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Russian Cyberspies Change Tactics in Recent Campaign
8.6.2018 securityweek BigBrothers  CyberSpy

Recently observed attacks orchestrated by the Russian threat group Sofacy have revealed a change in tactics and new iterations of previously known tools, according to Palo Alto Networks researchers.

Also tracked as APT28, Fancy Bear, Pawn Storm, Sednit and Strontium, the cyber-espionage group has been associated with numerous attacks worldwide, including those targeting the 2016 presidential election in the United States, assaults on Ukraine and NATO countries, and attacks on targets in Asia.

Earlier this year, security researchers revealed that Sofacy’s campaigns overlap with other state-sponsored operations, and also dissected a new backdoor employed by the group. Dubbed Zebrocy, the new malware consists of a Delphi downloader and an AutoIT stage, ESET reported in April.

Now, Palo Alto reveals that a C++ version of Zebrocy has also been seen in attacks. Furthermore, the security researchers discovered Sofacy attacks that leveraged the Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE) exploit technique to deliver different payloads than before.

The campaign, Palo Alto says, breaks out of the previously observed patterns in that it no longer targets only a handful of employees within a single organization. Instead, the attackers sent phishing emails to “an exponentially larger number of individuals” within the target company.

“The targeted individuals did not follow any significant pattern, and the email addresses were found easily using web search engines. This is a stark contrast with other attacks commonly associated with the Sofacy group,” the security researchers explain.

Not only did the group launch a large number of Zebrocy attacks, but it also started using DDE to deliver payloads such as the Zebrocy backdoor and the open-source penetration testing toolkit Koadic (this is the first time it leverages this tool). Previously, the group used the DDE technique for the distribution of Seduploader.

As detailed in a February report, Palo Alto also discovered that the group was hiding infrastructure using random registrant and service provider information for each attack and that they deployed a webpage on each of the domains.

The artifact led to the discovery of an attack campaign using the DealersChoice exploit kit, as well as another domain serving the Zebrocy AutoIT downloader.

Eventually, this led to the discovery of the C++ variant of the Zebrocy downloader tool, as well as to “evidence of a completely different payload in Koadic being delivered as well.” The Delphi backdoor delivered as the final payload in Zebrocy attacks was found hosted at IP address 185.25.50[.]93, the researchers say.

From this command and control (C&C) IP, the researchers discovered another hard-coded user agent being used by Zebrocy. Several samples of the backdoor employing the user agent were observed targeting the foreign affairs ministry of a large Central Asian nation.

One other sample used a different user agent, which the researchers determined was from a secondary payload retrieved by the malware. The researchers eventually discovered over forty additional Zebrocy samples, several of which were targeting the same Central Asian nation.

Two weaponized Office documents leveraging DDE were used to target a North American government organization dealing with foreign affairs with the Zebrocy AutoIT downloader, and the previously mentioned large Central Asian nation, but with a non-Zebrocy payload this time, namely Koadic.

“Sofacy is carrying out parallel campaigns to attack similar targets around the world but with different toolsets. The Zebrocy tool associated with this current strain of attacks is constructed in several different forms based on the programming language the developer chose to create the tool. We have observed Delphi, AutoIt, and C++ variants of Zebrocy, all of which are related not only in their functionality, but also at times by chaining the variants together in a single attack,” Palo Alto concludes.


Russia asks Apple to remove Telegram Messenger from the App Store
7.6.2018 thehackernews  BigBrothers

Russia's communications regulator Roskomnadzor has threatened Apple to face the consequences if the company does not remove secure messaging app Telegram from its App Store.
Back in April, the Russian government banned Telegram in the country for the company's refusal to hand over private encryption keys to Russian state security services to access messages sent using the secure service.
However, so far, the Telegram app is still available in the Russian version of Apple's App Store.
So in an effort to entirely ban Telegram, state watchdog Roskomnadzor reportedly sent a legally binding letter to Apple asking it to remove the app from its Russian App Store and block it from sending push notifications to local users who have already downloaded the app.
Roskomnadzor's director Alexander Zharov said he is giving the company one month to remove the Telegram app from its App Store before the regulator enforces punishment for violations.
For those unfamiliar with the app, Telegram offers end-to-end encryption for secure messaging, so that no one, not even Telegram, can access the messages that are sent between users.
However, despite being banned in April, the majority of users in Russia are still using the app via Virtual Private Networks (VPNs), and only 15 to 30 percent of Telegram's operations in the country have been disrupted so far, Roskomnadzor announced yesterday.
This failure leads the regulator to turn to Apple for help taking the app down.
"In order to avoid possible action by Roskomnadzor for violations of the functioning of the above-mentioned Apple Inc. service, we ask you to inform us as soon as possible about your company’s further actions to resolve the problematic issue," said Roskomnadzor in the letter.
The state regulator also says that the regulator is in talks with Google to ban the Telegram app from Google Play as well.
Roskomnadzor is a federal executive body in Russia which is responsible for overseeing the media, including the electronic media, mass communications, information technology and telecommunications; organizing the work of the radio-frequency service; and overseeing compliance with the law protecting the confidentiality of its users' personal data.
Roskomnadzor wanted Telegram to share its users' chats and encryption keys with the state security services, as the encrypted messaging app is widely popular among terrorists that operate inside Russia.
However, Telegram declined to comply with the requirements.
Apple has primarily expressed its support for encryption and secure data in the past, but we have seen the company complying with the local demands.
Last year, Apple removed all VPN apps from its App Store in China, making it harder for internet users to bypass its Great Firewall, and moved its iCloud operations to a local firm linked to the Chinese government.
Also, at the end of last year, Apple pulled Skype, along with several similar apps, from its App Store in China.


Federal Agencies Respond to 2017 Cybersecurity Executive Order
6.6.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

Federal Agencies Respond to 2017 Cybersecurity Executive Order

The U.S. Department of State, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the Department of Commerce, and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) last week published reports in response to the cybersecurity executive order signed by President Donald Trump last year in an effort to improve the protection of federal networks and critical infrastructure against cyberattacks.

Department of State on deterring adversaries

The Department of State has published two reports with recommendations to President Trump on reducing the risk of cyber conflict, detering malicious actors, maintaining an open and interoperable Internet, and protecting the country’s cyber interests through international cooperation.

