servery a klienti by přes něj neměli vůbec poštu na svůj odesílací server předávat. Bohužel je historicky na použití tohoto portu řada uživatelů zvyklá, takže i někteří poskytovatelé poštovních služeb nabízejí přijetí pošty přes tento port. Zároveň ale poskytovatelé připojení často použití portu 25 blokují kvůli boji s odchozím spamem, takže jsou uživatelé chtě něchtě tlačeni do použití správných rozhraní.

Změny na obou stranách
Výše uvedené změny se týkají e-mailových klientů (Thunderbird, Outlook, Apple Mail a dalších), ale také serverů. Ty podle RFC musí implementovat TLS na zmíněných komunikačních protokolech a měly by tak učinit i na jakýchkoliv dalších. Povinně musí TLS umožnit na těch protokolech, kde se uživatel přihlašuje pomocí jména a hesla.

NMI18_Sedivy
Poskytovatelé poštovních služeb by co nejdříve měli ukončit podporu nešifrovaných protokolů, čemuž by měla předcházet postupná migrace uživatelů na šifrované kanály. Za bezpečné se při tom považuje TLS verze 1.1 a vyšší. Server by měl buďto spojení se starší verzí úplně odmítnout nebo přijmout, ale poté zamítnout přihlášení uživatele. Druhá varianta umožňuje navázat komunikaci a poté předat zprávu o důvodu selhání, přináší ale riziko vyzrazení přihlašovacích údajů uživatele. Po nových uživatelích by tak mělo být od začátku požadováno použití TLS alespoň verze 1.1.

RFC 8314 zavádí řadu nových MUST a SHOULD pro obě strany komunikace: klienta i server. Cílem je opustit zastaralé oportunistické šifrování a přinést i do přenosu elektronické pošty podobné standardy, na jaké jsme zvyklí například u HTTPS. Bohužel svět webu a svět elektronické pošty dělí dvě dekády (alespoň po formalizační stránce) a starší protokoly se novým trendům obecně přizpůsobují pomaleji.


Russian Cyberspies Shift Focus From NATO Countries to Asia
20.2.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

The Russia-linked cyber espionage group known as Sofacy, APT28, Fancy Bear, Pawn Storm, Sednit and Strontium has shifted its focus from NATO member countries and Ukraine to Central Asia and even further east, Kaspersky Lab reported on Tuesday.

Sofacy, which is believed to be behind attacks targeting the 2016 presidential election in the United States, has been known to target Ukraine and NATO countries. NATO was heavily targeted in early 2017, including with zero-day exploits, but Kaspersky said the group later started to shift its focus towards the Middle East and Central Asia, which had been less targeted in the first half of the year.

According to the security firm, by mid-2017, detections of a Sofacy backdoor tracked as SPLM, CHOPSTICK and X-Agent showed that the hackers had been increasingly targeting former Soviet countries in Central Asia, including telecoms firms and defense-related organizations. The attacks were aimed at countries such as Turkey, Kazakhstan, Armenia, Kyrgyzstan, Jordan and Uzbekistan.

Attacks involving SPLM and a tool tracked as Zebrocy were increasingly spotted between the second and fourth quarters of 2017 further east. The list of countries where these pieces of malware were detected by Kaspersky includes China, Mongolia, South Korea and Malaysia.

Zebrocy, which allows attackers to collect data from victims, has been used to target various types of organizations, including accounting firms, science and engineering centers, industrial organizations, ministries, embassies and consulates, national security and intelligence agencies, press and translation services, and NGOs.

As for the infrastructure used in these attacks, researchers pointed out that Sofacy has been fairly consistent throughout the years and many of its techniques and patterns have been publicly disclosed. As a result, Kaspersky expects to see some changes this year.

“Sofacy is one of the most active threat actors we monitor, and it continues to spear-phish its way into targets, often on a remarkable global scale,” explained Kurt Baumgartner, principal security researcher at Kaspersky Lab. “Our data and detections show that in 2017, the threat actor further developed its toolset as it moved from high volume NATO spear-phish targeting towards the Middle East and Central Asia, before finally shifting its focus further East. Mass campaigns appear to have given way to subsets of activity and malware involving such tools as Zebrocy and SPLM.”


Apple Fixes Indian Character Crash Bug in iOS, macOS
20.2.2018 securityweek Apple

Updates released by Apple on Monday for iOS, macOS, tvOS and watchOS patch a flaw that causes applications to crash when rendering specific strings of Indian characters.

Someone noticed recently that displaying a string written in India’s Telugu language (జ్ఞ‌ా) caused many apps on iOS and macOS to crash. The list of impacted apps includes Twitter, Firefox, Chrome, Safari, WhatsApp, Mail, Thunderbird, Instagram, Slack and others.

Apple became aware of the issue after news of the bug started to spread on social media networks and trolls and pranksters started exploiting it. One individual apparently showed how he could crash the Uber app on drivers’ phones by setting his name to the problematic string and requesting a ride.

SecurityWeek can confirm that conducting a search for the string in any web browser on macOS causes the applications to immediately crash. Attempting to send or receive an email using Mail or Thunderbird has the same effect.

Firefox crashes on macOS when displaying Indian characters

While initially only a certain Telugu string appeared to work, some later noticed that a specific string using characters of India’s Bengali language also caused apps on iOS and macOS to crash. There are several theories on what may be causing the crash, including from Mozilla research engineer Manish Goregaokar and Philippe Verdy of the Unicode Consortium.

Apple tracks the vulnerability as CVE-2018-4124 and describes it as a heap corruption triggered when processing a maliciously crafted string. “A memory corruption issue was addressed through improved input validation,” Apple said.

The company patched the flaw on Monday with the release of macOS High Sierra 10.13.3 Supplemental Update, iOS 11.2.6, watchOS 4.2.3 and tvOS 11.2.6. watchOS and tvOS are affected due to the fact that they are based on iOS. The latest operating system updates don’t fix any other vulnerabilities.


3 Million New Android Malware Samples Discovered in 2017
20.2.2018 securityweek Android

More than 3 million new malware samples targeting the Android operating system were discovered in 2017, marking a slight decrease from the previous year, G Data reports.

The security firm counted 3,002,482 new Android malware samples during 2017, at an average of 8,225 per day, or 343 new malware samples every hour. Although the number is slightly lower when compared to 2016 (when 3,246,284 samples were discovered), the decrease isn’t significant.

In late January, Google revealed that it took down over 700,000 bad apps from Google Play during 2017, a 70% increase compared to the previous year. Many of these programs were copycats – they were either apps packing unacceptable content or malware posing as legitimate apps.

With Android being the most popular mobile operating system out there, it’s no wonder cybercriminals are focused on bypassing Google’s protection mechanisms in their attempt to push malware into the official app store.

This also shows that users should not rely solely on Google’s security features to protect their devices and data. A third-party security program should also be installed and maintained, to detect applications with malicious functions in due time.

Despite the large number of new Android malware samples and that of malicious programs slipping through Google’s protections, the overall security of the operating system appears to be improving, especially with the Internet giant stepping up the platform update process.

Previously, the update process involved multiple steps: the Android team published the open source code, processor providers adapted it to their specific hardware, smartphone providers worked on customizations for the software, network operators also added their own modifications, and only then could an update finally be released.

“Frequently, these concatenated processes take a very long time, so users do not receive the updates until months after they were released by the Android team,” G Data notes.

Lately, Google has been trying to have updates available for all users faster, and initiatives like Project Treble helps in this direction. Through it, a so-called vendor interface is provided, bridging the Android OS framework and the provider’s modifications and making relevant hardware-specific information readily available. Thus, manufacturers can deliver Android updates quickly.

Last year, developers and researchers discovered a total of 841 vulnerabilities among the various versions of Android, making the platform a clear forerunner when it comes to security issues. As a recent Risk Based Security report revealed, the Android-based Pixel/Nexus devices had the most (354) vulnerabilities featuring CSSv2 Scores 9.0 - 10.0 last year.

This leading position could be explained by Android’s open source nature, which provides more people with the opportunity of researching it.

“However, the problem is not only vulnerabilities in the software, but specifically holes in the hardware. Meltdown and Spectre, the serious security holes in processors, which are also present in mobile devices, have again demonstrated how important a speedy security process is so that users receive new updates quickly,” G Data points out.


North Korean Hacking Group APT37 Expands Targets
20.2.2018 securityweek APT

A lesser known hacker group believed to be working on behalf of the North Korean government has been expanding the scope and sophistication of its campaigns, according to a report published on Tuesday by FireEye.

The threat actor is tracked by FireEye as APT37 and Reaper, and by other security firms as Group123 (Cisco) and ScarCruft (Kaspersky). APT37 has been active since at least 2012, but it has not been analyzed as much as the North Korea-linked Lazarus group, which is said to be responsible for high-profile attacks targeting Sony and financial organizations worldwide.

Cisco published a report in January detailing some of the campaigns launched by the threat actor in 2017, but APT37 only started making headlines in early February when researchers revealed that it had been using a zero-day vulnerability in Adobe Flash Player to deliver malware to South Korean users.

APT37, whose goals appear to align with North Korea’s military, political and economic interests, has mainly focused on targeting public and private entities in South Korea, including government, defense, military and media organizations.

However, according to FireEye, the group expanded its attacks to Japan, Vietnam and even the Middle East last year. The list of targets includes organizations in the chemicals, manufacturing, electronics, aerospace, healthcare, and automotive sectors.

North Korean hacker group APT37 expands targets

One of the targets in the Middle East was a telecommunications services provider that had entered an agreement with the North Korean government. The deal fell through, which is when APT37 started hacking the Middle Eastern company, likely in an effort to collect information, FireEye said.

APT37 has exploited several Flash Player and Hangul Word Processor vulnerabilities to deliver various types of malware, including the RUHAPPY wiper, the CORALDECK exfiltration tool, the GELCAPSULE and HAPPYWORK downloaders, the MILKDROP and SLOWDRIFT launchers, the ZUMKONG infostealer, the audio-capturing tool SOUNDWAVE, and backdoors tracked by FireEye as DOGCALL, KARAE, POORAIM, WINERACK and SHUTTERSPEED.

This malware has been delivered using social engineering tactics, watering holes, and even torrent sites for wide-scale distribution.

FireEye is highly confident that APT37 is linked to the North Korean government based on several pieces of evidence, including the use of a North Korean IP, malware compilation timestamps consistent with a typical workday in North Korea, and objectives that align with Pyongyang’s interests.

“North Korea has repeatedly demonstrated a willingness to leverage its cyber capabilities for a variety of purposes, undeterred by notional redlines and international norms,” FireEye said in its report. “Though they have primarily tapped other tracked suspected North Korean teams to carry out the most aggressive actions, APT37 is an additional tool available to the regime, perhaps even desirable for its relative obscurity. We anticipate APT37 will be leveraged more and more in previously unfamiliar roles and regions, especially as pressure mounts on their sponsor.”

Neither Kaspersky nor Cisco have explicitly attributed the APT37 attacks to North Korea.


Google to Acquire IoT Management Platform Xively
20.2.2018 securityweek IoT

Google is stepping up its Internet of Things (IoT) game as it has entered into an agreement to acquire Xively, a division of LogMeIn, Inc.

The Xively IoT platform can “help companies in any industry profit from the IoT” and claims to provide “everything needed to build and launch a connected product in months, not years.” It also provides one-click integrations with business tools such as Salesforce.

Formerly known as Cosm and Pachube, LogMeIn acquired Xively in 2011 for approximately $11 million, and will be selling it to Google in a $50 million deal.

Built on LogMeIn’s foundation of security, Xively’s IoT platform is enterprise-ready and is expected to help Google accelerate its customers’ production time when building IoT connected businesses.

“By 2020, it’s estimated that about 20 billion connected things will come online, and analytics and data storage in the cloud are now the cornerstone of any successful IoT solution,” Google says.

The Internet giant is already working on providing a fully managed IoT service via Google Cloud, and the acquisition, which is subject to closing conditions, is expected to complement that.

The resulting product, Google says, would easily and securely connect, manage, and ingest “data from globally dispersed devices.” The platform will pair with the security and scale of Google Cloud, which already provides data analytics and machine learning capabilities to customers.

“Through this acquisition, Cloud IoT Core will gain deep IoT technology and engineering expertise, including Xively’s advanced device management, messaging, and dashboard capabilities. Our customers will benefit from Xively’s extensive feature set and flexible device management platform,” Google says.

While they will continue to invest in their Support-of-Things initiatives, by selling Xively, LogMeIn is exiting the IoT connectivity platform space.

“We believe that Google Cloud, now armed with Xively’s team and great technology – and backed by their platform and developer heritage and reach – are a far better fit for the future of platform leadership,” Bill Wagner, President and CEO, LogMeIn, notes in a blog post.


NIST Proposes Metadata Schema for Evaluating Federated Attributes
20.2.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

NIST's Attribute Metadata Schema Could Help Privacy Compliance in Multi-Domain Transactions

Verifying identities (entities) is one problem. Managing the authorized transactions available to that verified entity is a separate problem. As industry and government increasingly move online, both the complexity and criticality of different possible cross-domain transactions increase. A single verified entity may be authorized for some transactions, but not others.

The decision to authorize or decline access to a protected resource depends upon different attributes (metadata) associated with each entity. In a federated identity and access management (IAM) process, different metadata is obtained from different authoritative providers. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) recently published 'Attribute Metadata: a Proposed Schema for Evaluating Federated Attributes' (PDF) in order to provide the basis for the evolution of a standardized approach to entity attributes.

This is an internal report (NISTIR 8112) that will not be imposed upon federal agencies, but can be used by both public and private organizations. Its purpose is to allow a system (RP, the relying party) that uses federated IAM to better understand and trust different attributes; to apply more granular and effective access authorizations; and to promote the federation of attributes.

"NIST envisions that the core set of metadata proposed here can serve as a library or menu from which both commercial and federal implementers can draw common semantics, syntaxes, and values to support their specific needs," notes the report. "This will serve as a starting point for the development of a metadata standard that can enable greater federation across markets and sectors."

NIST believes that it could become the foundation for a future attribute confidence scoring structure to help align attribute-based authorizations with an organization's risk environment. Furthermore, it adds, "the ideal metadata schema could be used in both commercial and public-sector implementations, thus serving as a foundation to enable greater federation across markets and sectors."

The NIST proposal comprises two core concepts: Attribute Schema Metadata (ASM, or the attribute's own metadata -- a definition of the attribute); and Attribute Value Metadata (AVM, or the value contained in the metadata). The ASM for an attribute includes its description, allowed values, its format, its verification frequency, and a description of the basis for processing attributes and attribute values.

The AVM defines 15 separate metadata elements around the value contained in an attribute. There are five categories: provenance (3), accuracy (2), currency (3), privacy (5) and classification (2). The provenance category includes three elements: 'origin', which is the name of the entity that issues the attribute; 'provider', which is the name of the entity providing the attribute and might be different to the origin; and 'pedigree', which is the relationship of the attribute value to an authoritative source, such as 'authoritative', 'derived' or 'self-asserted'.

The Classification (security level) metadata comprises two elements: classification and releasability. The classification metadata element could be any one of six values: unclassified, controlled unclassified, confidential, secret, top secret, and company confidential. The releasability element has seven possible values: NATO, NOFORN (no-one foreign), FVEY (only members of the Five Eye allies), public release, for business purposes, do not release, and none.

However, the remaining eight metadata elements have no defined values nor restrictions on what could be included. The five 'privacy' elements are particularly interesting because they can be used both to provide compliance with privacy regulations -- including aspects of the EU's General Data Protection Regulation -- and demonstrate compliance to auditors. The elements are date of consent, type of consent, acceptable uses, cache time limit, and date for data deletion.

Consent is an essential part of user data collection and user data processing. Having the date consent was given, separate data processors have greater legal status in processing user data. The type of consent is equally important. Values could include 'opt-in', 'opt-out' or parental-delegated consent, among others. Since different jurisdictions can demand 'opt-in' consent, or allow 'opt-out' consent, knowing which attribute applies to the data is important for privacy compliance.

The acceptable uses element can be used to specify the use conditions for the entities that receive attributes. Again, since under GDPR and other regulations, user data can only be used for the purposes for which it was collected, it is an aid to ensuring and demonstrating compliance. The NIST document suggests, "organizations or trust frameworks might also maintain their own categories of acceptable uses based on their policies."

The cache time limit reflects the sensitivity of different data, and can be used to specify the maximum time that data may reside in cache memory, perhaps for re-use in other transactions. "In some cases," says NIST, "the time to live may be dictated by regulation or law, and this information needs to be relayed to RP systems so data are handled accordingly. The more sensitive an attribute value, the shorter time it will likely be enabled to live in temporary memory."

The data deletion data attribute simply ensures that a best practice privacy principle can be applied. "Some attribute values may produce little to no privacy risk for individuals," writes NIST. "Other values may add new privacy risks or increase existing privacy risks. A deletion date ensures that sensitive information does not remain in systems indefinitely."

"This NISTIR," says the report, "defines a set of optional elements of an attribute metadata schema to support cross-organization decision making, such as two executive branch agencies, in attribute assertions. It also provides the semantics and syntax required to support interoperability. NIST does not intend to make any of this schema required in federal systems and attribute-based information sharing. Rather, this schema represents a compendium of possible metadata elements to assist in risk-based decision making by an RP. This schema is focused on subjects (individual users); objects and data tagging, while related, are out of scope."


A new multi-stage attack deploys a password stealer without using macros
20.2.2018 securityaffairs
Vulnerebility  Attack

Security researchers at Trustwave spotted a new malicious campaign that uses a multi-stage attack to deploy a password stealer.
Researchers at Trustwave have spotted a new malware-based campaign that uses a multi-stage infection to deploy a password stealer malware.

Hackers leverage the infamous Necurs botnet to distribute spam emails delivering Microsoft Office documents that embedded malicious macros.

DOCX attachments used by the attackers contain an embedded OLE object that has external references, the external access is provided to remote OLE objects to be referenced in the document.xml.rels.

“Anyone can easily manipulate data in a Word 2007 file programmatically or manually. As shown below, the DOCX attachment contains an embedded OLE object that has external references. This ‘feature’ allows external access to remote OLE objects to be referenced in the document.xml.rels.” states the analysis published by trustwave.

“When user opens the DOCX file, it causes a remote document file to be accessed from the URL: hxxp://gamestoredownload[.]download/WS-word2017pa[.]doc. This is actually a RTF file that is downloaded and executed.”

Once the victim opened the file, it will attempt to trigger the CVE-2017-11882 memory-corruption flaw that was used by many threat actors in the wild, including the Cobalt hacking group. Microsoft fixed the vulnerability in November, the CVE-2017-11882 flaw was discovered by the security researchers at Embedi, it affects the MS Office component EQNEDT32.EXE that is responsible for insertion and editing of equations (OLE objects) in documents.

The component fails to properly handle objects in the memory, a bug that could be exploited by the attacker to execute malicious code in the context of the logged-in user.

Back to the macro-based Multi-Stage attack discovered by Trustwave, the RTF file accessed after the victim opens the DOCX files executes an MSHTA command line to download and execute a remote HTA file.

The HTA file contains VBScript with obfuscated code that decodes to a PowerShell Script designed to eventually downloads and executes a remote binary file that is a Password Stealer Malware.

“The malware steals credentials from email, ftp, and browser programs by concatenating available strings in the memory and usage of the APIs RegOpenKeyExW and PathFileExistsW to check if registry or paths of various programs exist.” continues the analysis.

multi-stage attack

The password stealer will send data to the command and control server (C&C) via an HTTP POST.