The State Department believes the United States can deter both state and non-state actors using two approaches: improving the security of its networks, and through “cost imposition.”

The goal is to prevent cyberattacks that can be classified as use of force, and a long-lasting reduction of less serious destructive and disruptive activities that fall below the use of force threshold.

“The President already has a wide variety of cyber and non-cyber options for deterring and responding to cyber activities that constitute a use of force. Credibly demonstrating that the United States is capable of imposing significant costs on those who carry out such activities is indispensable to maintaining and strengthening deterrence,” the State Department’s report reads.

It adds, “With respect to activities below the threshold of the use of force, the United States should, working with like minded partners when possible, adopt an approach of imposing swift, costly, and transparent consequences on foreign governments responsible for significant malicious cyber activities aimed at harming U.S. national interests.”

Criminal charges, prosecutions and sanctions can represent an efficient deterrent, but the government should make it clear to potential adversaries that they would face consequences if they engage in malicious cyber activities. However, these types of actions may not deter some threat actors, such as terrorists, in which case the solution is increasing the operational cost and complexity for the adversary to achieve its goal, the State Department said.

OMB report on cybersecurity risk determination

The Executive Office of the President through the OMB has published a Federal Cybersecurity Risk Determination Report and Action Plan, which assesses cybersecurity risk management capabilities across federal agencies and provides recommendations on addressing gaps.

An analysis of 96 civilian agencies showed that 71 of them had been assigned an “At Risk” or “High Risk” rating for their ability to identify, detect and respond to cyber incidents and recover from them.

“OMB and DHS also found that agencies are not equipped to determine how malicious actors seek to gain access to their information systems and data. This overall lack of timely threat information means agencies are spending billions of dollars on security capabilities without fully understanding the dangers their facing in the digital wild. This situation creates enterprise-wide gaps in network visibility, IT tool and capability standardization, and common operating procedures, all of which negatively impact Federal cybersecurity,” the OMB said in its report.

The OMB and DHS have detailed the actions required to address cybersecurity risks and say they have already started implementing them.

Department of Commerce and DHS on enhancing resilience against botnets

The Department of Commerce and DHS have published a report on enhancing the resilience of the Internet against botnets and other automated threats.

After collecting data on the matter, the agencies determined that international collaboration is needed due to many devices ensnared by botnets being located outside the U.S. They also believe this challenge can only be solved through collaboration between different stakeholders.

The organizations found that while the tools and processes required to address the problem exist, they are not applied in some market sectors due to various reasons, including budgets, lack of awareness, lack of incentives, and insufficient technical expertise.

“The recommended actions and options include ongoing activities that should be continued or expanded, as well as new initiatives. No single investment or activity can mitigate all threats , but organized discussions and stakeholder feedback will allow us to further evaluate and prioritize these activities based on their expected return on investment and ability to measurably impact ecosystem resilience,” reads the report from the DHS and the Department of Commerce.

DHS and Commerce on cybersecurity workforce

The DHS and the Commerce Department also published a report on supporting the growth and sustainment of the United States’ cybersecurity workforce.

According to the report, there had been nearly 300,000 cybersecurity-related job openings in the United States as of August 2017. The agencies believe veterans represent an underutilized workforce supply, and women and minorities are underrepresented in the field. They admit that while pay for cybersecurity roles is typically above average, the government pays cybersecurity staff below the level needed to attract the necessary talent.

“A successful cybersecurity workforce strategy for the Nation should include an enhanced focus upon the value of diversity and inclusion and convert it into a potent resource that can be used to great advantage. Fostering and sustaining a diverse workforce will support the ability to find new talent to carry out this effort and to uncover novel ways to solve problems. Integrating cyber security concepts in to our primary and secondary education curricula will generate early interest in cyber security in a manner that cuts across all sectors of American society. Among workforce - aged adults, veterans, women, minorities, and the economically disadvantaged should be aggressively recruited, without compromising required standards,” the report reads.


German Spy Agency Can Keep Tabs on Internet Hubs: Court
1.6.2018 securityweek  BigBrothers

Germany's spy agency can monitor major internet hubs if Berlin deems it necessary for strategic security interests, a federal court has ruled.

In a ruling late on Wednesday, the Federal Administrative Court threw out a challenge by the world's largest internet hub, the De-Cix exchange, against the tapping of its data flows by the BND foreign intelligence service.

The operator had argued the agency was breaking the law by capturing German domestic communications along with international data.

However, the court in the eastern city of Leipzig ruled that internet hubs "can be required by the federal interior ministry to assist with strategic communications surveillance by the BND".

De-Cix says its Frankfurt hub is the world's biggest internet exchange, bundling data flows from as far as China, Russia, the Middle East and Africa, which handles more than six terabytes per second at peak traffic.

De-Cix Management GmbH, which is owned by eco Association, the European internet industry body, had filed suit against the interior ministry, which oversees the BND and its strategic signals intelligence.

It said the BND, a partner of the US National Security Agency (NSA), has placed so-called Y-piece prisms into its data-carrying fibre optic cables that give it an unfiltered and complete copy of the data flow.

The surveillance sifts through digital communications such as emails using certain search terms, which are then reviewed based on relevance.

De-Cix said in a statement Thursday that it believed the ruling shielded it from criminal liability for violations of the law protecting German domestic communications against tapping by stating that the German government bore responsibility.

However it said it would review whether it would take its complaint to the Federal Constitutional Court.

Given the mass of daily phone calls, emails, chats, internet searches, streamed videos and other online communications, an effective fire-walling of purely German communications is unrealistic, activists argue.

Germany had reacted with outrage when information leaked by former NSA contractor Edward Snowden revealed in 2013 that US agents were carrying out widespread tapping worldwide, including of Chancellor Angela Merkel's mobile phone.

Merkel, who grew up in communist East Germany where state spying on citizens was rampant, declared repeatedly that "spying among friends is not on" while acknowledging Germany's reliance on the US in security matters.

But to the great embarrassment of Germany, it later emerged that the BND helped the NSA spy on European allies.

Berlin in 2016 approved new measures, including greater oversight, to rein in the BND following the scandal.


Yes, Germany BND foreign intelligence service can spy on the world’s biggest internet exchange

1.6.2018 securityaffairs BigBrothers

This week, a federal court has ruled that Germany’s BND foreign intelligence service can monitor major internet hubs for strategic security interests.
Recently, the operator of the world’s top Internet Hub sued the BND foreign intelligence service for the surveillance activity conducted by the spy agency.