The most interesting aspect of this attack is the use of multiple stages to deliver the final payload, an approach that Trustwave calls unusual.

Malware researchers at Trustwave highlighted that a so long infection chain is more likely to fail compared to other technique implemented in other attacks.

“It’s pretty unusual to find so many stages and vectors being used to download malware. Indeed, this approach can be very risky for the malware author. If any one stage fails, it will have a domino effect on the whole process. Another noticeable point is that the attack uses file types (DOCX, RTF and HTA), that are not often blocked by email or network gateways unlike the more obvious scripting languages like VBS, JScript or WSF.” concludes Trustwave.

The analysis published by Trustwave includes the Indicators of Compromise (IoCs).


Cyberattacks cost the United States between $57 billion and $109 billion in 2016
20.2.2018 securityaffairs BigBrothers

The report published by the White House Council of Economic Advisers examines the cyberattacks cost that malicious cyber activities cause to the U.S. economy.
How much cost cyber attacks to the US? According to a report published by the White House Council of Economic Advisers last week, the cyberattacks cost between $57 billion and $109 billion in 2016, and things can go worse in the future.

“This report examines the substantial economic costs that malicious cyber activity imposes on the U.S. economy. Cyber threats are ever-evolving and may come from sophisticated adversaries. Due to common vulnerabilities, instances of security breaches occur across firms and in patterns that are difficult to anticipate.” states the report.

“Firms in critical infrastructure sectors may generate especially large negative spillover effects into the wider economy.”

The report analyzed the impact of malicious cyber activities on public and private entities, including DoS attacks, sabotage, business disruption, and theft of proprietary data, intellectual property, and sensitive financial and strategic information.

Damages and losses caused by a cyber attack may spill over from the initial target to economically linked organizations. More exposed are critical infrastructure sectors, at attack against companies and organization in this industry could have a severe impact on the US economy.

The document warns of nation-state actors such as Russia, China, Iran, and North Korea, that are well funded and often conduct sophisticated targeted attacks for both sabotage and cyber espionage.

“Finally, and perhaps most important, if a firm owns a critical infrastructure asset, an attack against this firm could cause major disruption throughout the economy.” reads the report.

“Insufficient cybersecurity investment in these sectors exacerbates the risks of cyberattacks and data breaches. The economic implications of attacks against critical infrastructure assets are described in more detail later in the paper. “

US cyberattacls cost

The reports also warn of devastating cyberattacks that would target sectors that are internally interconnected and interdependent with other sectors.

The report offered little in the way of new recommendations on improving cybersecurity, but noted that the situation is hurt by “insufficient data” as well as “underinvestment” in defensive systems by the private sector.

“Cyber connectivity is an important driver of productivity, innovation, and growth for the U.S. economy, but it comes at a cost. Companies, individuals, and the government are vulnerable to malicious cyber activity.” concludes the report. “Effective public and private-sector efforts to combat this malicious activity would contribute to domestic GDP growth. However, the ever-evolving nature and scope of cyber threats suggest that additional and continued efforts are critical, and the cooperation between public and private sectors is key.”


RubyGems 2.7.6 addresses several flaws and implements some improvements
20.2.2018 securityaffairs
Vulnerebility

The RubyGems 2.7.6 update released last week for RubyGems includes several security improvements and addresses several types of vulnerabilities.
The new RubyGems 2.7.6 release addresses several vulnerabilities in Ruby Gems and implements several security improvements.

The updates prevent path traversal when writing to a symlinked basedir outside of the root and during gem installation.

RubyGems 2.7.6

The updates also address a cross-site scripting (XSS) vulnerability in the homepage attribute when displayed via gem server and an Unsafe Object Deserialization issue in gem owner.

The new RubyGems release raises a security error when there are duplicate files in a package and enforce URL validation on spec homepage attribute.

To update to the latest RubyGems you can run:

gem update --system


Several Vulnerabilities Patched in RubyGems
20.2.2018 securityweek
Vulnerebility

An update released last week for RubyGems includes several security improvements and patches for various types of vulnerabilities.

RubyGems 2.7.6 patches path traversal vulnerabilities that exist when writing to a symlinked basedir outside of the root and during gem installation. It also fixes a cross-site scripting (XSS) vulnerability in the homepage attribute when displayed via gem server, and a possible unsafe object deserialization flaw.

This was not the only deserialization issue patched recently in RubyGems. Back in October, developers informed users that an unsafe deserialization vulnerability could have been exploited for remote code execution.

The latest version of RubyGems also includes some security improvements, such as triggering a security error when a package contains duplicate files, enforcing URL validation on the spec homepage attribute, and strictly interpreting octal fields in tar headers.

Yasin Soliman, nmalkin and plover have each been credited for two of the vulnerabilities patched in RubyGems 2.7.6.

A total of five security holes were patched in RubyGems last year. The deserialization issue, tracked as CVE-2017-0903, and an ANSI escape sequence vulnerability identified as CVE-2017-0899 were the only ones rated “high severity” based on their CVSS score.

Other vulnerabilities fixed last year included a DNS request hijacking issue, a denial-of-service (DoS) flaw, and a weakness that could have been exploited by malicious gems to overwrite arbitrary files.

Five vulnerabilities were also patched last year in Ruby itself, including command injection and memory corruption issues.


NIST Working on Global IoT Cybersecurity Standards
20.2.2018 securityweek IoT

NIST is Working Towards International Cybersecurity Standards for the Internet of Things With Draft Interagency Report (NISTIR) 8200

The Internet of Things (IoT) is here and growing. It has the potential to facilitate or obstruct the further evolution of the Fourth Industrial Revolution; largely depending upon whether it is used or abused. Its abusers will be the same criminal and aggressor state actors that currently abuse information systems. But while there are standards and frameworks for defending information networks against aggressors, there are no adequate international standards for securing the internet of things.

In April 2017, the Interagency International Cybersecurity Standardization Working Group (IICS WG) -- established by the National Security Council’s Cyber Interagency Policy Committee (NSC Cyber IPC) -- set up an Internet of Things (IoT) Task Group to determine the current state of international cybersecurity standards development for IoT.

NIST has now published the draft NISTIR document: The Status of International Cybersecurity Standardization for IoT. It is intended to assist the member agencies of the IICS WG Task Group "in their standards planning and to help to coordinate U.S. government participation in international cybersecurity standardization for IoT." NIST is seeking feedback, especially on the information about the state of cybersecurity standardization for IoT, at NISTIR-8200@nist.gov by April 18.

The scope of securing the IoT is a mammoth task. To aid the understanding of this scope, NIST describes the IoT in five separate functional areas: connected vehicles; consumer IoT; health and medical devices; smart buildings, and smart manufacturing (including ICS). There are nuanced differences between securing these functional areas and traditional cyber security. While security has traditionally prioritized confidentiality, integrity and availability (CIA) in that order of priority, for the most part 'availability' is the priority for IoT devices.

Consumer IoT is one area that may be different, with the traditional need for confidentiality (as in privacy) still dominant. Patient privacy is also a consideration for medical devices. But, "In addition to data privacy and patient safety", comments Jun Du, Senior Director and Architect at ZingBox, "we must also put a heavy focus on ensuring uninterrupted service of medical devices. A cyber-attack can bring down the entire hospital by disrupting their service delivery, putting patient lives at risk."

This is the fundamental difference between traditional information security and IoT security -- it is closer to OT than to IT. "The objectives of confidentiality, integrity and availability altogether focus on information security rather than IoT security," adds Du. "When it comes to IoT security, availability of the device is more relevant to business operations than just the security of information. We should focus on availability first, then look at confidentiality and integrity."

Even in consumer IoT, there is an operational element. Many of the threat vectors are similar between IoT and information networks, but the effects of a successful attack could be more dramatic.

The biggest problem for IoT devices, comments Drew Koenig, security solutions architect at Magenic, "are IoT devices that limit or prevent updating and patching. That's the killer; a zero day -- and the only solution is to replace your fridge before someone hacks it and floods your kitchen."

That metaphor traverses NIST's five IoT functional areas: crashed cars, flooded kitchens and locked doors, malfunctioning heart pace makers, stuck elevators and power failures, and failing production lines.

To get the IICS WG Task Group started in its work to discover the current state of international IoT standardization, the NISTIR 8200 compiles a table of potentially relevant existing standards separated into eleven core cybersecurity areas. These areas range from cryptographic techniques and cyber incident management, through IAM and network security, to supply chain risk management to system security engineering.

Each one of these core cybersecurity areas will present its own IoT-specific difficulties. For example, Du comments, "While encryption is a highly recommended security trend, it isn’t without its drawbacks. Encryption can hide valuable details needed by various teams including security researchers, incident response teams, and security vendors in addition to hiding them from hackers. Insider threats may also attempt to leverage end-to-end encryption to evade detection. In order to protect against these risks, IoT vendors should provide limited visibility through exportation of logs, session stats and meta data information."

A wide range of existing and potentially relevant standards are mapped against these core areas, providing links to the standard, the standard developing organization (SDO), and a description of the standard. It becomes the raw material for a gap analysis between existing and necessary standards. Such an analysis is also provided, mapping standards to the core areas across the five functions. Only 'cryptographic techniques' https://www.securityweek.com/review-nist-crypto-standards-and-developmen... and 'IAM' have available standards applicable to four of the five categories; but always with the rider that there is slow uptake of these standards.

The fifth and missing category is medical IoT, which fares worst of all the five categories for existing applicable standards. However, the two core areas of 'IT system security evaluation' and 'network security' have no available standards applicable to any of the five IoT categories. In reality, the entire gap analysis makes depressing viewing: there are no core areas that have standards adequately adopted in any of the five IoT categories. Even where there are standards, uptake is slow.

Missing from this draft document is any standard that requires the ability for firmware updates within the IoT device build. This may be because there is no existing standard that attempts this. Where 'patching' is mentioned in the draft NISTIR document, it is solely for patch management, or remediation where patching is not possible.

"This document is a good start," comments Koenig. The reality, however, is that it will be a long time before any serious benefit comes from the work. He sees two areas of primary concern. The first is a lack of regulation. NIST doesn't regulate the private sector, although its recommendations can be required for the public sector. Even if this work eventually leads to IoT standards recommendations, it will require separate legislation to enforce the recommendations across the private sector. That still won't necessarily address the manufacture of overseas-sourced devices, or the assembly of devices with multiple foreign components.

Without regulation over device manufacture and development, Koenig's second big concern comes into play: "IoT devices that limit or prevent updating and patching. That's the killer," he says.

But even with regulation controlling the manufacture of IoT devices, that still won't necessarily solve the problems. Steve Lentz, CSO and director information security at Samsung Research America has always believed that security teams need to do their own 'due diligence' on products and processes, and not rely on what they are told by vendors. He suspects that standards and regulations "will bring out vendors claiming to provide IoT security. Again, this is where security teams need to do their due diligence and really check/test out these claims," he warns. "IoT is also Wi-Fi which is now everywhere. We need to ensure complete work infrastructure is secure just not the traditional network defenses.

"We need to ensure we thoroughly research solutions that fit our environments," he continued. "The government can give oversight and make recommendations, but we need to find the solution that works best for us."


Macro-Based Multi-Stage Attack Delivers Password Stealer
20.2.2018 securityweek
Vulnerebility  Attack

A malicious attack uses a multi-stage infection to deploy malware that is capable of stealing passwords from various applications on a victim’s computer, Trustwave reports.

The attack starts with spam emails distributed from the Necurs botnet to deliver macro-enabled documents, such as Word docs, Excel spreadsheets, or PowerPoint presentations, to the targets.

As part of this infection campaign, DOCX attachments containing an embedded OLE object that has external references was used. Thus, external access is provided to remote OLE objects to be referenced in the document.xml.rels, Trustwave explains.

As soon as the user opens the file, a remote document is accessed from the URL hxxp://gamestoredownload[.]download/WS-word2017pa[.]doc. Although it has a .doc extension, the file is actually a RTF document.

Once executed on the victim’s system, the file attempts to exploit the CVE-2017-11882 vulnerability that Microsoft patched last November in the Office’s Equation Editor tool, and which has been already abused in a wide range of attacks.

The RTF file executes an MSHTA command line to download and execute a remote HTA file. In turn, the HTA file contains VBScript with obfuscated code which decodes to a PowerShell Script designed to fetch and run a remote binary file.

This binary is the final payload that turns out to be a password stealer malware family capable of gathering credentials from email, FTP, and browsers installed on the victim’s machine. For that, it concatenates available strings in the memory and uses the RegOpenKeyExW and PathFileExistsW APIs to check if registry or paths of various programs exist.

The malware was observed sending the harvested data to its command and control (C&C) server via a HTTP POST request.

The most interesting aspect of this attack is the use of multiple stages to deliver the final payload, an approach that Trustwave calls unusual. The security researchers also point out that this long infection chain is more likely to fail compared to other, more straightforward attacks.

“Indeed, this approach can be very risky for the malware author. If any one stage fails, it will have a domino effect on the whole process. Another noticeable point is that the attack uses file types (DOCX, RTF and HTA), that are not often blocked by email or network gateways unlike the more obvious scripting languages like VBS, JScript or WSF,” Trustwave concludes.


SIM Hijacking – T-Mobile customers were victims an info disclosure exploit
20.2.2018 securityaffairs Hacking  Mobil

Lorenzo Franceschi-Bicchierai published an interesting post on SIM hijacking highlighted the risks for the end users and their exposure to this illegal practice.
In 2017, hackers stole some personal information belonging to T-Mobile customers by exploiting a well-known vulnerability.

A video tutorial titled ‘T-Mobile Info Disclosure exploit’ showing how to use the flaw was also published on the Internet.

Exploiting the vulnerability it is possible to access certain customers’ data, including email addresses, billing account numbers, and the phone’s IMSI numbers.

Such kind of info could be used by hackers in social engineering attack against T-Mobile’s customer support employees with the intent of stealing the victim’s phone number.

SIM hijacking

The attackers can use them to impersonate the target customer, crooks call the T-Mobile customer care posing as the victim with the intent to trick the operator to issue a new SIM card for the victim’s number.

The crooks activate the new SIM and take control of your phone number, then they can use is to steal the victim’s identity. This is the beginning of the nightmare for the victims that suddenly lose their service.

Many web service leverage on user’s phone number to reset their password, this means that the attackers once activated the new SIM can use it to carry on password reset procedures and take over the victims’ accounts on many web services.

Lorenzo reported many stories of SIM hijacking victims, this is the story of the T-Mobile customer Fanis Poulinakis

“Today I lived a nightmare.

My phone all of the sudden stopped working – I tried to contact T-Mobile through twitter—no phone right?—It took them an hour to let me know that someone must have transferred my number to another carrier and they asked me to call my bank to let them know.

I immediately log in on my bank account and voila! $,2000 were gone.

I’ve spent the whole day between T-Mobile, Chase Bank and trying to understand what happened. What a nightmare.

[…] It is unbelievable—and i think it’s also a negligence from T-Mobile’s side that they don’t make it mandatory to have a password connected to the phone number rather than the social number. […] It’s the first time I’m realizing how vulnerable our information is.”

SIM Hijacking could be a true nightmare for the victims, let me suggest reading the other witnesses reported by Lorenzo in his blog post.


City Union Bank is the last victim of a cyber attack that used SWIFT to transfer funds
20.2.2018 securityaffairs Cyber

The Indian bank Kumbakonam-based City Union Bank announced that cyber criminals compromised its systems and transferred a total of US$1.8 million.
During the weekend, the Russian central bank revealed a new attack against the SWIFT system, unknown hackers have stolen 339.5 million roubles (roughly $6 million) from a Russian bank last year.

Even if the SWIFT international bank transfer system enhanced its security after the string of attacks that targeted it since 2016, the news of a new attack made the headlines.

The victim is the Indian bank Kumbakonam-based City Union Bank that announced that criminals compromised its systems and transferred a total of US$1.8 million.

Taiwan bank hach

On Sunday, February 18, the Kumbakonam-based City Union Bank issued a statement after local media reported that three unauthorized transactions were initiated by staff. The Indian bank confirmed that it has suffered a security breach launched “international cyber-criminals and there is no evidence of internal staff involvement”.

“During our reconciliation process on February 7, it was found out that 3 fraudulent remittances had gone through our SWIFT system to our corespondent banks which were not initiated from our bank’s end. We immediately alerted the correspondent banks to recall the funds,” reads the statement issued by City Union Bank.

The three transactions took place before February 7, when they were discovered during the reconciliation processes.

One transaction of $500,000 that was made through Standard Chartered Bank, New York, to a Dubai based bank was immediately blocked.

A second transaction $372,150 was made through a Standard Chartered Bank account in Frankfurt to a Turkish account, and the third transaction of 1 million dollars was sent through a Bank of America account in New York to a China-based bank.

The City Union Bank confirmed it was working with the Ministry of External Affairs and officials in Turkey and China to recover the funds.

“With the help of Ministry of External Affairs through Consulate General of Shanghai and Istanbul and office of the National Cyber Security Council (PMO) all possible efforts through diplomatic and legal channels are being taken to repatriate the money,” continues the statement.

Summarizing the security features implemented for the SWIFT were able to detect only the transfer to Dubai.

The SWIFT system is now back in operation with “adequate enhanced security”.

At the time of writing the root source of the problem is still unclear


Record-Breaking Number of Vulnerabilities Disclosed in 2017: Report
19.2.2018 securityweek
Vulnerebility
Vulnerability QuickView 2017 Vulnerability Trends

A record-breaking number of vulnerabilities were disclosed in 2017, with a total of 20,832 such security flaws, a new report from Risk Based Security shows.

According to the company’s VulnDB QuickView report, last year saw a 31.0% year-on-year increase in the number of vulnerabilities disclosed. The number of flaws recorded by the National Vulnerability Database (NVD) increased as well.

Of all the issues published by Risk Based Security in 2017, 7,900 weren’t documented by MITRE’s Common Vulnerability Enumeration (CVE) and NVD, and 44.5% of these issues had a CVSSv2 score between 7.0 and 10. This, the security firm notes, represents a major risk for organizations worldwide, as they might not even be aware of the fact that those vulnerabilities exist.

In 2017, 39.3% of all published vulnerabilities have CVSSv2 scores above 7.0, 48.5% of them can be exploited remotely, and public exploits exist for 31.5% of the vulnerabilities, the security firm’s report (PDF) reveals. Half (50.6%) of the 2017 vulnerabilities are web-related and 28.9% of these web-related issues are Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) bugs.

The list of top ten vendors with vulnerabilities featuring CVSS scores between 9.0 and 10.0 includes Google (503 flaws), SUSE (301), Canonical (285), Red Hat (274), SGP – a subsidiary of Silent Circle (257), Adobe (256), Mozilla (246), Samsung (228), Oracle (201), and Xerox (198).

The top ten products with vulnerabilities featuring CSSv2 Scores 9.0 - 10.0 include Google Pixel/Nexus devices (354 issues), Ubuntu (285), SilentOS (257), Red Had Enterprise Linux (253), Firefox (246), SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop (226), Samsung Mobile Devices (226), SUSE Linux Enterprise Server (197), OpenSUSE Leap (196), and FreeFlow Print Server (191).

Last year, at least 44.8% (9,335) of vulnerabilities disclosed were coordinated with the vendor and only 18.6% (3,875) of them were uncoordinated disclosures. Only 5.9% of 2017 vulnerabilities were disclosed as part of vendor or third-party bug bounty programs, the report reveals.

While most of the vulnerabilities disclosed last year (72.8%) have updates or some form of a patch available for them, 23.2% of the issues currently have no known solution. However, 443 of the vulnerabilities reported in 2017 were found to have no risk due to inaccurate disclosures, meaning that no mitigation was necessary for them.