The operator wants to be sure that the agency is not violating any law by monitoring German domestic communications as well as tapping international traffic through the De-Cix exchange.

The De-Cix exchange is the world’s biggest internet exchange based in Frankfurt and represents a privileged position for traffic monitoring,

The hub sees more than six terabytes per second at peak traffic from China, Russia, the Middle East and Africa.

The Federal court of Leipzig ruled that internet hubs “can be required by the federal interior ministry to assist with strategic communications surveillance by the BND”.

The hub is operated by the De-Cix Management GmbH, which is owned by the European internet industry organization eco Association.

The European eco Associationh body filed suit against Germany’s interior ministry against its surveillance activities.

“We consider ourselves under obligation to our customers to work towards a situation in which strategic surveillance of their telecommunications only takes place in a legal manner.” states the body.

The mutual support of the US NSA intelligence agency and the BND was largely documented in the past.

In June 2015, Wikileaks released another collection of documents on the extended economic espionage activity conducted by the NSA in Germany. At the time, the cyberspies were particularly interested in the Greek debt crisis. The US intelligence targeted German government representatives due to their privileged position in the negotiations between Greece and the UE.

In August 2015, the German weekly Die Zeit disclosed documents that reveal how the German Intelligence did a deal with the NSA to get the access to the surveillance platform XKeyscore.

Internal documents reported that Germany’s domestic intelligence agency, the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution (BfV), received the software program XKeyscore from the NSA in return of data from Germany.

Back in 2o11, the NSA demonstrated the capabilities of the XKeyscore platform of the BfV agency. After two years of negotiation, the BfV signed an agreement to receive the NSA spyware software and install it for analyzing metadata collected on German citizens. In return, the German Agency promised to share metadata collected.

The NSA tool collects ‘nearly everything a user does on the internet’, XKeyscore gives ‘widest-reaching’ collection of online data analyzing the content of emails, social media, and browsing history.

In 2013, documents leaked by Edward Snowden explained that a tool named DNI Presenter allows the NSA to read the content of stored emails and it also enables the intelligence analysts to track the user’s activities on Facebook through a system dubbed XKeyscore.

XKeyscore map used also by BND

According to Die Zeit, the document “Terms of Reference” stated: “The BfV will: To the maximum extent possible share all data relevant to NSA’s mission”.

In June 2016, the German government approved new measures to rein in the activities of BND agency after its scandalous support to NSA surveillance activity.


US Federal court judge rejected a lawsuit by Kaspersky against the ban on its products
1.6.2018 securityaffairs BigBrothers

A US Federal court judge, Colleen Kollar-Kotelly, rejected a lawsuit by Russian cybersecurity firm Kaspersky Lab against the ban on the use it solution by government agencies
On Wednesday, the US Federal court judge Colleen Kollar-Kotelly rejected a lawsuit by Russian cyber security firm Kaspersky Lab against the ban on the use it solution by government agencies.

The ban on security firm Kaspersky imposed by the US Department of Homeland security started in September 2017.

In December, Kaspersky Lab sued the U.S. Government over product ban, it’s appeal was filed in the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia, just a week after the US President Donald Trump signed a bill that bans the use of Kaspersky Lab products and services in federal agencies.

Section 1634 of the bill prohibits the use of security software and services provided by security giant, the ban will start from October 1, 2018.

Below the details of the ban included in the section 1634 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018.

“SEC. 1634. Prohibition on use of products and services developed or provided by Kaspersky Lab.

(a) Prohibition.—No department, agency, organization, or other element of the Federal Government may use, whether directly or through work with or on behalf of another department, agency, organization, or element of the Federal Government, any hardware, software, or services developed or provided, in whole or in part, by—

(1) Kaspersky Lab (or any successor entity);
(2) any entity that controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with Kaspersky Lab; or
(3) any entity of which Kaspersky Lab has majority ownership.

(b) Effective date.—The prohibition in subsection (a) shall take effect on October 1, 2018.”

US officials believe Russian intelligence could use the Kaspersky software to spy on the systems running it.

Back to the present, Federal court judge Colleen Kollar-Kotelly rejected the lawsuit, reaffirming the right of the government to choose its providers to protect the security of its infrastructure.

The ban “does not inflict ‘punishment’ on Kaspersky Lab,” Kollar-Kotelly said in her ruling.

“It eliminates a perceived risk to the nation’s cybersecurity and, in so doing, has the secondary effect of foreclosing one small source of revenue for a large multinational corporation,” said Kollar-Kotelly.

kaspersky

The judge rejected Kaspersky’s complaint that US Government had illegally denied the firm’s “right” to sell a product, she also remarked that the ban is legal and will remain in place.

The impact on Kaspersky was severe, other governments expressed their concerns over the possibility to hack their solutions as part of cyber espionage campaigns.

Many companies in the US already stopped using Kaspersky software, and most major stores have stopped selling it.

While the private company does not report its earnings, sales internationally have also reportedly been hurt.


Senators Ask National Security Advisor to Save Cybersecurity Coordinator Role
31.5.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

A group of Democrat senators is urging National Security Advisor John Bolton to reconsider the decision to eliminate the role of cybersecurity coordinator, arguing that it represents a step in the wrong direction.

Bolton announced the decision to cut the cybersecurity role following the departure of Rob Joyce. The National Security Council (NSC) said the move was part of an effort to streamline authority, noting that the duties of the cybersecurity coordinator would be taken over by two other senior directors.

“Streamlining management will improve efficiency, reduce bureaucracy and increase accountability,” the NSC said at the time.

Cybersecurity experts and several lawmakers contested the decision after it was announced. On Wednesday, Senator Amy Klobuchar and 18 other senators sent a letter to Bolton urging him to reconsider his recommendation, citing increasingly frequent and sophisticated cyber operations, particularly ones believed to have been launched by Russia.

“Our country’s cybersecurity should be a top priority; therefore, it is critically important that the U.S. government present a unified front in defending against cyberattacks,” the senators wrote. “Eliminating the Cybersecurity Coordinator role keeps us from presenting that unified front and does nothing to deter our enemies from attacking us again. Instead, it would represent a step in the wrong direction.”