The report also reveals that only 1.7% of all reported vulnerabilities in 2017 were found in SCADA products, down from 2.8% in 2016. 52.2% of the SCADA vulnerabilities were remotely exploitable, 73.5% had an impact on the integrity of the product, and 61.3% were related to improper input validation.

“Organizations that track and triage vulnerability patching saw no relief in 2017, as it was yet another record-breaking year for vulnerability disclosures. The increasingly difficult task of protecting digital assets has never been so critical to businesses as we continue to see a rise in compromised organizations and data breaches. If your vulnerability intelligence solution didn’t offer information on the more than 20,000 vulnerabilities disclosed in 2017, your organization is at an increased risk”, said Brian Martin, VP of Vulnerability Intelligence for Risk Based Security.


Millions Stolen From Russian, Indian Banks in SWIFT Attacks
19.2.2018 securityweek
Attack

Malicious hackers attempted to steal millions of dollars from banks in Russia and India by abusing the SWIFT global banking network.

A report published last week by Russia’s central bank on the types of attacks that hit financial institutions in 2017 revealed that an unnamed bank was the victim of a successful SWIFT-based attack.

A copy of the report currently posted on the central bank’s website does not specify how much the hackers stole, but Reuters said they had managed to obtain 339.5 million rubles (roughly $6 million).

According to the organization, the number of targeted attacks aimed at lenders increased in 2017 compared to the previous year. Attackers used widely available tools such as Metasploit, Cobalt Strike, Empire, and Mimikatz to achieve their goals – Cobalt Strike was reportedly used to steal more than 1 billion rubles (roughly $17 million).SWIFT attacks hit Indian, Russian banks

The news comes after Russia’s Globex bank admitted in December that hackers had attempted to steal roughly $940,000 through the SWIFT system. The attackers reportedly only managed to steal a fraction of the amount they targeted.

In India, City Union Bank issued a statement on Sunday saying that it had identified three fraudulent transfers abusing the SWIFT payments messaging system. One transfer of $500,000 through a Standard Chartered Bank account in New York to a bank in Dubai was blocked and the money was recovered.

The second transfer of €300,000 ($372,000) was made to an account at a bank based in Turkey via a Standard Chartered Bank account in Germany. The funds were blocked at the Turkish bank and City Union hopes to recover the money.

The third transfer was for $1 million and it went to a Chinese bank through a Bank of America account. City Union Bank said the funds were claimed by someone using forged documents.

The news comes after reports that India’s Punjab National Bank was the victim of a massive $1.7 billion fraud scheme involving the company’s employees. City Union, however, clarified that this was a “cyber attack initiated by international cyber criminals and there is no evidence of internal staff involvement.”

SWIFT-based attacks made many headlines in the past years ever since hackers successfully stole $81 million from Bangladesh’s central bank in early 2016.

The organization behind the SWIFT system, the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication, has taken measures to prevent attacks, but malicious actors have continued to target financial institutions in sophisticated campaigns.

Hackers attempted to steal $60 million from a bank in Taiwan, $12 million from a bank in Ecuador, and $1.1 million from a bank in Vietnam.


Over 30 Lawsuits Filed Against Intel for CPU Flaws
19.2.2018 securityweek
Vulnerebility

More than 30 lawsuits have been filed by Intel customers and shareholders against the chip giant following the disclosure of the Meltdown and Spectre attack methods.

Three class action lawsuits were filed against Intel within a week of the Meltdown and Spectre flaws being disclosed, but the number had reached 32 by February 15, according to an annual report submitted by Intel to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).

Lawsuits have been filed in the United States and other countries, and some complaints also target Intel’s directors and executives.

The company faces 30 class action lawsuits filed by customers who claim to have been harmed by Intel’s actions and/or omissions in connection to Meltdown and Spectre. Two securities class action lawsuits claim the company violated securities laws by making false or misleading statements, which had a negative impact on entities that acquired Intel stock between July 27, 2017 and January 4, 2018, when the processor vulnerabilities were disclosed.

“We dispute the claims described above and intend to defend the lawsuits vigorously,” Intel said. “Given the procedural posture and the nature of these cases, including that the proceedings are in the early stages, that alleged damages have not been specified, that uncertainty exists as to the likelihood of a class or classes being certified or the ultimate size of any class or classes if certified, and that there are significant factual and legal issues to be resolved, we are unable to make a reasonable estimate of the potential loss or range of losses, if any, that might arise from these matters.”

Three shareholder derivative lawsuits have also been filed in California against certain Intel officers and members of the company’s board of directors.

“The complaints allege that the defendants breached their duties to Intel in connection with the disclosure of the security vulnerabilities and the failure to take action in relation to alleged insider trading. The complaints seek to recover damages from the defendants on behalf of Intel,” Intel said.

While lawsuits and negative publicity may change the situation in the future, Intel currently does not expect Meltdown and Spectre to have a material financial impact on its business or operations.

AMD, ARM and Apple, whose processors rely on ARM technology, also face lawsuits over the Meltdown and Spectre vulnerabilities.


90 days have passed, Google discloses unpatched flaw in the Microsoft Edge browser
19.2.2018 securityaffairs
Vulnerebility

Google Project Zero disclosed details of an unpatched flaw in the Edge browser because Microsoft failed to address it within a 90-day deadline.
White hackers at the Google Project Zero have disclosed details of an unpatched vulnerability in the Edge browser because Microsoft failed to address it within a 90-day deadline according to the Google’s disclosure policy.

The flaw could be exploited by attackers to bypass the Arbitrary Code Guard (ACG) that was implemented in Windows 10 Creators Update alongside Code Integrity Guard (CIG).

The security features allow preventing Edge browser exploits from loading and executing malicious code.

“An application can directly load malicious native code into memory by either 1) loading a malicious DLL/EXE from disk or 2) dynamically generating/modifying code in memory. CIG prevents the first method by enabling DLL code signing requirements for Microsoft Edge. This ensures that only properly signed DLLs are allowed to load by a process. ACG then complements this by ensuring that signed code pages are immutable and that new unsigned code pages cannot be created.” states the description published by Microsoft.

Microsoft Edge browser flaw

Google Project Zero researcher Ivan Fratric who discovered the vulnerability demonstrated that the ACG feature can be bypassed. The expert reported the issue to Microsoft on November 17, but the tech giant had initially planned to include a fix in the February Patch Tuesday updates, but evidently, something went wrong because “the fix is more complex than initially anticipated.”

The vulnerability was classified as having “medium” severity, Project Zero has published details of the issue in a blog post.

“If a content process is compromised and the content process can predict on which address JIT process is going to call VirtualAllocEx() next (note: it is fairly predictable), content process can: 1. Unmap the shared memory mapped above above using UnmapViewOfFile() 2. Allocate a writable memory region on the same address JIT server is going to write and write an soon-to-be-executable payload there. 3. When JIT process calls VirtualAllocEx(), even though the memory is already allocated, the call is going to succeed and the memory protection is going to be set to PAGE_EXECUTE_READ.” reads the analysis shared by Google.

In February 2017, Fratric published technical details related to a high severity type confusion vulnerability, tracked as CVE-2017-0037, that could have been exploited by attackers to crash Internet Explorer and Edge browser, and under certain circumstance to execute arbitrary code.


Google Discloses Unpatched Edge Vulnerability
19.2.2018 securityweek
Vulnerebility

Google Project Zero has made public the details of an unpatched vulnerability affecting the Edge web browser after Microsoft failed to release a patch within a 90-day deadline.

Google Project Zero researcher Ivan Fratric has found a way to bypass Arbitrary Code Guard (ACG), a feature added by Microsoft to Edge in Windows 10 Creators Update alongside Code Integrity Guard (CIG).

The features, introduced in February 2017, are designed to prevent browser exploits from executing malicious code.

“An application can directly load malicious native code into memory by either 1) loading a malicious DLL/EXE from disk or 2) dynamically generating/modifying code in memory,” Microsoft explained. “CIG prevents the first method by enabling DLL code signing requirements for Microsoft Edge. This ensures that only properly signed DLLs are allowed to load by a process. ACG then complements this by ensuring that signed code pages are immutable and that new unsigned code pages cannot be created.”

Fratric showed that the ACG feature can be bypassed and informed Microsoft of his findings on or around November 17. The company had initially planned on patching the vulnerability with its February Patch Tuesday updates, but later determined that “the fix is more complex than initially anticipated.”

Microsoft now expects to release a fix on March 13, but the date exceeds Google Project Zero’s 90-day disclosure deadline so the details of the vulnerability have been made public. Project Zero has classified the flaw as having “medium” severity.

This is not the first time Project Zero has disclosed an unpatched vulnerability found by Fratric in Microsoft’s web browsers. In February 2017, it made public details and proof-of-concept (PoC) code for a high severity type confusion issue that could have been exploited to crash Internet Explorer and Edge, and possibly even execute arbitrary code.

The security hole, tracked as CVE-2017-0037, was fixed by Microsoft in March 2017, roughly two weeks after it was disclosed.

Fratric is the creator of a fuzzer named Domato, which last year helped him uncover tens of vulnerabilities in popular web browser engines.


Cybersecurity Plagued by Insufficient Data: White House
19.2.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

Cyberattacks Are Costly, and Things Could Get Worse: US Report

Cyberattacks cost the United States between $57 billion and $109 billion in 2016, a White House report said Friday, warning of a "spillover" effect for the broader economy if the situation worsens.

A report by the White House Council of Economic Advisers sought to quantify what it called "malicious cyber activity directed at private and public entities" including denial of service attacks, data breaches and theft of intellectual property, and sensitive financial and strategic information.

It warned of malicious activity by "nation-states" and specifically cited Russia, China, Iran, and North Korea.

The report noted particular concern over attacks on so-called critical infrastructure, such as highways, power grids, communications systems, dams, and food production facilities which could lead to important spillover impacts beyond the target victims.

"If a firm owns a critical infrastructure asset, an attack against this firm could cause major disruption throughout the economy," the report said.

It added that concerns were high around cyberattacks against the financial and energy sectors.

"These sectors are internally interconnected and interdependent with other sectors as well as robustly connected to the internet, and are thus at a highest risk for a devastating cyberattack that would ripple through the entire economy," it said.

The report offered little in the way of new recommendations on improving cybersecurity, but noted that the situation is hurt by "insufficient data" as well as "underinvestment" in defensive systems by the private sector.

The document was issued a day after US officials blamed Russia for last year's devastating "NotPetya" ransomware attack, calling it a Kremlin effort to destabilize Ukraine which then spun out of control, hitting companies in the US, Europe and elsewhere.

It said Russia, China, North Korea and other nation-states "often engage in sophisticated, targeted attacks," with a specific emphasis on industrial espionage.

"If they have funding needs, they may conduct ransom attacks and electronic thefts of funds," the report said.

But threats were also seen from "hacktivists," or politically motivated groups, as well as criminal organizations, corporate competitors, company insiders and "opportunists."

In an oft-repeated recommendation, the White House report said more data sharing could help thwart some attacks.

"The field of cybersecurity is plagued by insufficient data, largely because firms face a strong disincentive to report negative news," the report said.

"Cyber protection could be greatly improved if data on past data breaches and cyberattacks were more readily shared across firms."


An APFS Filesystem flaw could lead macOS losing data under certain conditions
19.2.2018 securityaffairs Apple

The Apple expert Mike Bombich discovered an APFS Filesystem vulnerability that could lead macOS losing data under certain conditions.
A few days ago a ‘text bomb‘ bug was reported for Apple iOS and macOS apps, the issue can crash any Apple iPhone, iPad Or Mac.

Now the Apple expert Mike Bombich discovered an APFS Filesystem vulnerability that could lead macOS losing data under certain conditions.

The bug ties the way the operating system handles APFS sparse disk images formatted in Apple filesystem format APFS.

An Apple Disk Image is a disk image commonly used by the macOS operating system is “mounted” as a volume within the Finder. It contains the entire contents and structure of a disk volume, such as USB, CD, DVD, hard disk drive, or network share.

Disk images are commonly used by several Mac apps, for example for backup applications or disk cloning.

The expert discovered that APFS sparse disk images don’t properly manage the volume of the “free disk space” from the sparse disk image, the OS doesn’t correctly report “free disk space” respect the real “free disk space” value.

“Earlier this week I noticed that an APFS-formatted sparsebundle disk image volume showed ample free space, despite that the underlying disk was completely full. Curious, I copied a video file to the disk image volume to see what would happen. The whole file copied without error! I opened the file, verified that the video played back start to finish, checksummed the file – as far as I could tell, the file was intact and whole on the disk image.” wrote Mike Bombich. “When I unmounted and remounted the disk image, however, the video was corrupted. If you’ve ever lost data, you know the kick-in-the-gut feeling that would have ensued. Thankfully, I was just running some tests and the file that disappeared was just test data. Taking a closer look, I discovered two bugs in macOS’s “diskimages-helper” service that lead to this result.”

Bombich explained that data are written into the void because the OS doesn’t warn users that there is no enough space on the underlying hard drive to contain his data.

As described by the expert, the misleading data are still accessible for a short period after the write operation, unfortunately after the next system reboot exceeding files become corrupted and inaccessible.

APFS

Bombich is the author of the Mac backup software Carbon Copy Cloner, according to statistics from his software no many users are affected. The expert says that only 7% of all Carbon Copy Cloner users store backups as sparse disk image files and that only 12% of these 7% use APFS-formatted disk images.

The Carbon Copy Cloner software will not support AFPS-formatted sparse disk images until Apple addresses the vulnerability reported by Bombich.

Below a video PoC of the flaw.

“Until Apple resolves this disk images bug, we strongly recommend that people avoid using APFS-formatted sparse disk images for any purpose with any application.” concluded the expert.


Researchers spotted a new malware in the wild, the Saturn Ransomware
19.2.2018 securityaffairs
Ransomware

Researchers at the MalwareHunterTeam spotted a new strain of ransomware called Saturn Ransomware, the name derives from the .saturn extension it appends to the name of the encrypted files.
Currently, the malware requests victims of $300 USD payment that doubles after 7 days.

Once infected a system, the Saturn Ransomware checks if it is running in a virtual environment and eventually it halts the execution to avoid being analyzed by researchers.

Then it performs a series of actions to make impossible for the victims restoring the encrypted files, it deletes shadow volume copies, disables Windows startup repair, and to clear the Windows backup catalog.

Below the command executed by the malicious code:

At this point, the Saturn ransomware is ready to encrypt files having certain file types.

The ransomware such as many other threats uses a Tor payment site that is reported in the ransom note dropped on the machine while the Saturn ransomware is encrypting the files.

“While encrypting the computer, Saturn Ransomware will drop ransom notes named #DECRYPT_MY_FILES#.html and #DECRYPT_MY_FILES#.txt and a key file named #KEY-[id].KEY in each folder that it encrypts a file. The key file is used to login to the TOR ransom site, while the ransom note contains brief information on what has happened to the victims files and a link to the TOR payment site at su34pwhpcafeiztt.onion.” wrote Larwrence Abrams from Bleeping Computer.

Saturn Ransomware
File encrypted by the Saturn Ransomware (Source Bleeping computer)

The Saturn ransomware also drops a #DECRYPT_MY_FILES#.vbs triggers an audio message to the victims, and it sets your Windows desktop background to #DECRYPT_MY_FILES.BMP.

The authentication to TOR site is made by uploading the key file, then users will display the Saturn Decryptor page for the victim that includes detailed instructions.

Researchers are still analyzing the Saturn ransomware, even if it is being actively distributed, it is still unclear what distribution vector threat actors are using to spread it.

Further information, including the Indicators of compromise (IoCs), are available in the blog post published by Bleeping Computer.


Prosecutor Robert Mueller indicted 13 Russians for a massive operation aimed to influence Presidential election
19.2.2018 securityaffairs BigBrothers

The special prosecutor Robert Mueller has accused thirteen Russian nationals of tampering with the 2016 presidential election and charged them with conspiring against the United States.
Thirteen Russian nationals and three Russian entities have been indicted for a massive operation aimed to influence the 2016 Presidential election.

The special prosecutor Robert Mueller has accused the defendants of tampering with the 2016 US presidential election and charged them with conspiring against the United States.
According to the results of the investigation conducted by the prosecutor, the Internet Research Agency, a Russian organization, and the 13 Russians began targeting the United States back in 2014.

Russian nationals used stolen American identities and local computer infrastructure to influence the 2016 Presidential election, the group deliberately denigrate the candidate Clinton to support Trump.

“Certain Defendants traveled to the United States under false pretenses for the purpose of
collecting intelligence to inform Defendants’ operations. Defendants also procured and used
computer infrastructure, based partly in the United States, to hide the Russian origin of their
activities and to avoid detection by U.S. regulators and law enforcement.” reads the Mueller’s indictment.

“Defendant ORGANIZATION had a strategic goal to sow discord in the U.S. political
system, including the 2016 U.S. presidential election. Defendants posted derogatory information
about a number of candidates, and by early to mid-2016, Defendants’ operations included
supporting the presidential campaign of then-candidate Donald J. Trump (“Trump Campaign”) and
disparaging Hillary Clinton.”


The indictment states the Russian organization since April 2014 created a specific section focused on the US population that acted to influence the sentiment of citizens on the candidates through social media platforms, including Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, and YouTube. By 2014,

The group used VPN services to connect from Russia to the US and manage their network of social media accounts.

The organization would use email addresses such as staceyredneck@gmail.com during its activities.

16 Feb

kadhim (^ー^)ノ

@kadhimshubber
Replying to @kadhimshubber
In September 2017, people apparently continue to write emails in which they say: "the FBI busted our activity (not a joke). So, I got preoccupied with covering tracks together with the colleagues" https://www.justice.gov/file/1035477/download … pic.twitter.com/jZCaq61ork


kadhim (^ー^)ノ

@kadhimshubber
Email addresses the Russians allegedly used with their PayPal accounts include: "staceyredneck@gmail.com" and "wokeaztec@outlook.com" https://www.justice.gov/file/1035477/download … pic.twitter.com/7A6pbdM42I

7:23 PM - Feb 16, 2018
View image on Twitter
2
See kadhim (^ー^)ノ's other Tweets
View image on Twitter
The Russian propaganda machine created and controlled numerous social media accounts, one of them is the Twitter account “Tennessee GOP,” which used the
handle @TEN_GOP.

“The @TEN_GOP account falsely claimed to be controlled by a U.S. state
political party. Over time, the @TEN_GOP account attracted more than 100,000 online followers.” continues the Indictment.

The group used stolen identities of US citizens to buy political advertisements on social media, they also recruited Americans to spread derogatory information.

We are facing with a powerful and efficient propaganda machine. defendants and their conspirators
constantly monitored their campaign over social media. They measured the
size of the online U.S. audiences reached by their actions and the types of engagement with the
posts.

The activity of the organization was very active in 2016, when defendants posing as American citizens and communicating with Americans began to gather intelligence to better target their campaign.

“In order to carry out their activities to interfere in US political and electoral processes without detection of their Russian affiliation, the Defendants conspired to obstruct the lawful functions of the United States government through fraud and deceit, including by making expenditures in connection with the 2016 US presidential election without proper regulatory disclosure; failing to register as foreign agents carrying out political activities within the United States; and obtaining visas through false and fraudulent statements,” the indictment reads.

Social media giants Facebook and Twitter are both accused of running ads and promoted content for the groups operated by the Organization.

Twitter has admitted the involvement of thousands of bot accounts in Russian propaganda, the company has deleted 200,000 tweets posted by army of trolls used by the Kremlin.