While there are a few private-sector cybersecurity professionals who applaud the decision, many believe eliminating the role is a big mistake.

“The removal of the cybersecurity position will leave the Trump administration flat footed the next time a major cyber event does happen. In situations where minutes matter, the most prepared person in the room almost always carries the day. In a room full of decision makers with no cyber security background and a general who is in charge of fighting cyber wars, it is a foregone conclusion as to whom will have the strongest voice in the room,” Ross Rustici, senior director of intelligence services at Cybereason, told SecurityWeek.

“Every cyber event will become a military issue with a military solution. Regardless of the efficacy of the position or those who occupied it, the fact that the position existed demonstrated a commitment to understanding, managing, and responding to cyber threats in a way that was on par with the other major global issues of the day. The absorption of that position into someone else’s duties makes cyber outside of the military context an ‘other duties as assigned’ mission. This will lead to a marginalization of the knowledge and strategy,” Rustici added.


U.S. Judge Rejects Kaspersky Suit Against Govt Ban on its Products
31.5.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

Washington - A Washington judge on Wednesday rejected a lawsuit by Russian computer security company Kaspersky Lab against the ban on use of its anti-virus software by government agencies.

Kaspersky had complained that the ban -- announced after officials said Russian intelligence was able to hack the software for espionage purposes -- was in effect a "punishment" of the company without it having given it any kind of hearing.

Federal court judge Colleen Kollar-Kotelly rejected the argument, saying the US government had the right to institute the ban to defend its computer security.

Related: The Increasing Effect of Geopolitics on Cybersecurity

The ban "does not inflict 'punishment' on Kaspersky Lab," Kollar-Kotelly said in her ruling.

"It eliminates a perceived risk to the nation's cybersecurity and, in so doing, has the secondary effect of foreclosing one small source of revenue for a large multinational corporation," she said.

She also rejected the global cybersecurity giant's complaint that it had been illegally denied the "right" to sell a product that is legal, and that the ban harmed its reputation.

While the company can still market its products, she said, the government has no obligation to buy them.

In addition, she said, as the ban is legal and will remain in place, nothing can be done about any harm to its reputation.

The ban began with a directive in September 2017 from the Department of Homeland Security for government agencies to remove Kaspersky software from their computing systems.

That has since been followed by a provision set by Congress in a budget bill prohibiting agencies from using Kaspersky software.

Both came after the National Security Agency, the US signals intelligence body, determined that Kaspersky software on an NSA employee's private computer allowed hackers, believed to be from Russian intelligence, to steal top secret NSA materials.

US officials have also expressed concern about alleged ties between Kaspersky and the Russian government, which the company denies.

The impact on the company has been heavy. Most US companies have moved to stop using its software, and most major stores have stopped selling it.

While the private company does not report its earnings, sales internationally have also reportedly been hurt.


Operator of World's Top Internet Hub Sues German Spy Agency
31.5.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

Berlin - The operator of the world's largest internet hub challenged the legality of sweeping telecoms surveillance by Germany's spy agency, a German court heard Wednesday.

The BND foreign intelligence service has long tapped international data flows through the De-Cix exchange based in the German city of Frankfurt.

But the operator argues the agency is breaking the law by also capturing German domestic communications.

"We have grave doubts about the legality of the current practice," said a statement Wednesday on the website of De-Cix Management GmbH, which is owned by European internet industry body the eco association.

"We consider ourselves under obligation to our customers to work towards a situation in which strategic surveillance of their telecommunications only takes place in a legal manner."

Its lawyer Sven-Erik Heun told German news agency DPA that "the BND has chosen the biggest pond to go fishing in".

De-Cix Management launched its suit against the German interior ministry, which oversees the BND and its strategic signals intelligence.

"With the lawsuit, we seek judicial clarification and, in particular, legal certainty for our customers and our company," the company said.

The federal administrative court in the eastern city of Leipzig was not certain to make a ruling on Wednesday.

Given the mass of daily phone calls, emails, chats, internet searches, streamed videos and other online communications, an effective fire-walling of purely German communications is unrealistic, activists argue.

The De-Cix operator says its Frankfurt hub is the world's biggest Internet Exchange, bundling data flows from as far as China, Russia, the Middle East and Africa, and handles more than 6 terabits per second at peak traffic.

The De-Cix, with 20 data centres, uses more electricity than Frankfurt international airport, the Sueddeutsche Zeitung daily reported this week.

It said the BND, a partner of the US National Security Agency (NSA), has placed so-called Y-piece prisms into its data-carrying fibre optic cables that give it an unfiltered and complete copy of the data flow.


North Korea-Linked Group Stops Targeting U.S.
31.5.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

A threat actor linked to North Korea’s Lazarus Group has stopped targeting organizations in the United States, but remains active in Europe and East Asia.

The group, tracked by industrial cybersecurity firm Dragos as Covellite, has been known to target civilian electric energy organizations in an effort to collect intellectual property and information on industrial operations.

Unlike some of the other actors whose activities have been monitored by Dragos, Covellite does not currently have the capability to disrupt industrial control systems (ICS). However, the security firm does see it as a primary threat to the ICS industry.

Covellite’s campaigns have been aimed at organizations in Europe, East Asia and North America. One of the operations, conducted in September 2017, targeted U.S. electric companies and involved phishing emails and malicious Word documents designed to deliver a piece of malware.

FireEye analyzed those attacks and linked them to an actor affiliated with the North Korean government. The security firm published a report in October 2017 and noted that the actor appeared to lack the ability to disrupt power supply.

A blog post published by Dragos on Thursday does not mention North Korea, but researchers pointed out that Covellite’s infrastructure and malware are similar to ones associated with the group known as Lazarus and Hidden Cobra.

“Technical analysis of COVELLITE malware indicates an evolution from known LAZARUS toolkits. However, aside from technical overlap, it is not known how the capabilities and operations between COVELLITE and LAZARUS are related,” explained Sergio Caltagirone, director of threat intelligence at Dragos.

According to Dragos, Covellite has been around since 2017 and is still active, but it has recently stopped targeting organizations in North America, while continuing to attack entities in Europe and East Asia.

“Given the group’s specific interest in infrastructure operations, rapidly improving capabilities, and history of aggressive targeting, Dragos considers this group a primary threat to the ICS industry,” said Caltagirone.

While Covellite may no longer be targeting organizations in the United States, that does not mean all North Korea-linked groups have done the same. Several cybersecurity firms told CyberScoop this week that North Korea has still launched attacks on businesses in the U.S.

Dragos has published brief reports on several of the groups that pose a threat to ICS, including Iran-linked Chrysene, Russia-linked Allanite, and Xenotime, the group believed to be behind the Triton/Trisis attacks.


Europol Creates Dark Web Investigations Team
30.5.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

The European Union’s law enforcement agency today announced the creation of a dedicated team that will be investigating activity across the dark web.

The newly established Dark Web Investigations Team, embedded within Europol’s European Cybercrime Centre (EC3), is the result of a Europol initiative “to create a coordinated law enforcement approach to tackle crime on the dark web.”

The dedicated team will have participation from EU law enforcement agencies, operational third parties, and other relevant partners.

Through EC3, Europol has been long supporting investigations of criminal marketplaces on the dark web, and helped last year with the takedown of some of the largest dark web markets, such as AlphaBay.

Many critical marketplaces for criminal organizations and individual illegal activities worldwide are hosted on the dark web, the law enforcement agency points out. Such underground markets represent fertile environments for criminals, as they offer the possibility to buy and sell anonymously.

Shut down last year, Alphabay and Hansa, two of the largest underground marketplaces, were reportedly responsible for the trading of over 350,000 illicit goods, including drugs, firearms and cybercrime tools, such as malware.

The successful takedown of these dark web portals resulted in a decreased volume of transactions and in some traders leaving the dark web platform due to anxiety, uncertainty, and the risks regarding the level of anonymity, Europol notes. Many vendors “were not inclined to open them again,” and the distrust between vendors and buyers has increased.

The newly established dedicated Dark Web Team “will deliver a complete, coordinated approach: sharing information, providing operational support and expertise in different crime areas and the development of tools, tactics, and techniques to conduct dark web investigations and identify top threats and targets. The team also aims to enhance joint technical and investigative actions, organize training and capacity-building initiatives, together with prevention and awareness-raising campaigns – a 360° strategy against criminality on the dark web,” Europol says.


Russia Asks Apple to Help Block Telegram
28.5.2018 securityweek BigBrothers 

Russia's communications watchdog said Monday it had requested Apple help it block the popular messaging app Telegram which has been banned in the country for refusing to give the security services access to private conversations.

Roskomnadzor said it had requested that Apple both block push notifications for Telegram users in Russia, which would mean users would not receive alerts for new messages and thus render it less useful, as well as no longer make it available for download in the country.

"In order to avoid possible action by Roskomnadzor for violations of the functioning of the above-mentioned Apple Inc. service, we ask you to inform us as soon as possible about your company's further actions to resolve the problematic issue," said the regulator.

Roskomnadzor's director Alexander Zharov later told the Russian news agency Interfax that Apple had one month to reply and declined to speculate about what actions it could possibly take against the US firm if it refused to comply.

Last month a Moscow court banned the popular app following a long-running battle between authorities and Telegram, which has a reputation for securely encrypted communications, as Moscow pushes to increase surveillance of internet activities.

The app was created by maverick Russian programmer Pavel Durov, who has long said he will reject any attempt by the country's security services to gain backdoor access to the app.

The free app that lets people exchange messages, stickers, photos and videos in groups of up to 5,000 people has attracted more than 200 million users since its launch by Durov and his brother Nikolai in 2013.

Following the court ruling Roskomnadzor has moved to block the functioning of Telegram, but has acknowledged it has only succeeded in disrupting its operations by 15 to 30 percent.

It has also ended up disrupting other services, with Zharov last week accusing Telegram of using other online services as "human shields" by using their servers.

Zharov was also quoted by Russian news agencies as saying the ban against Telegram was justified as it had been used in the planning of all the latest terror attacks around the world.

Roskomnadzor told the TASS state news agency on Monday that discussions were still underway with Google about implementing the ban.


Europol Signs Cybersecurity Agreement With EU Agencies, WEF
25.5.2018 securityweek BigBrothers   

Europol this week signed two memorandums of understanding related to cybersecurity cooperation – one with the World Economic Forum (WEF) and one with the European Union Agency for Network and Information Security (ENISA), the European Defence Agency (EDA), and the EU’s Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-EU).

The memorandum of understanding (MoU) signed on Wednesday between Europol, ENISA, EDA and CERT-EU establishes a cooperation framework on cyber security and cyber defense.

The agreement focuses on cyber exercises, education and training, exchange of information, strategic and administrative matters, and technical cooperation. The MoU also allows cooperation in other areas that may turn out to be important for all four organizations.

“EDA supports Member States in the development of their defence capabilities. As such, we also act as the military interface to EU policies,” said Jorge Domecq, chief executive of the EDA. “Today’s Memorandum of Understanding is an important step towards increased civil-military cooperation and synergies in the area of cyber security and cyber defence.”

“The EU institutions, bodies and agencies rely on the specialised skills and tools in threat intelligence and incident response of CERT-EU. But, we don’t maintain these capacities by acting alone. That is why acting together with our peers and partners in the other signatories to this Memorandum is so important,” stated Ken Ducatel, acting head of CERT-EU.

As for the MoU signed on Friday by Europol and the WEF, it focuses on establishing a cooperation framework whose goal is to make cyberspace safe for individuals, businesses and organizations.

The WEF and Europol recently announced the launch of a Global Cyber Security Centre located in Geneva, Switzerland.

As part of the new agreement, Europol and WEF will collaborate on the implementation of projects in common areas of interest, best practices, technical information on cybercrime, and statistical data.


UK Warns That Aggressive Cyberattack Could Trigger Kinetic Response
25.5.2018 securityweek BigBrothers   

UK Says it Doesn't Need to Demonstrate Attribution Before Engaging Cyber Retaliation

The scene was set last week when Air Marshall Phil Collins (Chief of Defence Intelligence, UK Ministry of Defence) spoke at the Royal United Services Institute (RUSI). In his speech Collins talked about the growing use of non-kinetic (primarily cyber) warfare.

"We can see numerous examples of this today," he said: "unprecedented industrial espionage activity against the UK and Allies; private security contractors being used in high-end expeditionary warfare in Syria; cyber-attacks against national infrastructure and reputation across Europe; information operations that attempt to pervert political process and frustrate the rule of law; and attempted assassinations."