Effective Tips for Internet Safety for Kids You Must Read
19.2.2018 securityaffairs Safety

Online safety for your kids is very important. However, that doesn’t necessarily mean that it needs to be hard work.
The key thing is to learn how to get parental controls set up properly so that you won’t have to worry as much about online safety when your kids start to use the internet for both school projects and entertainment.

There are many ways that the version of the internet that your kids see can be fine-tuned. One option is to use a free content filter that is offered by all of the major providers.

There are also sophisticated software that is available for sale that you can invest in if you feel the need for a more advanced solution.

In order to determine which is best for you, we will be covering some of the major parental control options that are available to you.

In this article, we will be discussing various parent control options that are available to you. However, keep in mind, that although there are some very useful parental control tools that are available – it is still important for you to watch what your children are doing when they are online as much as you can. There is no substitute when it comes to parental supervision of children.

Content filters

All of the major UK broadband providers, including EE, Virgin Media, TalkTalk, Sky, and BT offer content filters as a standard feature.

They block off sites that contain material that is inappropriate for children, like self-harming, pornography, and other nasty material. Access to sites that are known to contain malware and viruses are also restricted. The best internet packages will have this as standard nowadays.

Which broadband providers offer the best security?

You will need to decide whether or not you want to use the filters when you are getting your broadband first set up. The settings can be changed at any time by simply logging into your account. So you can always change your mind on whether you want to use the filters or not.

Software

Some broadband providers offer parental control software as part of their broadband packages. This type of software is widely available. Content filters are network-level filters and are applied to anyone who uses the connection.

By contrast, parental control software affects only the device that it is installed on. So for example, if you install parent control software on your desktop computer, it will not affect what your children are doing when they are using their tablets and phones.

In addition to filtering inappropriate content out, like gambling-related, violent and pornographic sites, some of this software also lets you monitor the online activity of your children and even restrict what times of days certain websites can be used.

This can definitely come in handy. You will finally have a way of keeping them off of sites like Facebook and YouTube when they are supposed to be doing their homework.

In general, any device that is able to access the internet has its own onboard parental control sets that can be tinkered with before allowing your children to use it.

That is particularly helpful if the broadband company provides you with the software that is the kind that applies to just one device at a time.

For example, Apple’s iPad and iPhone, have a broad range of restrictions, and you cause the settings menu to easily access them. You can lock them in place and protect them using a password.

Those devices, in addition to many others, also allow you to disable paid transactions inside of games and apps. That way your kids can run up any bills without you knowing about it!

There is no such thing as a flawless system. That is why it is a very good idea to make use of all of the different tools that are available to you.

When you place restrictions on the way devices can be used and also install software, it makes it double unlikely that your children will be exposed to any unsuitable or harmful material while they are online.

This will help to put your mind at ease, which is so important these days with all of the dangers lurking online.

Web browsers

At times your web browser, which is the program that is used for browsing the internet, allows you to block out certain kinds of websites.

Those settings may be used in conjunction with whatever software you have installed on your computer already which provides you with an added layer of protection.

For example, when the Google Chrome browser is used – which is a free download that is available to use – it includes a feature that allows you to set up different account profiles for managers and supervised users, which gives you full control of how your children can use the internet when they are online.

Once again it is best to use these features of the browser in combination with other parental controls, especially since the settings apply only to the Chrome browser. More tech-savvy, older children can quickly discover a workaround, such as downloading another web browser other than Google Chrome.

Websites

On certain internet platforms and websites, like iTunes, YouTube, and Google, there is a family-friendly filter that can be switched on that should block out any content that isn’t suited for children to see.

Once again, keep in mind that there is no such thing as a flawless system so that is why it makes sense to use these features in combination with other kinds of parental controls.

This is only really effective to use with very young children since older kids can figure out how the filter can be turned off if they get curious enough and want to look at things that they know they aren’t allowed to.

General advice on how to get safe online

Get Safe Online, an internet safety initiative has provided the advice below. We hope you find it helpful to manage your children’s experiences online.

Set some boundaries even before your child gets their first internet connected device – whether it is a console, laptop, tablet, or mobile device. After they have their device, it might be harder to change the settings or how they use it.

Network-level parental controls are offered by all major providers. When you switch to a different broadband package, you will have an option for turning content filtering on, so that adult material is blocked.

Keep in mind that doesn’t mean all bad stuff will be blocked – there is no such thing as a fully effective filter. You will need to stay vigilant and supervise your children.

Have a discussion with your children about what is appropriate and safe to share and post online.

All videos, photos, and comments are part of a person’s ‘digital footprint’ and may be seen by anybody and be available forever on the internet.

Speak with your children about the type of content they view online, along with the precautions they need to take when they are communicating with others online – for example, to never share personal information with strangers.

Keep in mind that services such as YouTube and Facebook have a reason for having minimum age limits of 13 years old. Don’t cave in to pressure – speak with your child’s school and other parents to be sure everyone is on the same page.

Explain to your children that being online doesn’t provide them with protection or anonymity. Make sure that you clearly tell them that they shouldn’t do anything over the internet that they wouldn’t feel completely comfortable doing in real life.


COINHOARDER criminal gang made an estimated $50 million with a Bitcoin phishing campaign
19.2.2018 securityaffairs
Phishing

Researchers with Cisco Talos have monitored a bitcoin phishing campaign conducted by a criminal gang tracked as Coinhoarder that made an estimated $50 million by exploiting Google AdWords.
Researchers with Cisco Talos have monitored a bitcoin phishing campaign for several months with the help of the Ukraine Cyberpolice.

The gang, tracked as Coinhoarder, has made an estimated $50 million by exploiting Google AdWords to trick netizens into visiting Bitcoin phishing sites. This is the element that characterized this phishing campaign, Coinhoarder attackers used geo-targeting filters for their ads, the researchers noticed that hackers were targeting mostly Bitcoin owners in Africa.

The Ukrainian authorities located and shut down the servers hosting some of the phishing websites used by crooks. The phishing sites were hosted on the servers of a bulletproof hosting provider located in Ukraine, Highload Systems. The operation was temporarily disrupted but the police haven’t arrested any individual.

“Cisco has been tracking a bitcoin theft campaign for over 6 months. The campaign was discovered internally and researched with the aid of an intelligence sharing partnership with Ukraine Cyberpolice. The campaign was very simple and after initial setup the attackers needed only to continue purchasing Google AdWords to ensure a steady stream of victims.” reads the analysis published by Talos. “This campaign targeted specific geographic regions and allowed the attackers to amass millions in revenue through the theft of cryptocurrency from victims.”

The Coinhoarder group used Google Adwords for black SEO purposes, on February 24, 2017, researchers at Cisco observed a massive phishing campaign hosted in Ukraine targeting the popular Bitcoin wallet site blockchain.info with over 200,000 client queries. Crooks used Google Adwords to poison user search results in order to steal users’ wallets.

Unfortunately, this attack scheme is becoming quite common in the criminal ecosystem, hackers implement it to target many different crypto wallets and exchanges via malicious ads.

The COINHOARDER gang leveraged the typosquatting technique, the hackers used domains imitating the Blockchain.info Bitcoin wallet service in conjunction SSL signed phishing sites in order to appear as legitimate. Based on the number of queries, the researchers confirmed that this is one of the biggest campaigns targeting Blockchain.info to date.

“The COINHOARDER group has made heavy use of typosquatting and brand spoofing in conjunction SSL signed phishing sites in order to appear convincing. We have also observed the threat actors using internationalized domain names.” continues the analysis. “These domains are used in what are called homograph attacks, where an international letter or symbol looks very similar to one in English. Here are some examples from this campaign.

The Punycode (internationalized) version is on the left, the translated (homographic) version on the right:

xn–blockchan-d5a[.]com → blockchaìn[.]com

xn–blokchan-i2a[.]info → blokchaín[.]info”

Talos researchers revealed that one campaign that was conducted between September and December 2017, the group made around $10 million.

“While working with Ukraine law enforcement, we were able to identify the attackers’ Bitcoin wallet addresses and thus, we could track their activity for the period of time between September 2017 to December 2017. In this period alone, we quantified around $10M was stolen.In one specific run, they made $2M within 3.5 week period. ” states Cisco Talos.

Further technical details on the campaign, including Indicators of Compromise are included in the analysis published by Cisco Talos.


Germany’s defense minister: Cyber security is going to be the main focus of this decade.
19.2.2018 securityaffairs BigBrothers

On Saturday, Germany defense minister Ursula von der Leyen told CNBC that cyber attacks are the greatest challenge threatening global stability.
The cybersecurity is a pillar of modern states, the string of recent massive attacks including NotPetya and WannaCry is the demonstration that we are all potential targets.

Cyber attacks could hit governments, private companies and citizens in every time and from every where causing severe problems to the victims and huge financial losses. The cyber risk is directly linked to geopolitical, environmental, technological, and economic risks. A cyber attack could destabilize governments worldwide, it can get a business out of the business.

When journalists asked about the “single greatest threat to global stability,” to the German defense minister, she confirmed the disconcerting scenario.

“I think it’s the cyber threats because whatever adversaries you can think of and even if you talk about Daesh (the terrorist group) they use the cyber domain to fight against us.” Germany’s defense minister Ursula von der Leyen told CNBC.

Germany defense minister urges European states to invest in collective defense

“This decade will be the decade of improvement in cyber security and information ruling,” she added.


Governments and companies are already investing to improve the resilience to cyber attacks of their networks. The Germany defense minister also noticed that Governments are also working to improve their offensive cyber capabilities.

The US and UK are reportedly using cyber soldiers to fight the Islamic State.

The video interview is available at the following link:

https://www.cnbc.com/video/2018/02/17/cyber-threats-biggest-threat-to-stabililty-german-defense-minister-says.html


JenkinsMiner made $3.4 million in a few months by compromising Jenkins servers
19.2.2018 securityaffairs Hacking

Hacker Group Makes $3 Million by Installing Monero Miners on Jenkins Servers
A criminal organization has made $3.4 million by compromising Jenkins servers and installing a Monero cryptocurrency miner dubbed JenkinsMiner.

“The perpetrator, allegedly of Chinese origin, has been running the XMRig miner on many versions of Windows, and has already secured him over $3 million worth of Monero crypto-currency. As if that wasn’t enough though, he has now upped his game by targeting the powerful Jenkins CI server, giving him the capacity to generate even more coins.” states a blog post published by CheckPoint.

Jenkins is the most popular open source automation server, it is maintained by CloudBees and the Jenkins community.

The automation server supports developers build, test and deploy their applications, it has more than 133,000 active installations worldwide with more than 1 million users.

Jenkins servers

According to the researchers, threat actors behind the massive mining operation were leveraging the CVE-2017-1000353 RCE vulnerability in the Jenkins Java deserialization implementation.

The vulnerability is due to lack of validation of the serialized object, its exploitation allowed the attackers to make Jenkins servers download and install the JenkinsMiner.

“The operation uses a hybridization of a Remote Access Trojan (RAT) and XMRig miner over the past months to target victims around the globe. The miner is capable of running on many platforms and Windows versions, and it seems like most of the victims so far are personal computers. With every campaign, the malware has gone through several updates and the mining pool used to transfer the profits is also changed.” continues the post.

Most of the downloads for the JenkinsMiner are from IP address located in China and assigned to the Huaian government information center, of course, we are not able to determine if the server was compromised or explicitly used by state-sponsored hackers.

Jenkinminer

Further details and IoCs are included in the analysis published by CheckPoint.

In January, security expert Mikail Tunç analyzed Jenkins servers exposed online discovering that many instances leak sensitive information.

Tunç highlighted that Jenkins typically requires credentials to the code repository and access to an environment in which to deploy the code, usually GitHub, AWS, and Azure. Failure to configure the application correctly can expose data to serious risk.

The researcher discovered that many misconfigured systems provided guest or administrator permissions by default, while others allowed guest or admin access to anyone who registered an account.


Oracle to Acquire Cloud Security Firm Zenedge
17.2.2018 securityweek IT

Oracle said Thursday that it has agreed to acquire cloud security firm Zenedge for an undisclosed sum.

Zenedge offers a suite of services to protect systems deployed in the cloud, on-premise or in hybrid hosting environments, with solutions including a Web Application Firewall (WAF), Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) protection, and products to secure applications, networks, databases and APIs from attacks. Additionally, the company provides outsourced security monitoring and mitigating attacks

Powered by artificial intelligence (AI), Zenedge's products and 24/7 virtual Security Operations Center (SOC) defend over 800,000 web properties and networks globally.

Oracle says the acquisition of Zenedge expands Oracle Cloud Infrastructure and Oracle's Domain Name System (DNS) capabilities, adding application and network protection that augments existing Oracle security services and partnerships.

“The combination with Zenedge equips Oracle Cloud Infrastructure with integrated, next-generation network and infrastructure security, to address modern security threats,” claims Don Johnson, Senior Vice President of Product Development, Oracle.

According to Crunchbase, Zenedge has raised approximately $13.7 million in funding.

In September 2016, Oracle announced its acquisition of Cloud Access Security Broker (CASB) firm Palerra for an undisclosed sum, followed by an acquisition of Web traffic management firm Dyn in late 2016.


Global Powers Must Address 'Episodes of Cyberwar': UN Chief
17.2.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

World leaders must lay the groundwork on how countries respond to cyberattacks that have proven to be a daunting threat, whether by state actors or criminal enterprises, UN secretary general Antonio Guterres said Friday.

"It is clear we are witnessing in a more or less disguised way cyberwars between states, episodes of cyberwar between states," Guterres said during one of the opening speeches at the Munich Security Conference.

"It's high time to have a serious discussion about the international legal framework in which cyberwars take place," he said.

"The fact is we haven't been able to discuss whether or not the Geneva convention applies to cyberwar and whether international humanitarian law applies to cyberwar."

The United States and Britain on Thursday blamed the Russian military for last year's devastating "NotPetya" ransomware attack, calling it a Kremlin effort to destabilise Ukraine, which spun out of control.

The attacks ended up crippling computer networks in the United States and Europe, including those of some big companies.

Washington has also blamed North Korea for the huge "WannaCry" ransomware attack last May in which more than 300,000 computers were struck in some 150 nations.

"How to respond in cases of permanent violations of cybersecurity? What are the different uses that criminal, terror organisations are making of the web?" Guterres said.

Finding a consensus on how to respond to such attacks is urgent, he said, "especially now that artificial intelligence, that is providing enormous potential for economic development, social development, for the well-being of all, is also in the opinion of many an existential threat for humankind."

"It is necessary to bring together governments, the private sector, those involved in civil society, academics, research centres, in order to be able to establish at least some basic protocols to allow the web to be an effective instrument for the good," he said.


Unknown hackers stole $6 million from a Russian bank via SWIFT system last year
17.2.2018 securityaffairs Hacking

A new attack against the SWIFT system made the headlines again, unknown hackers have stolen 339.5 million roubles (roughly $6 million) from a Russian bank last year.
The news of the attack against the international payments messaging system was reported on Friday by the Russian central bank, this is the last incident of a long string of cyber heists.

“The volume of unsanctioned operations as a result of this attack amounted to 339.5 million roubles,” states the Russian central bank.

“The central bank said it had been sent information about “one successful attack on the work place of a SWIFT system operator.” reported the Reuters agency.

According to a spokesman for the central bank, hackers took control of a computer at a Russian bank and transferred the money to an account they controlled through the payment messaging system.

The spokesman did not provide details about the attack, he quoted Artem Sychev, deputy head of the central bank’s security department, as saying the hackers implemented “a common scheme”.

“When a case of potential fraud is reported to us, we offer our assistance to the affected user to help secure its environment,” said Natasha de Teran, a spokeswoman for SWIFT.

SWIFT highlighted that its “own systems” have never been compromised by attackers in past attacks.

“Brussels-based SWIFT said late last year digital heists were becoming increasingly prominent as hackers use more sophisticated tools and techniques to launch new attacks.” continues the Reuters.

This isn’t the only cyber attacks against a Russian bank that attempted to steal money through the SWIFT system, in December, hackers tried to steal 55 million roubles from Russian state bank Globex.

The string of attacks began with the cyber attack against Bangladesh Bank in February 2016 that resulted in the theft of $81 million.

Even if the SWIFT hasn’t revealed the exact number of victims of the SWIFT hackers, details on some attacks were revealed, such as the attack on Taiwan’s Far Eastern International Bank.


119,000 Scanned IDs of FedEx-owned company Bongo International’s customers exposed online
17.2.2018 securityaffairs Incindent

Researchers discovered an Amazon S3 bucket contains personal information and scans of IDs of some 119,000 US and international citizens.
It has happened again, researchers discovered another unsecured Amazon S3 bucket holding a huge trove of data that was exposed online. The Amazon S3 bucket contains personal information and scans of IDs of some 119,000 US and international citizens, the discovered was made once again by Kromtech security experts earlier this month.

The data belongs to the FedEx-owned company Bongo International that provides support the online sales of North American retailers and brands to consumers in abroad. Bongo was acquired in 2014 by FedEx and was operating with the name FedEx Cross-Border International until it went out of the business in April 2017.

The AWS bucket contained more than 112,000 files, unencrypted information and ID scans of customers from many countries, including the US, Mexico, Canada, various EU countries, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Japan, Malaysia, China, Australia.

“Among other stuff, it contained more than 119 thousands of scanned documents of US and international citizens, such as passports, driving licenses, security IDs etc. IDs were accompanied by scanned “Applications for Delivery of Mail Through Agent” forms (PS Form 1583) – which also contained names, home addresses, phone numbers and zip codes.” reads the blog post published by the company.

ZDNet analyzed the documents and found scans of drivers’ licenses, national ID cards, work ID cards, voting cards, utility bills, vehicle registration forms, medical insurance cards, firearms licences, US military identification cards, and credit cards that customers used to verify their identity with the FedEx division.

“Among the exposed files, ZDNet confirmed drivers’ licenses, national ID cards, and work ID cards, voting cards, and utility bills. We also found resumes, vehicle registration forms, medical insurance cards, firearms licences, a few US military identification cards, and even a handful of credit cards that customers used to verify their identity with the FedEx division.” wrote Zack Whittaker on ZDNet.

“One identity card, when we checked, revealed the details of a senior official at the Netherlands’ Ministry of Defense.”

It seems that the Amazon S3 bucket includes data related to anybody who used Bongo International services between 2009 and 2012 and the bad news is that it has been available for public access for many years. As said, FexEx bought the company in 2014, it is likely it was not aware of the data leak at the time of the acquisition.

Amazon S3 bucket

Kromtech tried to contact FedEx without success, the company removed the S3 bucket only after its existence was publicly disclosed.

“After a preliminary investigation, we can confirm that some archived Bongo International account information located on a server hosted by a third-party, public cloud provider is secure,” said FedEx spokesperson Jim McCluskey. “The data was part of a service that was discontinued after our acquisition of Bongo. We have found no indication that any information has been misappropriated and will continue our investigation.”

In October 2017, the Kromtech Security Center released a free scan tool that could allow admins to identify and secure Amazon S3 Buckets belonging to their organizations.

Let me suggest reading the guide published by the company to explain how to secure Amazon S3 buckets.


Oracle WebLogic Server Flaw Exploited to Deliver Crypto-Miners
16.2.2018 securityweek
Vulnerebility  Exploit  CoinMine

Threat actors are exploiting a recently patched vulnerability in Oracle WebLogic Server to infect systems with crypto-currency mining malware, FireEye reports.

Identified as CVE-2017-10271, the vulnerability resides in the WebLogic Server Security Service (WLS Security) in Oracle WebLogic Server versions 12.2.1.2.0 and older, and was addressed by Oracle it its October 2017 Critical Patch Update (CPU).