He warned that the nature of modern warfare is becoming broader, more strategic, and features "continuous full spectrum competition and confrontation."

The UK's response, he said, "should be to understand first, to decide first, and then if necessary to act first, across the physical and virtual, to secure decision advantage and then operational advantage, seeking swift yet controlled exploitation of vulnerabilities and the proactive denial of opportunities."

The implication is that the UK requires the ability (and he makes it clear that he believes the UK has that ability) to both respond to cyber-attacks and if necessary launch preemptive cyber-attacks effectively in self-defense. What he doesn't discuss is the relationship of such actions to international law. That was left to a separate speech delivered Wednesday by the UK attorney general, Jeremy Wright QC MP, at Chatham House: Cyber and International Law in the 21st Century.

While Wright accepts that international cyber law is a difficult area, "cyberspace is an integral part of the rules based international order. That being so, it is the UK’s view that there are boundaries of acceptable state behavior in cyberspace, just as there are everywhere else."

Cyber WarefareWhat this means, he says, "is that hostile actors cannot take action by cyber means without consequence, both in peacetime and in times of conflict. States that are targeted by hostile cyber operations have the right to respond to those operations in accordance with the options lawfully available to them and that in this as in all things, all states are equal before the law."

In effect, his speech discusses legal and illegal nation-level cyber activity; and his view of a legal and illegal UK response to that.

Two aspects stand out. First, he defines a cyber-attack against the critical infrastructure that can or does lead to loss of life as an unlawful use of force that can trigger a non-cyber response. "The UK considers it is clear that cyber operations that result in, or present an imminent threat of, death and destruction on an equivalent scale to an armed attack will give rise to an inherent right to take action in self-defense, as recognized in Article 51 of the UN Charter."

Article 51 states, "Nothing in the present Charter shall impair the inherent right of individual or collective self-defense if an armed attack occurs..." In short, the UK attorney general is stating that such cyber-attacks can legally result in a kinetic military response.

In reality, there is little new here. Bryson Bort, CEO and founder at Scythe -- and a visiting fellow at the National Security Institute, George Mason university -- told SecurityWeek, "This 'position' tends to be the prevailing opinion, but between what is publicly stated and whatever classified response may have been made in line with this doctrine, we only have confirmation that loss of life equals kinetic response, a.k.a. traditional military reprisal."

Slavik Markovich, CEO and Co-founder at Demisto, wonders if -- under this doctrine -- a state can lawfully make a preemptive strike in order to prevent the potential future loss of life. "Take Stuxnet," he said. "Is it OK for a state to launch a cyber-attack on another states’ weapon systems to preemptively defend against said state that has publicly declared it wants to destroy the cyber offensive state?”

Jeremy Wright never uses the term preemptive -- but Air Marshall Collins does with his 'proactive denial of opportunities' assertion.

The second stand-out from Wright's speech suggests that cyber-attacks that do not threaten life cannot lawfully result in a kinetic response. This would include Russian interference in the U.S. 2016 election (note that former director of national intelligence James Clapper told PBS NewsHour Wednesday that he believes that Russian interference didn't just influence the election, but actually won it for Donald Trump).

Wright says it is clearly an unlawful act, and the victim (in this example, the U.S.) has the right to respond against the aggressor (in this example, Russia) -- but the type of response is tempered by the doctrine of countermeasures. "Countermeasures cannot involve the use of force, and they must be both necessary and proportionate to the purpose of inducing the hostile state to comply with its obligations under international law."

The UK disagrees in one matter with the work of the International Law Commission on countermeasures. It does not believe that a retaliating nation needs to tell the aggressor that it will retaliate -- it can simply do so. That retaliation cannot be by force, but does not need to be symmetrical to the underlying unlawful act.

In simple terms, a cyber-attack that leads to loss of life can legally elicit a military response. A cyber-attack that does not lead to loss of life can only legally elicit a greater cyber response. "This statement by the UK Attorney General is the first official statement that reflects the truth on the ground," comments Bort. It "is a pragmatic recognition of the realities of cyber warfare... It means a lot to be the first to provide this position publicly and the popularity of this position will grow from here."

But underlying these arguments -- and one discussed at some length by Wright -- is the problem of attribution. "There are obviously practical difficulties involved in making any attributions of responsibilities when the action concerned is capable of crossing traditional territorial boundaries and sophisticated techniques are used to hide the identity and source of the operation" he says. "Those difficulties are compounded by the ready accessibility of cyber technologies and the resultant blurring of lines between the actions of governments and those of individuals."

Nathan Wenzler, chief security strategist at AsTech, is particularly worried about attribution and the UK's attitude towards it. "It's a troubling problem," he told SecurityWeek, "and one which no one has solved to such an extent that would allow them to make definitive statements such as Mr. Wright's, and this leaves open the potential for a wide array of legal, ethical and political issues that may come about from retaliating against an entity that either did not actually commit the initial attack or ultimately had nothing to do with the attack at all. And, while nation-state sponsored cyber-attacks are a well-known issue, it doesn't mean that it is always the case, and the political ramifications of launching any type of response against another country without definitive proof can lead to far greater disasters."

Bort is a little less concerned. "Attribution is hard no matter who you are," he said. "But, nation states with advanced cyber and intelligence capabilities have a long history of solving the attribution problem. There may be a few more question-marks in the cyber domain as to who certain cyber attackers are, but it’s a generally small list of perpetrators to look at. The UK government will likely be absolutely sure when they respond."

The key phrase from Bort is 'intelligence capabilities'. Security researchers can only track cyber in cyber -- and that is the problem. Nation states -- particularly members of the 5 Eyes group -- have access to wide-ranging high-grade signals intelligence and on-the-ground agents that may provide irrefutable proof that the intelligence services will never reveal for fear of losing or endangering their sources.

"I fear this may just be a setup for more strained political relationships between adversaries and no real improvement to the overall security of the cyberspace used by their citizens, corporations and other entities," warns Wenzler. He may well be right; but there is one single sentence in Wright's speech that takes the issue to a new level.

"There is no legal obligation requiring a state to publicly disclose the underlying information on which its decision to attribute hostile activity is based, or to publicly attribute hostile cyber activity that it has suffered in all circumstances," he says.

If there is a purely political intent behind this speech, it is to warn foreign aggressor states that the UK (and/or its allies) can lawfully respond to an aggressive cyber-attack either by kinetic or cyber actions; and that it is not duty-bound to provide public proof of its attribution. It can legally strike back without warning.


EU's New Data Protection Rules Come Into Effect
25.5.2018 securityweek  BigBrothers

The European Union's new data protection laws came into effect on Friday, with Brussels saying the changes will protect consumers from being like "people naked in an aquarium".

The EU's so-called General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) has been blamed for a flood of spam emails and messages in recent weeks as firms rush to request the explicit consent of users to contact them.

Even though the rules were officially adopted two years ago, with a grace period until now to adapt to them, companies have been slow to act, resulting in a last-minute scramble this week.

Britain's data protection watchdog, the Information Commissioner's Office (ICO), said that its site had experienced "a few interruptions" as the deadline loomed, but said that "everything is working now".

Brussels insists that the laws will become a global benchmark for the protection of people's online information, particularly in the wake of the Facebook data harvesting scandal.

"The new rules will put the Europeans back in control of their data," said EU Justice Commissioner Vera Jourova.

"When it comes to personal data today, people are naked in an aquarium."

Companies can be fined up to 20 million euros ($24 million) or four percent of annual global turnover for breaching the strict new data rules for the EU, a market of 500 million people.

- Explicit consent -

The law establishes the key principle that individuals must explicitly grant permission for their data to be used.

The new EU law also establishes consumers' "right to know" who is processing their information and what it will be used for.

People will be able to block the processing of their data for commercial reasons and even have data deleted under the "right to be forgotten".

Parents will decide for children until they reach the age of consent, which member states will set anywhere between 13 and 16 years old.

The case for the new rules has been boosted by the recent scandal over the harvesting of Facebook users' data by Cambridge Analytica, a US-British political research firm, for the 2016 US presidential election.

The breach affected 87 million users, but Facebook said Wednesday it has found no evidence that any data from Europeans were sold to Cambridge Analytica.

Facebook chief Mark Zuckerberg said in a hearing at the European Parliament on Tuesday that his firm will not only be "fully compliant" with the EU law, but will also make huge investments to protect users.

Zuckerberg said he was "sorry" for the Cambridge Analytica breaches, but also for its failure to crack down on election interference, "fake news" and other data misuses.

- 'Global standard'

Big platforms like Facebook, WhatsApp and Twitter seem well prepared for the new laws, while smaller businesses have voiced concern.

But EU officials say they are initially focusing on the big firms, whose business models use a goldmine of personal information for advertising, while offering smaller firms more time to adapt.

Meanwhile Brussels has expressed impatience with the eight countries -- out of the EU's 28 -- that say they will not have updated their laws by Friday.

EU Commissioner Jourova said the new rules are setting "a global standard of privacy".

Many Americans who once criticised Europe as too quick to regulate the new driver of the global economy now see the need for the GDPR, EU officials insist.

"I see some version of GDPR getting quickly adopted at least in the United States," Param Vir Singh, a business professor at Carnegie Mellon University, told AFP in an email.

Japan, South Korea, India and Thailand are also drawing "some inspiration" from Brussels as they debate or adopt similar laws, another EU official said.


Senator Asks DoD to Secure Its Websites
24.5.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

Senator Ron Wyden (D-Ore.) on Tuesday asked the chief information officer at the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) to take immediate action to ensure that the organization’s websites use HTTPS.

The senator noted that some of the DoD’s websites, such as the ones belonging to the NSA, the Army and the Air Force, do use HTTPS by default and certificates trusted by major web browsers, but many other sites either don’t use HTTPS at all or they rely on digital certificates issued by the DoD Root Certificate Authority. Certificates issued by the DoD itself trigger security warnings in browsers.

The list of websites that do not use HTTPS includes the ones of the Navy, Marines, and even the CIO’s official website hosted at dodcio.defense.gov.

Sen. Wyden believes the security warnings displayed for HTTP sites will “erode the public’s trust in the Department and its ability to defend against sophisticated cyber threats” and “actively degrade the public’s security by teaching users to treat security warnings as irrelevant.”

The lawmaker has pointed out that memo M-15-13 issued by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) in 2015 requires all federal agencies to secure their websites by enabling HTTPS and enforcing HSTS. Furthermore, a Binding Operational Directive issued last year by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) requires all agencies to start using web and email security technologies such as HTTPS, DMARC and STARTTLS.

The senator also noted in his letter that Google’s Chrome web browser will soon start marking HTTP pages with a red “Not Secure” warning.

The CIO of the DoD, Dana Deasy, has been instructed to direct all agencies to enable HTTPS with HSTS on all public web services, obtain and deploy certificates trusted by major browsers, and evaluate the use of shorter-lived certificates such as the ones offered by Let’s Encrypt. An action plan and progress report must be provided by the DoD by July 20.

The senator is well regarded by many in the cybersecurity industry for his initiatives. One of his advisers in privacy researcher and activist Christopher Soghoian, formerly principal technologist at the American Civil Liberties Union.


FBI Inflated Numbers on Unhackable Devices
23.5.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

The FBI claimed it was unable to analyze roughly 7,700 devices last year due to strong encryption, but the actual number is likely much lower and the agency has admitted its mistake.

Over the past years, the FBI and some U.S. lawmakers have been pushing technology companies to find ways to provide law enforcement access to encrypted communications and information. However, tech firms and experts have warned that implementing backdoors could pose a serious risk and it would undermine the purpose of encryption.

In 2016, the FBI attempted to convince a judge to force Apple to hack into the iPhone of the man behind the 2015 terrorist attack in San Bernardino. The agency ultimately dropped the case after finding an alternative way to access the data on the phone, but it later came to light that the FBI was probably only trying to create legal precedent.

There are several companies, including Israel-based Cellebrite and US-based Grayshift, that claim to have the tools and skills needed to access nearly any locked device, including the latest iPhone X.

The FBI came under fire earlier this year after a report from the Department of Justice’s Office of the Inspector General (OIG) revealed that senior leaders within the agency were not happy that an alternative solution had been found for getting into the San Bernardino shooter’s phone.

The FBI has even set up a page on its official website dedicated to “Going Dark,” the term used to describe the inability to intercept and access communications and information due to technological factors.