After proof-of-concept code exploiting the bug was made public in December, activity associated with the exploitation of this vulnerability increased in volume, FireEye's researchers say. Successful exploitation of the flaw on unpatched systems allows attackers to remotely execute arbitrary code.

“We saw evidence of organizations located in various countries – including the United States, Australia, Hong Kong, United Kingdom, India, Malaysia, and Spain, as well as those from nearly every industry vertical – being impacted by this activity,” FireEye reported.

The crypto-currency market boomed recently, and cybercriminals have not been shy in their attempts to take advantage of the market. However, actors involved in crypto-currency mining operations don’t normally target specific organizations, but rather launch attacks that are opportunistic in nature.

Attackers abusing CVE-2017-10271 to infect targeted systems with crypto-miners used various tactics to achieve their purpose, the researchers discovered. Some of the incidents, for example, used PowerShell to drop the miner directly onto the victim’s system and leveraged ShellExecute() for execution.

In other attacks, PowerShell scripts were used to deliver the miner, instead of downloading the executable directly. In addition to downloading the miner, the script would also attempt to achieve persistence through scheduled tasks.

The script would delete the tasks created by other crypto-miners and would kill processes associated with those programs, in addition to being able to connect to mining pools with wallet key. It would also limit CPU usage to avoid suspicion.

Tactics employed in other attacks also involved the use of tools such as Mimikatz and EternalBlue for lateral movement across Windows environments.

The malware would first determine whether the system is 32-bit or 64-bit, to fetch a specific PowerShell script from the command and control (C&C) server. Next, it checks all network adapters and attempts to connect to every system in the network using extracted credentials, to run a PowerShell to drop and run the malware on the targeted system.

The malware uses WMI (Windows Management Instrumentation) for persistence and can perform a Pass-the-Hash attack using NTLM information derived from Mimikatz, to download and execute the malware on remote machines. It sends the stolen credentials to a remote server using an HTTP GET request.

If it fails moving laterally, the malware uses the PingCastle MS17-010 scanner to determine whether the target is vulnerable to EternalBlue.

In scenarios targeting Linux machines, the vulnerability would be exploited to deliver shell scripts that include functionality similar to that of PowerShell scripts. They would attempt to kill already running crypto-miners and then download and execute the malware, in addition to creating a cron job to maintain persistence.

“Use of cryptocurrency mining malware is a popular tactic leveraged by financially-motivated cyber criminals to make money from victims. We’ve observed one threat actor mining around 1 XMR/day, demonstrating the potential profitability and reason behind the recent rise in such attacks,” FireEye says.

Although they might be seen as less risky when compared to ransomware operations, crypto-currency mining malware does pose a variety of risks. Systems infected with crypto-miners might experience slowed performance, but such operations could also be hiding additional malware.


U.S. Energy Department Announces Office for Cyber, Energy Security
16.2.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

The U.S. Department of Energy announced this week that it’s creating a new Office of Cybersecurity, Energy Security, and Emergency Response (CESER).

The new office will be led by an assistant secretary who will report to the undersecretary of energy. The role of the assistant secretary will be to focus on energy infrastructure security and support the DoE’s expanded national security responsibilities.

The CESER office will help the DoE efficiently coordinate preparedness and response to both manmade and natural threats.U.S. Department of Energy launches Office of Cybersecurity, Energy Security, and Emergency Response

“DOE plays a vital role in protecting our nation’s energy infrastructure from cyber threats, physical attack and natural disaster, and as Secretary, I have no higher priority,” said U.S. Secretary of Energy Rick Perry. “This new office best positions the Department to address the emerging threats of tomorrow while protecting the reliable flow of energy to Americans today.”

U.S. President Donald Trump has proposed a budget of $30.6 billion for the DoE, including $96 million allocated for bolstering the department’s cybersecurity and energy security efforts. Overall, the current administration wants to invest $80 billion in IT and cybersecurity, which represents a 5.2 percent increase compared to the previous fiscal year.

Energy facilities in the United States and the Energy Department itself have often been targeted by malicious hackers in the past years.

In response to the increasing threat, the DoE announced a few months ago its intention to invest more than $20 million in cybersecurity, including tools and technologies for enhancing cybersecurity, communication systems for resilient grid architectures, energy delivery systems that can adapt to survive a cyber incident, partnerships for vulnerability mitigation, and identifying energy delivery systems that are inadvertently accessible from the Web.


U.S. Government Contractors Score Poorly on Cyber Risk Tests
16.2.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

Report Analyzes Cyber Risk of Federal Supply Chain

Attacks against the supply chain are not uncommon. It represents the soft underbelly of large organizations that are otherwise well defended. The federal government is not an exception -- in fact, federal agencies are especially reliant on their supply chain; and the security posture of that supply chain is of national importance.

This importance is not unrecognized. The May 2017 presidential Executive Order specified that the supply chain be included in security improvements: it called for a report, "on cybersecurity risks facing the defense industrial base, including its supply chain, and United States military platforms, systems, networks, and capabilities, and recommendations for mitigating these risks."

BitSight this week published an analysis of the security posture of the federal supply chain following the executive order. BitSight is a firm that examines and rates companies' security posture by analyzing visible evidence. It sees indicators of compromise, infected machines, improper configuration, poor security hygiene and potentially harmful user behaviors. From such evidence, it is able to see and compare different organizations. It concludes that the federal supply chain continues to provide a soft underbelly for attacks against federal agencies.

While federal agencies are improving their own security stance, their supply chain is lagging. For its analysis, BitSight researchers took a random sample of over 1,200 U.S. federal government contractors across a range of sectors, and compared the results with the performance of over 120 U.S. federal agencies.

It found a mean performance gap of at least 15 points between the agencies and their contractors. BitSight's ratings are calculated on a scale of 250-900, where a higher score reflects a stronger security posture. "There is a significant gap between the security performance of U.S. federal agencies and their contractors," concludes the analysis. "The mean rating for agencies as of January 2018 was 725. This is markedly higher than any of the other sector of contractors for the U.S. federal government observed in this study."

This mean rating disguises some concerning specifics. For example, nearly one in five users at Technology and Aerospace/Defense contractors have an outdated internet browser, making these employees and their organizations highly susceptible to new variants of malware. "High-profile vulnerabilities like Spectre can exploit outdated browsers as an attack to intercept or compromise data," warns BitSight. "Updating to the latest browser, operating system, or software package is critical to mitigating risks."

Individual risk vectors are graded on a scale from 'A' to 'F'. "Nearly 50% of contractors have a BitSight grade below C for the Protective Technology subcategory of the NIST Cybersecurity Framework," states the report. "This data suggests that many contractors are not implementing best practices for network security, encryption, and email security." Engineering was the worst performing sector in this area, with only 4% achieving an A rate. This compares to 38% of the federal agencies achieving an A grade (which is almost three times the average second-best rate of 13% for Business Services).

Botnet infections are another worrying area. It was highlighted in the Trump executive order, which demanded action "to improve the resilience of the internet and communications ecosystem and to encourage collaboration with the goal of dramatically reducing threats perpetrated by automated and distributed attacks (e.g., botnets)."

Here there is less difference between the agencies and their contractors -- in fact both the Business Services (80%) and Aerospace/Defense (74%) sectors achieved more A grades than the Federal Agencies (73%). However, only Aerospace/Defense equaled the agencies in the low number of F and D grades (both at 4%). In general, however, far more of the subcontractors scored B and below than did the agencies. For reference, BitSight claims, "an organization receiving a B or lower in this category is more than twice as likely to experience a data breach."

It goes on to suggest, "This data suggests that these organizations have ineffective security programs in place and may be experiencing ongoing data breaches."

Security of the supply chain is a problematic issue for all organizations. This BitSight reports suggests that it is a serious problem for federal agencies. “Tens of thousands of government contractors hold sensitive data or perform services on behalf of federal agencies," says Jacob Olcott, VP of Strategic Partnerships at BitSight. "The U.S. government must be focused on evaluating, monitoring and improving the cyber hygiene of these contractors. Recent contractor regulations, like the new DOD requirements, are a start, but are too focused on check-the-box compliance. Cyber is a dynamic risk. By leveraging objective data and continuously monitoring the supply chain, the federal government will better comprehend the danger within its own ecosystem and begin to meaningfully mitigate this risk.”

Cambridge, Mass.-based BitSight Technologies raised $40 million in a Series C funding round in September 2016, bringing the total raised to $95 million.


OpenSSL alpha adds TLS 1.3 support in the alpha version of OpenSSL 1.1.1
16.2.2018 securityaffairs Krypto

OpenSSL adds TLS 1.3 (Transport Layer Security) supports in the alpha version of OpenSSL 1.1.1 that was announced this week.
OpenSSL adds TLS 1.3 supports in the alpha version of OpenSSL 1.1.1 that was announced this week. TLS protocol was designed to allow client/server applications to communicate over the Internet in a secure way preventing message forgery, eavesdropping, and tampering.

“OpenSSL 1.1.1 is currently in alpha. OpenSSL 1.1.1 pre release 1 has now been made available.” states the OpenSSL’s announcement.

“This OpenSSL pre-release has been provided for testing ONLY. It should NOT be used for security critical purposes. The alpha release is available for download via HTTP and FTP from the following master locations (you can find the various FTP mirrors under https://www.openssl.org/source/mirror.html)”

The first Internet-Draft dates back to April 2014, in January it was presented the 23 and will expire on July 9, 2018.

One of the most debated problems when dealing with TLS is the role of so-called middleboxes, many companies need to inspect the traffic for security purposes and TLS 1.3 makes it very hard.

“The reductive answer to why TLS 1.3 hasn’t been deployed yet is middleboxes: network appliances designed to monitor and sometimes intercept HTTPS traffic inside corporate environments and mobile networks. Some of these middleboxes implemented TLS 1.2 incorrectly and now that’s blocking browsers from releasing TLS 1.3. However, simply blaming network appliance vendors would be disingenuous.” reads a blog post published by Cloudflare in December that explained the difficulties of mass deploying for the TLS 1.3.

According to the tests conducted by the IETF working group in December 2017, there was around a 3.25 percent failure rate of TLS 1.3 client connections.

TLS 1.3 will deprecate old cryptographic algorithms entirely, this is the best way to prevent the exploiting of vulnerabilities that affect the protocol and that can be mitigated only when users implement a correct configuration.

In the last few years, researchers discovered several critical issues in the protocol that have been exploited in attacks.

OpenSSL maintainers have completely redesigned the OpenSSL random number generator in the new version.

The new OpenSSL release also includes the implementation for SHA3 and multi-prime RSA, and the support for the SipHash set of pseudorandom functions.


BGP Flaws Patched in Quagga Routing Software
16.2.2018 securityweek
Vulnerebility

Several vulnerabilities that could lead to denial-of-service (DoS), information disclosure, and remote code execution have been patched this week in the Quagga routing software suite.

Quagga implements the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF), Routing Information Protocol (RIP), Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) and Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS) protocols for Unix-like platforms, particularly Linux, Solaris, FreeBSD and NetBSD.

Quagga developers and the CERT Coordination Center (CERT/CC) at Carnegie Mellon University announced this week that Quagga 1.2.3 patches several vulnerabilities affecting the BGP daemon (bpgd).

One of the more serious flaws, rated critical by CERT/CC based on its CVSS score, is CVE-2018-5379, a double-free memory corruption issue related to the processing of certain UPDATE messages containing cluster-list or unknown attributes.

“This issue can be triggered by an optional/transitive UPDATE attribute, that all conforming eBGP speakers should pass along. This means this may triggerable in many affected Quagga bgpd processes across a wide area of a network, because of just one UPDATE message,” Quagga developers explained. “This issue could result in a crash of bgpd, or even allow a remote attacker to gain control of an affected bgpd process.”

Another vulnerability, CVE-2018-5381, can be exploited to cause bgpd to enter an infinite loop and stop responding until it’s restarted. “BGP sessions will drop and not be reestablished,” developers said.

Quagga 1.2.3 also patches CVE-2018-5378, a security hole that can lead to sensitive data from the bgpd process being sent over the network to a configured peer. This can also cause the bgpd process to crash.

The last vulnerability patched by the latest Quagga release is CVE-2018-5378, which developers say has “very low” impact.

Linux distributions, including Ubuntu, Debian and Red Hat, have started publishing advisories describing these vulnerabilities. Regarding CVE-2018-5379, Red Hat said “Glibc's heap protection mitigations render this issue more difficult to exploit, though bypasses may still be possible.”


A Single-Character Message Can Crash Any Apple iPhone, iPad Or Mac
16.2.2018 thehackernews  Apple
Only a single character can crash your iPhone and block access to the Messaging app in iOS as well as popular apps like WhatsApp, Facebook Messenger, Outlook for iOS, and Gmail.
First spotted by Italian Blog Mobile World, a potentially new severe bug affects not only iPhones but also a wide range of Apple devices, including iPads, Macs and even Watch OS devices running the latest versions of their operating software.
Like previous 'text bomb' bug, the new flaw can easily be exploited by anyone, requiring users to send only a single character from Telugu—a native Indian language spoken by about 70 million people in the country.


Once the recipient receives a simple message containing the symbol or typed that symbol into the text editor, the character immediately instigates crashes on iPhones, iPads, Macs, Apple Watches and Apple TVs running Apple's iOS Springboard.
Apps that receive the text bomb tries to load the character, but fails and refuses to function properly until the character is removed—which usually can be done by deleting the entire conversation.
iphone-crash-telugu-character
The easiest way to delete the offending message is by asking someone else to send a message to the app that is crashing due to the text bomb. This would allow you to jump directly into the notification and delete the entire thread containing the character.
The character can disable third-party apps like iMessage, Slack, Facebook Messenger, WhatsApp, Gmail, and Outlook for iOS, as well as Safari and Messages for the macOS versions.
Telegram and Skype users appear to be unaffected by the text bomb bug.


Apple was made aware of the text bomb bug at least three days ago, and the company plans to address the issue in an iOS update soon before the release of iOS 11.3 this spring.
The public beta version of iOS 11.3 is unaffected.
Since so many apps are affected by the new text bomb, bad people can use the bug to target Apple users via email or messaging or to create mass chaos by spamming the character across an open social platform.


U.S., Canada, Australia Attribute NotPetya Attack to Russia
16.2.2018 securityweek  
Ransomware

The United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand have joined the United Kingdom in officially blaming Russia for the destructive NotPetya attack launched last summer. Moscow has denied the accusations.

In a statement released on Thursday, the White House attributed the June 2017 attack to the Russian military and described it as “the most destructive and costly cyber-attack in history.”

“The attack, dubbed ‘NotPetya,’ quickly spread worldwide, causing billions of dollars in damage across Europe, Asia, and the Americas,” the White House Press Secretary stated. “It was part of the Kremlin’s ongoing effort to destabilize Ukraine and demonstrates ever more clearly Russia’s involvement in the ongoing conflict. This was also a reckless and indiscriminate cyber-attack that will be met with international consequences.”

According to the Australian government, the conclusion that threat actors sponsored by Russia are responsible for the cyberattack was reached based on information from its domestic intelligence agencies and consultation with the U.S. and U.K.

“The Australian Government condemns Russia’s behaviour, which posed grave risks to the global economy, to government operations and services, to business activity and the safety and welfare of individuals,” stated Angus Taylor, Australia’s Minister for Law Enforcement and Cybersecurity. “The Australian Government is further strengthening its international partnerships through an International Cyber Engagement Strategy to deter and respond to the malevolent use of cyberspace.”

Canada’s Communications Security Establishment (CSE) also accused Russia of launching the NotPetya attack based on its own assessment.

“Canada condemns the use of the NotPetya malware to indiscriminately attack critical financial, energy, government, and infrastructure sectors around the world in June 2017,” said CSE Chief Greta Bossenmaier. “As previously stated, the Government of Canada continues to strongly oppose the use of cyberspace for reckless and destructive criminal activities. We remain committed to working with our allies and partners to maintain the open, reliable and secure use of cyber space.”

New Zealand’s Government Communications Security Bureau (GCSB) said that while the country was not directly targeted by NotPetya, the incident did cause disruption to some organizations that had rushed to update their systems after news of the attack broke.

New Zealand has joined the other Five Eyes countries in condemning the attack, but its statement suggests that its attribution of the incident to Russia is based solely on information provided by GCSB’s international partners.

British Foreign Office Minister for Cyber Security Lord Tariq Ahmad said Russia “showed a continued disregard for Ukrainian sovereignty” by launching the NotPetya attack.

Moscow has denied the accusations, describing them as unsubstantiated and groundless. “This is nothing more than the continuation of the Russophobic campaign lacking any evidence,” said Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov.

The NotPetya malware (also known as PetrWrap, exPetr, GoldenEye and Diskcoder.C) affected tens of thousands of systems around the world. Researchers initially believed NotPetya was a piece of ransomware, but a closer analysis revealed that it was actually a destructive wiper.

Rosneft, AP Moller-Maersk, Merck, FedEx, Mondelez International, Nuance Communications, Reckitt Benckiser, and Saint-Gobain reported losing hundreds of millions of dollars due to the attack.

Last year, Five Eyes countries and Japan officially accused North Korea of launching the WannaCry attack.


'DoubleDoor' IoT Botnet Uses Two Backdoor Exploits
16.2.2018 securityweek   BotNet

A newly discovered Internet of Things (IoT) botnet is using two exploits to ensure it can not only bypass authentication on targeted devices, but also render additional protections useless, NewSky Security has discovered.

Dubbed DoubleDoor, the botnet allows attackers to takeover devices even if the user has authentication enabled and has added a firewall for additional protection. Specifically, the malware abuses CVE-2015–7755, a Juniper Networks SmartScreen OS exploit, and CVE-2016–10401, a Zyxel modem backdoor exploit (also abused by the Hide ‘N Seek botnet).

What NewSky Security discovered was that the botnet first deploys the infamous Juniper Networks exploit, which essentially allows it to get past firewall authentication. The backdoor was initially discovered in the ScreenOS software running on NetScreen firewalls.

Through this backdoor, the telnet and SSH daemons of Netscreen firewalls become accessible with the hardcoded password <<< %s(un=’%s’) = %u and any username, regardless of whether a valid one or not. In the initial attack cycle of DoubleDoor, the attack was implemented using the username “netscreen,” NewSky's researchers say.

Next, the botnet attempts to deploy the backdoor for ZyXEL PK5001Z devices, which is pretty straight forward as well, using a hardcoded su password as zyad5001. This is a privilege escalation exploit, and the botnet’s operators were also observed performing a “password based attack to get a basic privilege account like admin:CenturyL1nk before going for the superuser,” the researchers say.

The DoubleDoor botnet was also observed performing reconnaissance to ensure the attack was successful and control of the IoT device was achieved.

“DoubleDoor botnet takes care of this, by using a randomized string in every attack. Lack of any standard string will make sure it is not very easy to classify the recon activity as malicious. The strings have one thing in common though, they are always 8 in length,” the security researchers note.

The botnet is currently in a nascent phase, with attacks observed only between Jan. 18 and Jan. 27, 2018. Most of the attacks were observed originating from South Korean IPs. The botnet’s attacks are expected to remain low, mainly because they are only effective if the victim runs a specific unpatched version of Juniper ScreenOS firewall and uses unpatched Zyxel modems.

“Double layer of IoT protection is more common in corporate environments, which don’t rely on built-in IoT authentication and like to protect it with another layer of firewall. Although such corporate devices can be lesser in number, getting control of corporate environment routers can be more valuable for an attacker as it can lead to targeted IoT attacks,” the researchers say.


Financial Regulator's Algorithm Compliance Concerns Are Relevant to All Businesses
16.2.2018 securityweek IT 

The UK's financial regulator, the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA), issued a report Monday warning financial companies that it would be looking closely at so-called 'algo trading': "Algorithmic Trading Compliance in Wholesale Markets" (PDF).

Algo (or algorithmic) trading is the use of computer algorithms to buy or sell stock automatically and at speed if certain market conditions are met. The danger is that rapid trading by computers can change the market causing more buying or selling before human traders can intervene and correct the situation. Such algo trading has been blamed as partly responsible for this month's Wall Street sell-off that led to a 4% fall in Standard & Poor's 500-stock index last Monday -- the worst decline since August 2011.

David Murray, Corvil's chief marketing and business development officer, explains the problem. "It takes a person 300-400 milliseconds (thousandths of a second) to blink, and computers can execute a trade in 30-40 microseconds (millionths of a second) -- so it is clear that the new reality of time in an algorithmic world mandates new oversight and controls."

In its new report, compiled in the months preceding last week's Wall Street sell-off, the FCA warns, "In the absence of appropriate systems and controls, the increased speed and complexity of financial markets can turn otherwise manageable errors into extreme events with potentially wide-spread implications." Because of this, it adds, "We will continue to assess whether firms have taken sufficient steps to reduce risks arising from algorithmic trading."

Five key compliance areas are highlighted by the FCA: a full understanding and management of algorithms across the business; robust development and testing processes for algorithms; pre and post trade risk controls; an effective governance and oversight framework; and the ability to monitor for potential conduct issues and thereby reduce market abuse risks.

This isn't just about automated trading with the potential to wobble global financial markets -- it is also about localized and criminal abuse of algorithms. In November 2017, the FCA fined Paul Axel Walter -- subsequently known as 'algo-baiter' -- £60,090 for market abuse via algorithms. Walter was a senior bond trader, working at Bank of America Merrill Lynch (BAML). In 2014, he entered bids into the system that reflected the opposite of his intention. The algorithms reacted to his bids allowing him to subsequently enter his true bids into a market that he had manipulated.

But the issues go beyond just financial trading. "Similar conditions exist not only across global financial markets," explains Murray. "There are similar risks for other algorithmic businesses and use of artificial intelligence."

With the digitization and computer-based automation of all industry, the problems currently highlighted in the financial sector will become an issue for businesses generally. Actions will be triggered by and acted upon by unseen algorithms hidden within the system. It already happens within security products, where decisions can be made without anyone really understanding how or why they were reached. At the same time, outsiders will be able to manipulate the algorithms by feeding them false information, similar to Walter's manipulation of the trading algorithms.

The FCA's five principles for algo compliance are applicable far beyond just financial institutions. Compliance officers and security teams will need to understand their use of algorithms within machine learning and artificial intelligence systems to remain within compliance and defeat both internal and external malicious actors. Key, perhaps, is the second principle: robust development and testing processes. This is particularly relevant where a business develops its own algorithms -- as is common in the financial industry -- rather than relying, blindly, on externally developed algorithms.

Algorithm development is subject to the same pressures as any other software development -- the need to get it complete and operational as quickly as possible. The FCA warns against development procedures that focus on operational effectiveness without considering other issues. An example outside of finance could be automated customer or user profiling without considering the impact of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). Article 22 states, "The data subject shall have the right not to be subject to a decision based solely on automated processing, including profiling, which produces legal effects concerning him or her or similarly significantly affects him or her."

The FCA's advice is good for all software development: "a culture of open communication between different business units, while having a clear separation of roles and independent reviews... by having a separate team that verifies and checks the output and quality of code."

As the algorithms get more complex, they get more difficult to control. "There's often a tradeoff between model or algorithm performance and complexity," explains Endgame's technical director of data science, Hyrum Anderson, "with higher performing models often requiring more model mass. Examples include: more trees in random forest or gradient boosting models, more layers in convolutional neural networks, etc. As a design principal, experienced machine learning researchers try to utilize the principle of Occam's razor -- when many models have similar performance, choose the simpler one."

But he also warns that while simplicity aids in human understanding and verification, and prevents models from making extreme predictions, it also potentially creates the best conditions for adversaries to fool them. While DevOps may be good for software development, DevSecOps would be better for algorithm development to ensure the most secure and reliable outcome.

A second of the FCA's five principles is also relevant to compliance and security teams beyond just the financial industry: the ability to monitor for potential conduct issues. Two aspects of this requirement are particularly relevant: network monitoring for signs of abuse or misuse; and algorithm testing standards and procedures.

The first will become increasingly challenging. Security teams already monitor their networks for anomalous events; but they use algorithms to do so. As algorithmic automation increases throughout industry, security teams will need to find monitoring methods to monitor even the algorithms they use for monitoring other aspects of the business. They will need to be able to detect malicious external actors attempting to subvert the algorithms, and insiders attempting to manipulate the algorithms. This is of course particularly concerning in the financial sector where entire markets, and potentially national economies, could be manipulated for criminal gain -- or individual company share prices manipulated in sophisticated versions of pump and dump schemes.

Corvil's Murray summarizes the problem. "To operate in today’s machine time environments and enable rapid, secure, compliant time to market, businesses require process controls as well as layered technology oversight to assure precision and accuracy of time stamping to establish sequencing, continuous capture and of all electronic business activity, real-time analysis of transactions, and anomaly detection for cyber and abuse surveillance."

Testing the veracity of algorithms will also be a problem. The third-party anti-malware testing industry is struggling to find methods of adequately and objectively testing algo-based endpoint protection systems. As companies begin to develop their own algorithms for their own automation purposes, testing will likely fall on the very people who developed the algorithms. Objectivity may be impossible, and testing may not be effective.

The FCA's algorithmic trading compliance report should be a clarion call for all businesses. The new and emerging world of artificial intelligence -- that is, algorithms -- promises huge benefits for industry in increased speeds and lower costs; just as it does in the financial markets. But whether industry generally has fully examined the security and compliance issues that algorithms bring with them is a separate but urgent question. Algorithmic Trading Compliance in Wholesale Markets is a good starting point.


Dispel Launches Election Security Platform
16.2.2018 securityweek   Krypto

Dispel, a U.S.-based company that specializes in secure communication and collaboration systems, on Thursday announced the launch of a new product designed to help protect elections against malicious cyber actors.

According to Dispel, the new solution, which consists of its Election Cyber Defense System (ECDS) and a hardware device named ECDS Wicket, is capable of protecting the integrity of voter, ballot and campaign information. The company says its product can be easily installed even by a novice with only five minutes of training.

The election security platform is designed to automatically tunnel sensitive voting data and ensure that databases and networks cannot be located and attacked by malicious actors. The ECDS Wicket, which needs to be plugged into the reporting center computer, protects communications with two layers of AES-256 encryption with independent 4096-bit RSA keys for the initial exchange.

The device links the reporting center computer to a siloed dataroom where voting data is uploaded. Each dataroom is located in a network protected by Dispel’s Moving Target Defense technology. When the ECDS system is active, the reporting center computer can no longer transmit data to the Internet and can only communicate with election-related sites.

The platform has different systems that can help secure specific voting and campaign-related operations, including voter rolls, vote tabulation, and campaign communications.

For example, when voter rolls are changed, state officials connect with reporting officials through a secure video conferencing page to confirm the identity of the reporting official before granting them access to change the roll. Every change made to the roll is logged and stored in a secure location.

The tabulation system is designed to ensure that voting data is safely transmitted and stored. As for protecting campaign communications, Dispel provides what it calls the Campaign Comms Enclave, which includes secure video conferencing, telephony, messaging, file sharing, VPN, research stations, and logging capabilities for a flat fee of $2,500 per month, $7,500 per quarter, or $25,000 annually.

The voter roll and vote tabulation systems are priced based on the number of Wicket devices, voter rolls, access terminals, and reporting centers needed.

U.S. intelligence officials are convinced that Russia interfered in the 2016 presidential election and they have warned that it will likely attempt to meddle in this year’s midterm elections as well. Threat groups from Russia and other countries could try to interfere and experts warned recently that voting machines and other systems used in the election are vulnerable to hacker attacks.

Dispel told SecurityWeek that it has yet to make any deals with the U.S. government regarding the use of its product at the upcoming elections.

Democrats on Wednesday asked Congress for more than $1 billion in grants for boosting election security, and a product such as the one offered by Dispel could be taken into consideration for protecting votes.

Dispel is also offering its product to governments outside the U.S., but it has yet to actively promote it.


Russian Hackers Sent to U.S. Prison for Stealing 160 Million Bank Card Numbers
16.2.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

A United States Judge this week sent two Russian nationals to prison for their involvement in a hacking scheme that compromised roughly160 million credit card numbers and incurred losses of hundreds of millions.

The two, Vladimir Drinkman, 37, and Dmitriy Smilianets, 34, both of Moscow, were arrested in the Netherlands on June 28, 2012. Smilianets was extradited to the United States on Sept. 7, 2012, while Drinkman was extradited on Feb. 17, 2015.

Drinkman, who previously pleaded guilty before U.S. District Judge Jerome B. Simandle of the District of New Jersey, was sentenced to 144 months in prison. Smilianets, who pleaded guilty in September 2013, was sentenced to 51 months and 21 days in prison.

Drinkman and Smilianets, along with three co-defendants, were charged with hacking into the networks of organizations engaged in financial transactions, retailers operating with financial data, and other institutions with information of interest to the group.

The conspirators hacked the computer networks of NASDAQ, 7-Eleven, Carrefour, JCP, Hannaford, Heartland, Wet Seal, Commidea, Dexia, JetBlue, Dow Jones, Euronet, Visa Jordan, Global Payment, Diners Singapore and Ingenicard, court documents and statements show.

Each of the five defendants played a specific role in the scheme, with Drinkman penetrating network security, gaining access to the corporate victims’ systems, and harvesting valuable data from the compromised networks. Smilianets would sell the stolen data and distribute the proceeds of the scheme to the participants.

The other three co-defendants, namely Alexandr Kalinin, 31, of St. Petersburg, Russia, Roman Kotov, 36, of Moscow, Russia, and Mikhail Rytikov, 30, of Odessa, Ukraine, are fugitives.

The hackers targeted the computer networks of corporate victims to steal information such as user names and passwords, means of identification, credit and debit card numbers, and other personal identification information of cardholders.

The group used SQL injection attacks to penetrate the victims’ networks. The hackers targeted vulnerabilities in SQL (Structured Query Language) databases for initial access, then installed malware on the system to create a backdoor and help them maintain access to the network. They would sometime assault a victim network for months before being able to bypass security.

“The defendants used their access to the networks to install ‘sniffers’, which were programs designed to identify, collect and steal data from the victims’ computer networks. The defendants then used an array of computers located around the world to store the stolen data and ultimately sell it to others,” a Department of Justice announcement reads.

The stolen data was sold through online forums or directly to individuals and organizations for around $10 for a stolen American credit card number and associated data, $50 for a European credit card number and associated data, and $15 for a Canadian credit card number and associated data.

Their customers would encode such data onto the magnetic strip of a blank plastic card and use it to withdraw money from ATMs or make purchases.

To conceal the scheme, the five defendants used various methods, starting with the use of anonymous web-hosting services provided by Rytikov. They also used private and encrypted communication channels and also attempted to evade protections by security software, in addition to modifying settings on victim networks to disable the logging of their actions.

“As a result of the scheme, financial institutions, credit card companies and consumers suffered hundreds of millions in losses – including more than $300 million in losses reported by just three of the corporate victims – and immeasurable losses to the identity theft victims in costs associated with stolen identities and false charges,” DoJ says.

In addition to prison terms, Drinkman and Smilianets were also sentenced to three years of supervised release.


DELL EMC addressed two critical flaws in VMAX enterprise storage systems
16.2.2018 securityaffairs
Vulnerebility

Dell EMC addressed two critical vulnerabilities that affect the management interfaces for its VMAX enterprise storage systems.
The Dell EMC’s VMAX Virtual Appliance (vApp) Manager is an essential component of a wide range of the enterprise storage systems.

The first flaw tracked as CVE-2018-1215 is an arbitrary file upload vulnerability that could be exploited by a remote authenticated attacker to potentially upload arbitrary maliciously crafted files in any location on the web server. The flaw received a Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) base score of 8.8.

“Arbitrary file upload vulnerability A remote authenticated malicious user may potentially upload arbitrary maliciously crafted files in any location on the web server. By chaining this vulnerability with CVE-2018-1216, the attacker may use the default account to exploit this vulnerability.” reads the security advisory.

VMAX enterprise storage systems

The second flaw tracked as CVE-2018-1216 is an undocumented default account in the vApp Manager with a hard-coded password. The flaw received a Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) base score of 9.8.

“Hard-coded password vulnerability The vApp Manager contains an undocumented default account (ÒsmcÓ) with a hard-coded password that may be used with certain web servlets. A remote attacker with the knowledge of the hard-coded password and the message format may use vulnerable servlets to gain unauthorized access to the system. Note: This account cannot be used to log in via the web user interface.” continues the advisory.

The CVE-2018-1215 could be chained with a second flaw tracked as CVE-2018-1216 to use a hard-coded password to a default account to exploit this vulnerability.

“The vApp Manager which is embedded in Dell EMC Unisphere for VMAX, Dell EMC Solutions Enabler, Dell EMC VASA Virtual Appliances, and Dell EMC VMAX Embedded Management (eManagement) contains multiple security vulnerabilities that may potentially be exploited by malicious users to compromise the affected system.” states the security advisory issued by Dell EMC.

Affected products:

Dell EMC Unisphere for VMAX Virtual Appliance versions prior to 8.4.0.18
Dell EMC Solutions Enabler Virtual Appliance versions prior to 8.4.0.21
Dell EMC VASA Virtual Appliance versions prior to 8.4.0.514
Dell EMC VMAX Embedded Management (eManagement) versions prior to and including 1.4 (Enginuity Release 5977.1125.1125 and earlier)
Dell EMC has removed the default ÒsmcÓ account from new installs, but the company noticed that the account will not be removed after the upgrade of the vApp Manager application.


UK Foreign Office Minister blames Russia for NotPetya massive ransomware attack
16.2.2018 securityaffairs
Ransomware

The United Kingdon’s Foreign and Commonwealth Office formally accuses the Russian cyber army of launching the massive NotPetya ransomware attack.
The UK Government formally accuses the Russian cyber army of launching the massive NotPetya ransomware attack.

The United Kingdon’s Foreign and Commonwealth Office “attributed the NotPetya cyber-attack to the Russian Government.”

According to the UK, NotPetya was used to disrupt Ukrainian “financial, energy and government sector” targets, but it went out of control causing severe damages to companies worldwide.

notpetya

The shipping giant Maersk chair Jim Hagemann Snabe revealed its company reinstalled 45,000 PCs and 4,000 Servers after NotPetya the attack.

In August 2017 the company announced that it would incur hundreds of millions in U.S. dollar losses due to the ransomware massive attack.

The UK considers the attack an intolerable act and will not accept future similar offensives.

“Foreign Office Minister Lord Ahmad has today attributed the NotPetya cyber-attack to the Russian Government. The decision to publicly attribute this incident underlines the fact that the UK and its allies will not tolerate malicious cyber activity.” reads the official statement issued by the UK Government.

“The attack masqueraded as a criminal enterprise but its purpose was principally to disrupt. Primary targets were Ukrainian financial, energy and government sectors. Its indiscriminate design caused it to spread further, affecting other European and Russian business.”

Below the declaration of the Foreign Office Minister for Cyber Security Lord (Tariq) Ahmad of Wimbledon:

“The UK Government judges that the Russian Government, specifically the Russian military, was responsible for the destructive NotPetya cyber-attack of June 2017.

The attack showed a continued disregard for Ukrainian sovereignty. Its reckless release disrupted organisations across Europe costing hundreds of millions of pounds.

The Kremlin has positioned Russia in direct opposition to the West yet it doesn’t have to be that way. We call upon Russia to be the responsible member of the international community it claims to be rather then secretly trying to undermine it.

The United Kingdom is identifying, pursuing and responding to malicious cyber activity regardless of where it originates, imposing costs on those who would seek to do us harm. We are committed to strengthening coordinated international efforts to uphold a free, open, peaceful and secure cyberspace.”

According to Ukraine’s Secret Service (SBY), Russia orchestrated the NotPetya ransomware attack, going public with their accusations just days after the incident.

NotPetya wasn’t the last massive ransomware attack in order of time, in October Bad Rabbit
NotPetya was followed by the Bad Rabbit ransomware that in late October infected systems in many countries wordlwide, most of in East Europe, such as Ukraine and Russia.


Over $100,000 Paid Out in 'Hack the Air Force 2.0'
15.2.2018 securityweek Security
HackerOne on Thursday announced the results of a bug bounty challenge run by the U.S. Air Force on its platform. More than $100,000 were paid out for over 100 vulnerabilities reported during Hack the Air Force 2.0.

The challenge ran between December 9 and January 1. The U.S. Department of Defense paid out a total of $103,883 for 106 valid vulnerability reports submitted by 27 hackers from the U.S., Canada, U.K., Sweden, Netherlands, Belgium and Latvia.

The largest single payout, which is also the highest reward in any federal bug bounty program to date, was $12,500.

Of the 106 flaws, 55 were discovered on the first day of Hack the Air Force 2.0 during a live hacking event at the WeWork Fulton Center inside the Fulton Center subway station in New York City.Hack the Air Force 2.0

Seven U.S. Airmen and 25 civilians earned a total of over $26,000 on the first day, including $10,650 by Mathias Karlsson and Brett Buerhaus, who demonstrated how malicious actors could have breached an unclassified DoD network by exploiting a vulnerability in the Air Force’s website.

“We continue to harden our attack surfaces based on findings of the previous challenge and will add lessons learned from this round,” said Air Force CISO Peter Kim. “This reinforces the work the Air Force is already doing to strengthen cyber defenses and has created meaningful relationships with skilled researchers that will last for years to come.”

The first edition of Hack the Air Force paid out more than $130,000 for 207 valid vulnerability reports. The bug bounty challenges run by the Pentagon on the HackerOne platform since 2016 led to the discovery and patching of more than 3,000 vulnerabilities, with a total of over $400,000 awarded to white hat hackers.

The Pentagon also has a vulnerability disclosure policy that aims to provide guidance to researchers on how to disclose security holes found in the organization’s public-facing websites. While no monetary rewards are being offered, the policy provides a legal avenue for reporting flaws.


U.K. Officially Blames Russia for NotPetya Attack
15.2.2018 securityweek
Ransomware
The United Kingdom on Thursday officially accused the Russian government of launching the destructive NotPetya attack, which had a significant financial impact on several major companies.

British Foreign Office Minister for Cyber Security Lord Tariq Ahmad said the June 2017 NotPetya attack was launched by the Russian military and it “showed a continued disregard for Ukrainian sovereignty.”

“The Kremlin has positioned Russia in direct opposition to the West yet it doesn’t have to be that way. We call upon Russia to be the responsible member of the international community it claims to be rather then secretly trying to undermine it,” the official stated.

“The United Kingdom is identifying, pursuing and responding to malicious cyber activity regardless of where it originates, imposing costs on those who would seek to do us harm. We are committed to strengthening coordinated international efforts to uphold a free, open, peaceful and secure cyberspace,” he added.

The U.K. believes that while the NotPetya attack masqueraded as a criminal campaign, its true purpose was to cause disruption. The country’s National Cyber Security Center (NCSC) assessed that the Russian military was “almost certainly” responsible for the attack, which is the highest level of assessment.

The U.K. was also the first to officially accuse North Korea of launching the WannaCry attack. The United States, Canada, Japan, Australia and New Zealand followed suit several weeks later.

Last month, Britain's Defence Secretary Gavin Williamson accused Russia of spying on its critical infrastructure as part of a plan to create “total chaos” in the country.

While the U.S. has not made an official statement on the matter, confidential documents obtained by The Washington Post last month showed that the CIA had also concluded with “high confidence” that the Russian military was behind the NotPetya attack.

Cybersecurity firms and Ukraine, the country hit the hardest by NotPetya, linked the malware to other threats previously attributed to Russia.

The NotPetya malware outbreak affected tens of thousands of systems in more than 65 countries. Researchers initially believed NotPetya (also known as PetrWrap, exPetr, GoldenEye and Diskcoder.C) was a piece of ransomware, but a closer analysis revealed that it was actually a destructive wiper.

Rosneft, AP Moller-Maersk, Merck, FedEx, Mondelez International, Nuance Communications, Reckitt Benckiser, and Saint-Gobain reported losing hundreds of millions of dollars due to the attack.


Intel Offers $250,000 for Side-Channel Exploits
15.2.2018 securityweek
Exploit
Intel Opens Bug Bounty Program to All Researchers, Offers up to $250,000 for Flaws Similar to Meltdown and Spectre

Intel on Wednesday announced major changes to its bug bounty program, including that it’s now open to all researchers, and significant rewards for exploits similar to Meltdown and Spectre.

Researchers who find critical hardware vulnerabilities that allow software-based side-channel attacks – just like Meltdown and Spectre – can earn up to $250,000. Flaws classified as high severity are worth up to $100,000, while medium- and low-risk issues are worth up to $20,000 and $5,000, respectively. The severity of a flaw is determined based on its CVSS base score, adjusted depending on the security objectives and threat model of the targeted product.

The part of Intel’s bug bounty program covering side-channel exploits will run until December 31, 2018.

Intel also announced that its bug bounty program is now open to all researchers – it was invitation-only until now. When the company launched this initiative back in March 2017, the maximum reward for hardware vulnerabilities was $30,000, but it has now been increased to $100,000 for critical flaws.

The maximum amount the company is prepared to pay for firmware vulnerabilities has increased from $10,000 to $30,000, and for software flaws from $7,500 to $10,000.

The list of hardware products covered by Intel’s bug bounty program includes processors, chipsets, field-programmable gate array (FPGA) integrated circuits, networking and communications equipment, motherboards, and solid-state drives.

“We believe these changes will enable us to more broadly engage the security research community, and provide better incentives for coordinated response and disclosure that help protect our customers and their data,” said Rick Echevarria, vice president and general manager of Platform Security at Intel.

Intel was made aware of the Spectre and Meltdown attack methods several months before researchers disclosed them, but many are unhappy with the way the company handled the situation.

While Spectre and Meltdown also affect processors from AMD, ARM and IBM, Intel was hit the hardest. The company started releasing microcode updates shortly after the existence of the vulnerabilities was brought to light, but the first round of patches introduced stability problems. Intel started releasing a second round of updates, which should address these issues, only last week.

The company says its future CPUs will include protections against attacks like Meltdown and Spectre.


Researchers Warn Against Knee-Jerk Attribution of 'Olympic Destroyer' Attack
15.2.2018 securityweek
Attack
Cyber Attack Attribution

Attribution has become a buzzword in malware analysis. It is very difficult to achieve -- but is necessary in a world that is effectively engaged in the early stages of a geopolitical cyberwar. Malware researchers tend to stop short of saying, 'this country or that actor is behind this attack'. Nevertheless, they are not shy in dropping hints, leaving the reader to make subjective conclusions.

They have done just that with the recent cyber-attacks against the PyeongChang Winter Olympic Games.

The New York Times comments, "Security companies would not say definitively who was behind the attack, but some digital crumbs led to a familiar culprit: Fancy Bear, the Russian hacking group with ties to Russian intelligence services."

Microsoft tweeted, "Fresh analysis of the #cyberattack against systems used in the Pyeongchang #WinterOlympics reveals #EternalRomance SMB exploit."

EternalRomance -- one of the leaked NSA exploits -- along with SMB was employed in the Bad Rabbit ransomware which has been likened to NotPetya which the UK government today ascribed to the Russian intelligence services.

Intezer is a firm that specializes in recognizing code reuse. It has analyzed the Olympic attacks, and comments, "We have found numerous small code fragments scattered throughout different samples of malware in these attacks that are uniquely linked to APT3, APT10, and APT12 which are known to be affiliated with Chinese threat actors."

Recorded Future comments (PDF), "Our own research turned up trivial but consistent code similarities between Olympic Destroyer modules and several malware families used by the Lazarus Group. These include standard but different functions within BlueNoroff Banswift malware, the LimaCharlie family of Lazarus malware from the Novetta Blockbuster report, and a module from the Lazarus SpaSpe malware meant to target domain controllers." Lazarus is, of course, considered to be synonymous with North Korea.

But while saying that there are code similarity hints at connections with North Korea, Recorded Future warns against jumping to any specific conclusion. "The trouble with this technique is that while code similarity can be stated with certainty, down to a percentage of bytes shared, the results are not straightforward and require expert interpretation. The Olympic Destroyer malware is a perfect example of how we can be led astray by this clustering technique when our standard for similarity is too low."

Code analysis suggests that Russia, China or North Korea, or any combination thereof, or all, or none of these state actors were behind the Winter Olympics attack.

Juan Andres Guerrero-Saade, principal security researcher at the Insikt Group at Recorded Future says: “Complex malware operations make us take pause to reevaluate research methods and make sure the research community is not being misled by its own eagerness to attribute attacks."

Priscilla Moriuchi, director of strategic threat development at Recorded Future says: “Attribution continues to be important in cyber-attacks because it shapes the victim, public, and government responses. However, accurate attribution is both more crucial and more difficult to determine than ever because adversaries are constantly evolving new techniques and the expertise required to identify a sophisticated actor keeps increasing.”

This doesn't mean that Recorded Future drops no hints of its own. It notes that this was a sophisticated two-pronged attack probably involving an earlier malware attack designed to steal credentials to be used during the opening ceremony against both the organizers and the infrastructure providers. In other words, it could only be achieved by a highly resourced attacker.

The attack's purpose was disruption rather than absolute destruction. While systems were wiped, they were left able to reboot -- allowing the possibility of eventual data recovery and reinstatement. There is no immediately apparent attempt at extortion -- removing financial motivation and leaving the probability of political motivation.

The 'hints' contained in the code similarity point variously at Russia, China and North Korea. Recorded Future adds another possibility: "The co-occurrence of code overlap in the malware may be indicative of a false flag operation, attempting to dilute evidence and confuse researchers." In other words, without access to 5Eyes-quality wiretaps and intercepted voice conversations (which intelligence agencies would be unwilling to reveal) it is all but impossible to attribute this, or any other cyber-attack, with 100% confidence.

As Recorded Future concludes, "For the time being, attribution remains inconclusive."


SAP Security Notes – February 2018 addresses tens of flaws including High Risk issues
15.2.2018 securityaffairs
Vulnerebility

SAP Security Notes – February 2018: SAP Security Notes February 2018 addressed several vulnerabilities including High-Risk flaws.
SAP has released February 2018 Patches that addressed some high-risk vulnerabilities in its software, a total of 26 Security Notes (5 high-, 19 medium- and 2 low-risk). Once again, the missing authorization check is the most common vulnerability type this month.

The Security Notes SAP addresses three cross-site scripting (XSS) vulnerabilities, two directory traversal flaws, two information disclosure bugs, two missing authorization checks, one unrestricted file upload, and other issues.

Affected products are the Internet Graphics Server (IGS), NetWeaver System Landscape Directory, HANA Extended Application Services, ABAP File Interface, SAP CRM, ERP Financials Information System, Netweaver Portal, Netweaver Java Web Application, CRM WebClient UI, BI Launchpad, and SAP HANA.

“On 13th of February 2018, SAP Security Patch Day saw the release of 11 Security Notes. Additionally, there were 3 updates to previously released security notes.” reads the advisory published by SAP.

SAP Security Notes Feb 2018

SAP also addressed previous Security Notes that includes an incorrect authorization check in ERP Logistics, a cross-site request forgery (CSRF) vulnerability in SAP Sybase, and a flaw that ties the way the SAP Note Assistant handles digitally signed notes.

Three critical vulnerabilities were reported by Mathieu Geli, Vahagn Vardanyan, and Vladimir Egorov, researchers at ERPScan security firm.

The details of the issues fixed thanks to the support of the researchers are:

A Missing Authentication check vulnerability in SAP NetWeaver System Landscape Directory (CVSS Base Score: 8.3 CVE-2018-2368). Update is available in SAP Security Note 2565622. An attacker can use Missing authorization check vulnerability for access to a service without any authorization procedures and use service functionality that has restricted access. This can lead to an information disclosure, privilege escalation and other attacks.
A Directory Traversal vulnerability in SAP Internet Sales (CVSS Base Score: 6.6 CVE-2018-2380). Update is available in SAP Security Note 2547431. An attacker can use Directory traversal to access to arbitrary files and directories located in a SAP-server file system including application source code, configuration and system files. It allows to obtain critical technical and business-related information stored in a vulnerable SAP-system.
An Information Disclosure vulnerability in SAP HANA (CVSS Base Score: 5.3 CVE-2018-2369). Update is available in SAP Security Note 2572940. An attacker can use Information disclosure vulnerability for revealing additional information (system data, debugging information, etc) which will help to learn about a system and to plan other attacks.
The most severe vulnerability addressed by the security updates is a missing authentication check in SAP NetWeaver System Landscape Directory tracked as CVE-2018-2368, which received a CVSS base score of 8.3.

The flaw could be exploited by an attacker to access a service without any authorization, a circumstance that could lead to several attacks, including the privilege escalation and information disclosure,

“A Missing Authentication check vulnerability in SAP NetWeaver System Landscape Directory (CVSS Base Score: 8.3 CVE-2018-2368). Update is available in SAP Security Note 2565622. An attacker can use Missing authorization check vulnerability for access to a service without any authorization procedures and use service functionality that has restricted access. This can lead to an information disclosure, privilege escalation and other attacks.” continues ERPScan.

The updates also addressed:

A Directory Traversal vulnerability in SAP Internet Sales (CVSS Base Score: 6.6 CVE-2018-2380) that could be exploited by an attacker to use Directory traversal to access to arbitrary files and directories located in a SAP-server file system including application source code, configuration and system files.
An Information Disclosure vulnerability in SAP HANA (CVSS Base Score: 5.3 CVE-2018-2369). that could be exploited by an attacker for revealing additional information (system data, debugging information, etc).
Other vulnerabilities addressed this month included a directory traversal (CVE-2018-2367) in SAP ABAP File Interface (CVSS base score: 6.6) and a directory traversal (CVE-2018-2380) in SAP Internet Sales (CVSS base score: 6.6).

Further info related to the flaws addressed by SAP are available on the company blog.


Unknown Threat Actor Conducts OPSEC Targeting Middle East
15.2.2018 securityaffairs Hacking

Hackers conduct OPSEC Targeting Middle East – Classified Documents That May Pertain To The Jordanian Research House Dar El-Jaleel Are Being Used As Bait In A Campaign Targeting The Middle East.
The researchers Paul Rascagneres with help of Martin Lee, from CISCO TALOS, described a campaign of targeted attacks against the middle east with key elements present: Geopolitical interest at stake, once documents pertaining Research House Dar EL-Jaleel, that research on Israeli-Palestinian conflict and Sunni-Shia conflict with Iran, are being used.

Second, the extensive use of scripting languages (VBScript, PowerShell, VBA) as part of the attack vector, once they are used to be dynamically loaded and execute VBScript functions stored in a Command & Control server.

Third, the attacker had deployed a series of sophisticated countermeasures to hide his identification using Operation Security (OPSEC), utilization of reconnaissance scripts to validate the victim machine according to his criteria, utilization of CloudFlare system to hide the IP and infrastructure and finally using filters on connections based on User-Agent strings to use the infrastructure for short periods of time before vanishing going offline.

Regarding the analysis in the report, the script campaign is divided into a series of steps to further advance the widespread of the infection. The VBS campaign is composed of 4 steps with additional payloads and 3 distinct functions that are: Reconnaissance, Persistence, and Pivoting.

middle east opsec attack

According to the report the first stage starts with a VBScript named من داخل حرب ايران السرية في سوريا.vbs (“From inside Iran’s secret war in Syria.vbs”) that is aimed to create in the second stage a PowerShell script that will generate a Microsoft Office document named Report.doc and to open it. On the third stage, the opened document contains a macro that creates a WSF (Windows Script File) file to be executed. On the fourth stage the script contains configuration information such as: The hostname of the command and control server, the port used 2095 and the User-Agent.

As the report notice, the User-Agent strings are being used to the identification of targets, while the command and control server filter these strings to only allow connections based in these criteria. The script tries to register the infected system with an HTTP request, which in turn executes an infinite loop to further download and use other payloads. The researchers discovered three types of additional payloads that are the following: s0, s1, and s2. These payloads for WSF scripts are VBScript functions that are loaded and executed in ExecuteGlobal() and GetRef() APIs. The difference between the payloads resides on the number of arguments supplied to execute the function.

The researchers found out a reconnaissance function in the earlier steps of the campaign that was intended to acquire information on the targeted system, verify if it contained significant information or if it was a sandbox machine. The hackers layered out a methodology composed of these steps: first acquiring the serial number of disk volume, and then using a payload to acquire information on any anti-virus software present on the system. Next, by querying ipify.org the hackers tried to obtain the IP address of the infected machines to further obtain the computer name, username, operating system and architecture.

A second function is used to list the drives on the system and its type.

Finally, the researchers cover the remaining two functions: Persistence and Pivoting. Persistence functions were used alongside the reconnaissance functions linked to the WSF script. While the first script was used to persist, the second was used to clean the infected system to cover its tracks. Regarding the Pivoting function, it receives an argument where the PowerShell script executes a second base64 encoded script intended to download shellcode from 176.107.185.246 to be mapped in the memory and then executed.

As the researchers noticed, the hackers behind the campaign had been very careful to protect their infrastructure and their code against the leak. The command and control server was protected by CloudFlare to avoid tracking and difficult the analysis. Furthermore, by using filters on the User-Agents the hackers selected requests that only meet their criteria.

The Threat Actor was only seen active during the morning, on the Central European Time zone, to unleash their attacks and payloads. Once infected the operating system receives the pivot function to disable the firewall and allow the unique IP to receive the shellcode. Next, the server becomes unreachable. The researchers point out: “This high level of OPSEC is exceptional even among presumed state-sponsored threat actors”.

The researchers also noticed some similarities with Jenxcus (Houdini/H-Worn), but it was not clear if it is a new version or an adaption. They for sure agree that it is far more advanced in the resources it presents. The researchers state:

“This document is a weekly report about the major events occurring during the 1st week of November 2017, talking about the most important events happening in Jordan, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Israel, Russia, ISIS and the ongoing Gulf Countries conflict with Qatar. These campaigns show us that at least one threat actor is interested in and targeting the Middle East. Due to the nature of the decoy documents, we can conclude that the intended targets have an interest in the geopolitical context of the region”.

Sources:

http://www.securityweek.com/actor-targeting-middle-east-shows-excellent-opsec

http://www.securitynewspaper.com/2018/02/10/targeted-attacks-middle-east/

http://blog.talosintelligence.com/2018/02/targeted-attacks-in-middle-east.html

https://blogs.cisco.com/security/talos/targeted-attacks-in-the-middle-east

https://cyware.com/news/targeted-attacks-in-the-middle-east-8e454752


Android Security Bulletin – Google fixed several Critical Code Execution vulnerabilities
15.2.2018 securityaffairs Android

Android Security Bulletin for February 2018 – Google has fixed tens of vulnerabilities for Android OS, including several critical remote code execution (RCE) flaws.
The Android Security Bulletin for February 2018 addresses 26 vulnerabilities in the mobile operating system, most of which are elevation of privilege flaws.

The 2018-02-01 security patch level fixed 7 vulnerabilities, 6 in Media Framework and one issue affecting the System component.

The tech giant has fixed two critical RCE vulnerabilities in Media Framework. The first issue is the CVE-2017-13228 that affects Android 6.0 and newer, the second one, tracked as CVE-2017-13230, impacts Android 5.1.1 and later.

Android Security Bulletin

Google also fixed other vulnerabilities in Media Framework, including an information disclosure vulnerability, an elevation of privilege bug, and several denial-of-service flaws.

“The most severe of these issues is a critical security vulnerability in Media framework that could enable a remote attacker using a specially crafted file to execute arbitrary code within the context of a privileged process.” states the advisory.

The most severe of these vulnerabilities is tracked as CVE-2017-13236, it is a System issue that could be exploited by an attacker to achieve remote code execution in the context of a privileged process. The attacker can trigger the flaw via email, web browsing, and MMS when processing media files.

The 2018-02-05 security patch level includes fixes for 19 vulnerabilities in HTC, Kernel, NVIDIA, Qualcomm, and Qualcomm closed-source components.

The most severe flaws included in the 2018-02-05 security patch level are two remote code execution vulnerabilities in Qualcomm components tracked as CVE-2017-15817 and CVE-2017-17760.

Google also released the Pixel / Nexus Security Bulletin that addresses 29 vulnerabilities in Google devices.

“The Pixel / Nexus Security Bulletin contains details of security vulnerabilities and functional improvements affecting supported Google Pixel and Nexus devices (Google devices). For Google devices, security patch levels of 2018-02-05 or later address all issues in this bulletin and all issues in the February 2018 Android Security Bulletin.” states Google.

“All supported Google devices will receive an update to the 2018-02-05 patch level. We encourage all customers to accept these updates to their devices.”


Spam and phishing in 2017
15.2.2018 Kaspersky  Analysis 
Spam
Figures of the year
The share of spam in mail traffic came to 56.63%, down 1.68% against 2016.
The biggest source of spam remains the US (13.21%).
40% of spam emails were less than 2 KB in size.
The most common malware family found in mail traffic was Trojan-Downloader.JS.Sload
The Anti-Phishing system was triggered 246,231,645 times.
9% of unique users encountered phishing
Global events in spam
Spam emails that mention the hottest topics in the world news agenda are a permanent feature of junk traffic. This trend has been observed for several years and is unlikely to change any time soon. Natural disasters in 2017 (hurricanes Irma and Harvey, the earthquake in Mexico) were a gift to fraudsters. “Nigerian” scammers bombarded mailboxes with messages asking for assistance in obtaining the inheritance of deceased relatives and donations for disaster victims, etc. Natural disasters were also a common theme in advertising spam and emails offering jobs and loans.
 

In 2017 spammers made frequent mention of natural disasters

Sporting events are another favorite topic of spammers. The most popular — and most mentioned in fake giveaway messages — are major soccer competitions and the Olympics. Back in 2016 we picked up emails citing the FIFA 2018 World Cup, and the following year their number increased, with the format and content unchanged. Typically, such emails say that during such-and-such lottery, supposedly held by a well-known organization, the recipient was randomly selected among a million others as the winner of a huge cash prize. Besides money, scammers sometimes promise tickets to competitions. The details are usually outlined in file attachments using official competition and sponsor logos.
 

“Winning” the lottery can be timed to major sporting events

The “Nigerian” scammers often refer to famous figures. Presidents and other political VIPs are especially in demand. In 2017, one of the most popular figures for fraudsters was US President Donald Trump.

We predict that in 2018 scammers will continue to pay close attention to world events and famous figures so as not to let slip the chance to squeeze ever more money and personal info out of gullible victims.

Cryptocurrencies in spam
Throughout the year we wrote that cryptocurrencies had gained a foothold in advertising spam and fraudulent mailings: all the numerous “Earn from home” schemes, financial pyramids, fake lottery wins, and phishing scams, etc., seem to have been updated and given a cryptocurrency makeover. Let’s try to systematize the various types of cryptocurrency-related spam.

Seminars
As major conferences and seminars are held on blockchain technology, spammers are making increasing use of this topic for their own purposes. The seminars advertised in their mailings don’t overload users with technical details, but promise to teach them how to extract eye-watering profits from cryptocurrencies. Such mailings are relatives of “traditional” spam on the topic “How to make a killing on the stock exchange.”
 

Example emails advertising “lucrative” seminars

Financial fraud
A specific type of cryptocurrency fraud relates to fake “cloud mining” services. Such services hire out the mining power of their own specialized data centers. Fake sites offer similar services, but on paying up, the user receives neither mining power nor their money back. The crypto version of the classic pyramid scam warrants a special mention: the user “receives” mining income until they enlist other victims (for which there is also a reward). But sooner or later the cash flow stops, and the original investment is not repaid.
 

Fake “cloud mining” services offer enticing rewards

Sites masquerading as cryptocurrency trading platforms operate in a similar manner. The crucial difference between them and real exchanges is that money can only be invested, not withdrawn. Revenue usually “grows” very quickly, stimulating the user to invest more funds.
 

On fake cryptocurrency exchanges, experience really isn’t necessary

More subtle are binary options brokers (and their fake counterparts). We covered them in a previous report.

Another type of cryptocurrency fraud is fake services offering to exchange one currency for another, or convert it into “real” money. Scammers lure victims with favorable exchange rates, and then make off with the cash.
 

The “currency exchange desk” simply pockets the money for itself

Spam is very often used for this kind of fraud because it gives what all scammers crave — anonymity.

Other types of fraud
More traditional types of fraud, such as fake lottery wins, started using bitcoin bait:
 

Malware
CryptoLocker, whose creators demanded payment in bitcoin, was found in spam far less often than in 2016. That said, we encountered various modifications of Locky, Cerber, Rack, and other ransomware. At the same time, new capabilities such as stealing passwords from cryptocurrency wallets and mining were added to spam-distributed malware.

What’s more, a host of malware was distributed in spam under the guise of bitcoin mining tools or trading instructions.
 

The attached document was detected as HEUR:Exploit.RTF.Generic

Address databases
Targeted address databases advertised through spam were updated with the email addresses of cryptocurrency users, putting the address owners at risk of a targeted attack (for example, phishing as mentioned above).
 

Like other hot global issues, cryptocurrency is set be a recurring theme in spam for a very long time to come. And given the juicy rewards on offer, 2018 can expect to see growth in both fraudulent and phishing “cryptocurrency” spam.

Spamming by ethnicity
As we all know, spam peddles everything from potency-enhancing drugs to fake goods by well-known brands — it’s an international phenomenon that knows no geographic boundaries. However, 2017 caught the eye for some more localized spam content.

China and manufacturing
Back in 2016, we wrote about the Chinese habit of using spam to market goods internationally. Nothing changed in 2017: More and more Chinese companies are offering their products in this way.

India and IT
Whereas the Chinese are keen to sell goods on the international market, spam from India is more likely to offer IT services: SEO, web design, mobile apps, and much more:
 

Russia and seminars
Russian spam is written in, yes, Russian — and is therefore aimed at the domestic market. It too advertises goods and services, but more striking is the range of seminars and training on offer:
 

America and targeted business spam
In the US, the law governing the distribution of advertising messages operates on the opt-out principle. Accordingly, users can be sent messages until they explicitly unsubscribe from the mailing list in question, for which a link must be provided. The CAN-SPAM Act stipulates many other legal requirements for mailings. The legislation demands that the message body match the subject in terms of topic, there be no automatic collection of addresses, the advertiser’s physical address appear in the text, and much more.

Using the opt-out principle, many small, and sometimes not-so-small, companies send out promotional materials to people who have not subscribed to them. A legal gray area arises from the fact that even if spam-mailing companies are physically located in the US, the emails are distributed worldwide, and most countries operate an opt-in policy, requiring the prior consent of recipients. In other words, some countries at the legislative level consider mailshots to be spam.

A trait of business spam is its very narrow targeting of companies operating in specific areas. Oftentimes, mailings are not directed to the company as a whole, but to people with certain job titles.

Malware and the corporate sector
The number of malicious spam messages in 2017 fell 1.6-fold against 2016. Kaspersky Lab clients registered a total of 145,820,119 triggers of Mail Anti-Virus throughout 2017.
 

Number of Mail Anti-Virus triggers among Kaspersky Lab clients in 2017

This drop is due to the unstable operation of the Necurs botnet: it mediated the spread of far fewer mailings, and in Q1 2017 was completely idle. Malicious mailshots sent via Necurs were short, not personalized. They were used to try to install cryptolockers from the Locky family on recipients’ computers.

In general, 2017 was marked by a large cluster of malicious, but well-crafted emails, containing fragments of business correspondence matching the company profile, plus the full details of the organizations in whose name they had been sent.
 

Emails containing malicious objects detected as Backdoor.Java.Adwind.cu

The messages were not mass-distributed, but most likely targeted. Based on the target domain names, it can be assumed that the attackers were primarily interested in the corporate sector, while the tactic of citing previous messages of the addressee suggests in some cases a Business Email Compromise-type attack.
 

An email containing a malicious object detected as Trojan-PSW.Win32.Fareit.dnak

Malware downloaded onto the victim computer most often had functions for collecting detailed information about the system and its settings (as well as passwords, keystrokes, etc.), and then transferring this data to a remote server. For information about potential targets and perpetrators of such attacks, see our article.

Phishing
Phishing pages migrate to HTTPS
Sites have been moving to HTTPS in increasing numbers, and not just legitimate resources. If a year ago a top tip for users was “check that pages requesting personal data are secure,” today a certificate does not guarantee safety: anyone or anything could be behind it.

Where do scammers get certificates? For domains created specifically for fraudulent purposes, attackers most likely use free 90-day certificates from Let’s Encrypt and Comodo, two certificate authorities. Getting hold of one is simplicity itself.
 

A phishing site with a free 90-day certificate issued by Let’s Encrypt

What’s more, phishing pages are often located on hacked sites that already have the necessary certificates.
 

A phishing page located on a hacked site with HTTPS

Scammers also make use of free web hosting with an SSL certificate:
 

On the topic of free hosting sites, it should be noted that attackers often use services that do not closely monitor user-posted content. It is not uncommon for phishing content to be placed on free hosting sites of well-known companies: this reduces the risk of the page being blacklisted, since it is located on a reputable domain with a high-profile name and a good SSL certificate. And although such services are pro-active in the fight against illegitimate content, phishing pages on their domains are found fairly often.
 

A phishing page located on the Google Sites service redirecting users to a third-party resource where payment system data is requested
 

Phishing pages located on the Force.com Sites service

Punycode encoding
Another important rule is to always check the spelling of the domain name, a task made more difficult due to the active use by phishers of Punycode encoding, which helps mask phishing domain names under the domains of well-known brands. Web browsers use Punycode to display Unicode characters in the address bar, but if all the characters in the domain name belong to the character set for one language, the browser displays them not in Punycode format, but in the specified language. Scammers select characters similar or identical to ones in Latin script, and use them to create domain names that resemble those of well-known companies.

The technique is not new, but caused a real stir this year, especially after an article by Chinese researcher Xudong Zheng. As an example, he created a domain with a name that in the address bar was indistinguishable from Apple’s domain. Phishers aren’t always able to find identical symbols, but the results are still look pretty convincing.
 

Examples of domains displayed in Punycode in browser address bars

Besides the external similarity to the original domain, such domains are more difficult to detect by keywords.

Fake cryptocurrency wallets
Fraudsters are always up to speed on the latest trends, brands, and news hooks. The hype around cryptocurrencies in 2017 reached such a crescendo that even those far removed from the virtual world were snapping up bitcoin, whatever it was.

As a result, cryptocurrency wallets were a very attractive target for phishers. Proof of this is the large number of phishing pages spoofing cryptocurrency wallets. We encountered Coinbase, BitGo, and Xapo, to name just a few. One of the leaders by number of spoofs is blockchain.info.
 

Examples of phishing pages mimicking user sign-in to popular cryptocurrency wallets

Scammers also spoof popular cryptocurrency services in an attempt to get users to hand over money under the guise of lucrative investments.
 

A page spoofing the popular Coinbase

Social media fraud
In Q2, social networks were hit by a wave of air ticket giveaways. Scammers set up websites under famous airline brands that were supposedly raffling off tickets. After completing a short survey, the user was redirected to a resource created by the attackers. This could be an infected site, a phishing page prompting to install malware under the guise of a browser update, or a page spreading malicious content, etc.
 

Examples of Facebook posts with links to various scamming domains

The scheme is not new, but the distribution mechanism in this case is innovative: in winning a “prize,” users themselves shared unsafe content in social media.

For some domains in the scheme, visitor activity statistics were available, according to which just one of the sites was visited by more than 2,500 users worldwide in the space of an hour:
 

In Q3, scammers shifted their attention to WhatsApp and extended their assortment of fake prizes.
 

Fake giveaways that began their odyssey in social media migrated to WhatsApp, and the range of prizes expanded

Fake viruses
Cybercriminals often don’t even bother to write malware, using instead fake virus notifications supposedly from common operating systems. Such messages often appear as pop-up ads or as the result of the user being passed through a redirect chain. This might happen after completing a survey, as in the scheme described above.

The scammers’ primary aim is to intimidate and coerce users into calling a “technical support” number where they are offered solutions to disinfect their computer — not free of charge, of course.
 

Examples of pages showing fake system infection messages

It’s not only Windows users in the firing line. Scammers are targeting Apple products, too.
 

Example of a page showing a fake system infection message

Under the same guise, cybercrooks also distribute insecure software.
 

Example of a page showing a fake system infection message and prompting to download a file

Tax refunds
Another eternal topic is tax returns and tax refunds. Public trust in government sites plays an important role in the success of phishing operations in this segment. Exploiting features of the taxation system in different countries, scammers carry out successful attacks in the US, France, Canada, Ireland, and elsewhere.
 

Examples of phishing pages using the names of tax authorities in different countries

The new iPhone
The release of the new version of the popular smartphone also attracted scammers, with attempts to redirect users to phishing pages mimicking Apple sites growing 1.5-fold in September, when the latest iteration of the flagship series went on sale.
 

Number of Anti-Phishing triggers on user computers caused by attempts to redirect to phishing sites using the Apple brand, 2017

The launch of Apple’s new smartphone inspired a host of fraudulent schemes, including fake giveaways, sales of counterfeit devices, and classic phishing scams mentioning the brand.
 

Fake Apple sign-in page

Statistics: spam
Proportion of spam in email traffic
The share of spam in email traffic in 2017 fell by 1.68% to 56.63%.
 

Proportion of spam in global email traffic, 2017

The lowest share (52.67%) was recorded in December 2017. The highest (59.56%) belonged to September.

Sources of spam by country
In 2017, the US remained the biggest source of spam (13.21%). A 6.59% hike in spam distribution pushed China up to second place (11.25%). Vietnam took bronze (9.85%).

India slipped from third to fourth (7.02%), showing a 3.13% decline in its share of spam. Next came Germany (5.66%, +2.45%) and Russia (5.40%, +1.87%).

In the seventh place was Brazil (3.97%, -0.04%). And in ninth, France (3.71%, -0.32%). Italy rounds off the Top 10 with a score of 1.86%, up 0.62% against 2016.
 

Source of spam by country, 2017

Spam email size
In 2017, the share of very small emails (up to 2 KB) in spam again dropped sharply, averaging 43.40%, which is 18.76% less than in 2016. The proportion of emails ranging in size from 2 to 5 KB amounted to 5.08%, another significant change.
 

Spam emails by size, 2017

There was further growth in the share of emails between 5 and 10 KB (9.14%, +2.99%), 10 and 20 KB (16.26%, +1.79%), and 20 and 50 KB (21.23%, +11.15%). Overall, spam in 2017 did not buck the trend of fewer very small emails and rising numbers of average size emails (5-50 KB).

Malicious attachments in email
Malware families

 

Top 10 malware families in 2017

In 2017, the most common malware family in email traffic was Trojan-Downloader.JS.Sload — a set of JS scripts that download and run other malicious programs on the victim computer, usually encryptors.

Runner-up was last year’s leader Trojan-Downloader.JS.Agent — the typical member of this malware family is an obfuscated JS that uses ADODB.Stream technology to download and run DLL, EXE, and PDF files.

Third place went to the Backdoor.Java.Qrat family — a cross-platform multi-functional backdoor written in Java and sold in the Darknet under the umbrella of Malware-as-a-Service (MaaS). It is generally distributed by email in the form of JAR attachments.

The Worm.Win32.WBVB family took fourth place. It includes executable files written in Visual Basic 6 (both in P-Code mode and Native mode) that are untrusted in KSN.

Trojan-PSW.Win32.Fareit completes the Top 5. This malware family is designed to steal data, such as the credentials of FTP clients installed on infected computers, cloud-storage credentials, browser cookies, and email passwords. Fareit Trojans send the information collected to the attackers’ server. Some members of the family can download and run other malware.

In sixth position was the Trojan-Downloader.MSWord.Agent family. This malware takes the form of a DOC file with an embedded macro written in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) that runs when the document is opened. The macro downloads another malicious file from the attackers’ site and runs it on the user’s computer.

In seventh is Trojan.PDF.Badur, which poses as a PDF document containing a link to a potentially dangerous site.

Eighth place was occupied by the Trojan-Downloader.VBS.Agent family — a set of VBS scripts that use ADODB.Stream technology to download ZIP archives and run malware extracted from them.

Trojan.WinLNK.Agent found itself in ninth position. Members of this malware family have the extension .lnk and contain links for downloading malicious files or a path for running another malicious executable file.

One more family of Trojan loaders, Trojan.Win32.VBKrypt, props up the Top 10.

Countries targeted by malicious mailshots
In 2017, Germany (16.25%, +2.12%) held on to top spot. China (12.10%) climbed from third to second, adding 4.78% for the year. Russia (6.87%, +1.27%) rounds off the Top 3.
 

Countries targeted by malicious mailshots, 2017

Further down come Japan (5.32%, -2.27%), Britain (5.04%, -0.13%), Italy (4.89%, -0.55%), and Brazil (4.22%, -0.77%).

Eighth place is taken by Vietnam (2.71%, +0.81%). And ninth by France (2.42%, -1.15%). The Top 10 is rounded off by the UAE (2.34%, +0.82%).

Statistics: phishing
In 2017, the Anti-Phishing system was triggered 246,231,645 times on computers of Kaspersky Lab users as a result of phishing redirection attempts. That is 91,273,748 more than in 2016. In all, 15.9% of our users were targeted by phishers.

Organizations under attack
The rating of organizations targeted by phishing attacks is based on the triggering of the heuristic component in the Anti-Phishing system on user computers. This component detects all instances when the user tries to follow a link in an email or on the Internet to a phishing page in the event that such links have yet to be added to Kaspersky Lab’s databases.

Organizations under attack by category
The lion’s share of heuristic component triggers in 2017 went to pages that mentioned banking organizations (27%, +1.24%). Second place in the rating is the Payment systems category (15.87%, +4.32%), followed by Online stores (10.95%, +0.78%).
 

Distribution of organizations subject to phishing attacks by category, 2017.

See our financial report (link) for more details about phishing in the financial sector.

Top 3 organizations under attack from phishers

As before, the trend in mass phishing is still to use the most popular brands. By doing so, scammers significantly increase the likelihood of a successful attack. The Top 3 is made of organizations whose names were most often used by phishers (according to the heuristic statistics for triggers on user computers):

Facebook 7.97%
Microsoft Corporation 5.57%
PayPal 4.50%
The geography of attacks
Countries by percentage of attacked users
As in the previous year, Brazil had the highest percentage of attacked unique users out of the total number of users in the country, seeing its score increase by 1.41% to 29.02%.
 

Percentage of users on whose computers the Anti-Phishing system was triggered out of all Kaspersky Lab users in the country, 2017

Top 10 countries by percentage of attacked users
Brazil 29.02%
Australia 22.51%
China 19.23%
Qatar 18.45%
Bolivia 18.38%
Albania 17.95%
New Zealand 17.85%
Portugal 16.76%
Angola 16.45%
Russia 16.43%
Top 10 countries by percentage of attacked users

The number of attacked users also increased in Australia — by 2.43% to 22.5%. Next come China (19.23%), where the share of attacked users fell by 3.61%, and Qatar (14.45%).

Results
The number of malicious spam messages in 2017 fell 1.6-fold against 2016. This drop is due to the unstable operation of the Necurs botnet, which mediated the spread of far fewer mailings.

In 2018, spammers and phishers will continue to closely monitor world events and famous figures so as not to miss any opportunity to extract money and personal info from their unsuspecting targets. We can expect mailings to refer to the Winter Olympic Games, the FIFA World Cup, the presidential elections in Russia, and other events. What’s more, the first few months of the year are likely to experience a wave of phishing pages and mailshots exploiting the topic of tax refunds, since in many countries April is tax payment month. The theme of cryptocurrency will be popping up in spam for a very long time to come. And given the juicy rewards on offer, 2018 can expect to see growth in both fraudulent and phishing “cryptocurrency” spam.

The number of phishing sites using SSL certificates will surely continue to grow. As will the use of different domain name obfuscation methods.


Kaspersky Files New Lawsuit Over U.S. Government Software Ban
15.2.2018 securityweek
Kaspersky Lab has filed a new lawsuit over the U.S. government’s decision to ban its products in federal agencies, this time challenging the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA).

The NDAA for Fiscal Year 2018 was signed by President Donald Trump in mid-December and it reinforced the binding operational directive (BOD) issued by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) in September, which ordered government agencies to stop using products from Kaspersky due to concerns regarding its ties to Russian intelligence.

Kaspersky filed a lawsuit to appeal the BOD on December 18, a few days after President Trump signed the NDAA. Last month, the security firm filed an injunction in an effort to expedite the appeal.

The government filed a response to the injunction earlier this month and Kaspersky responded this week with a new lawsuit that challenges the NDAA as a bill of attainder.

A bill of attainder is a legislative act that singles out an individual or group for punishment without a trial. Legislative bills of attainder are banned by the U.S. constitution.

“Kaspersky Lab has filed an action challenging the constitutionality of Section 1634 (a) and (b) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018, which prohibits any federal entity from using the company’s hardware, software or services. Kaspersky Lab believes that these provisions violate the U.S. Constitution by specifically and unfairly singling out the company for legislative punishment, based on vague and unsubstantiated allegations without any basis in fact,” Kaspersky Lab stated.

“No evidence has been presented of any wrongdoing by the company, or of any misuse of its products. Kaspersky Lab is proven to be one of the world’s leading IT security companies, with a track record of uncovering malicious code and threat actors regardless of their origin or purpose,” the company added.

Kaspersky has attempted to clear its name by launching a new transparency initiative that involves giving partners access to source code and paying significantly larger bug bounties for vulnerabilities found in the firm’s products.

It has also attempted to provide a logical explanation over accusations that its software had been exploited by Russian hackers to steal data belonging to the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA) from a contractor’s device.