Over the past months, FBI Director Christopher Wray repeatedly claimed that the agency had been unable to access data from nearly 7,800 devices in the previous fiscal year due to encryption. However, it has now come to light that the actual number of devices is only between 1,000 and 2,000, The Washington Post reported.

The FBI has admitted the error and blamed it on a flawed methodology introduced in April 2016, but insists that Going Dark is still a serious problem.

The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) recently submitted a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request to learn more about this methodology and the FBI’s use of third-party solutions for bypassing encryption.

“Imposing an exceptional access mandate on encryption providers would be extraordinarily dangerous from a security perspective, but the government has never provided details about the scope of the supposed Going Dark problem,” said EFF’s Andrew Crocker. “The latest revision to Director Wray’s favorite talking point demonstrates that the case for legislation is even weaker than we thought.”


U.S. Lawmakers Denounce Purported ZTE Deal
23.5.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

The United States and China have a tentative deal to save embattled Chinese telecom company ZTE, days after the two nations announced a truce in their trade standoff, The Wall Street Journal reported Tuesday.

The report sparked an immediate negative reaction on Capitol Hill, where top Republican and Democrat senators denounced it.

Details remain to be hammered out, but according to the general outlines of the agreement, Washington would lift a crippling ban on selling US components to the company, which in turn would make major changes in its management, executive board and possibly pay additional fines, according to the report.

The company had faced collapse due to the US ban, which resulted from its violations of US sanctions against Iran and North Korea.

Washington and Beijing on Saturday called a halt to a spiraling trade dispute sparked by US accusations of unfair trade practices and the alleged theft of US technology, suspending plans to impose tariffs on as much as $150 billion in Chinese imports.

In a series of tweets, top Republican Senator Marco Rubio of Florida, who chairs a key subcommittee on foreign relations, denounced the move, vowing lawmakers would work on "veto-proof legislation" to stop the deal.

"If this is true, then the administration has surrendered to #China on #ZTE," Rubio wrote.

"Making changes to their board & a fine won't stop them from spying & stealing from us."

Minority Leader Chuck Schumer, Democrat of New York, said the proposed arrangement would "do nothing to protect American national or economic security and are simply a diversion from the fact that we have lost."

- Mnuchin on the Hill -

Schumer said in a statement the White House and Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin had been duped by China.

"President Xi has played President Trump and Secretary Mnuchin."

ZTE was fined $1.2 billion in March 2017 but last month it was prohibited from receiving needed US parts after the Commerce Department found the company had lied multiple times and failed to take actions against employees responsible for sanctions violations on Iran and North Korea.

Trump has also faced accusations of quid-pro-quo after pledging to soften sanctions on ZTE just days after AFP reported a Chinese state firm would pour cash into a Trump-tied real estate venture.

According to media reports, lawmakers were incensed last week by Trump's offer to rescue the company, which came via Twitter in the midst of the China trade talks. The president angrily denied back-pedaling.

And in testimony before the Senate on Tuesday, Mnuchin said the administration's primary goal was safeguarding US interests and denied and quid pro quo.

"The objective was not to put ZTE out of business. The objective was to make sure they abide by our sanctions programs," said Mnuchin said.

"I can assure you anything that they consider will take into account the very important national security issues and those will be addressed."

Mnuchin defended the Trump's trade policy, saying he has been "more aggressive than any previous president ever," and is not looking for "short-term gains" but to "create a level playing field and make sure US technology is protected."

The administration's trade actions, together with efforts to reduce business regulation and the recent massive tax cut, already are impacting the economy, Mnuchin said.

He said GDP "could surprise on the upside very significantly" this year with growth of three percent or more.

Many economists see economic growth this year of close to that level, but expect it to slow in 2019 and beyond.


More Charges Against 'Syrian Electronic Army' Hackers
19.5.2018 securityweek  BigBrothers

The U.S. Justice Department on Thursday announced more charges against two Syrian nationals believed to be members of the “Syrian Electronic Army” hacker group.

Ahmad ‘Umar Agha, 24, known online as “The Pro,” and Firas Dardar, 29, known online as “The Shadow,” have been indicted on 11 counts of conspiracy to commit computer fraud, conspiracy to commit wire fraud, and aggravated identity theft.

The charges stem from spear-phishing attacks allegedly launched by the men against a wide range or government and private organizations, including the Executive Office of the President, the Marine Corps, NASA, Human Rights Watch, and a long list of media companies, such as CNN, Reuters, National Public Radio, The Washington Post, The New York Times, the Associated Press, The Onion, Time, USA Today, and The New York Post.

The goal of the phishing attacks was to help the hackers obtain usernames and passwords, which they could use to deface websites, redirect the visitors of the targeted site to their own domains, steal emails, and hijack social media accounts.

Authorities pointed out that the computer fraud and wire fraud conspiracy charges carry maximum prison terms of 5 and 20 years in prison, respectively, and the aggravated identity theft charges carry up to 18 years in prison.

The men were previously charged in 2014 – the criminal complaints were only unsealed in 2016 – alongside Peter “Pierre” Romar, who had been residing in Germany. Romar was arrested and pleaded guilty to hacking and extortion charges in September 2016.

Ahmad ‘Umar Agha and Firas Dardar are still at large and are believed to be residing in Syria. They are on the FBI’s Cyber Most Wanted list, with a reward of up to $100,000 being offered for information leading to their arrest.

The new indictment comes as the five-year statute of limitations for some of the crimes they were previously charged for is about to expire.


Net Neutrality: Party Politics and Consumer Concerns
18.5.2018 securityweek  BigBrothers

Net neutrality in the U.S. is a bi-partisan issue being fought in a very partisan manner. It was introduced in the Democrat Obama-years, and abandoned by the Republican Trump-installed FCC chairman Ajit Pau. Sen. Edward Markey, D-Mass. filed a procedural petition that would allow a debate on overturning the FCC ruling via the Congressional Review Act. To succeed, this would require the support of the Senate, followed by a vote in the House, and finally the agreement of the president.

The Senate voted Wednesday and the first hurdle has been overcome. The motion needed a simple majority of 51 votes. The Democrats were confident: there are 49 Democrats in the Senate -- Sen. Susan Collins, R-Maine had promised support; and Sen. John McCain, R-AZ, was forced to be absent through illness, providing a basic majority

In the event, the Senate voted by 52 to 47 to open the debate. Three Republicans joined with Democrats: Sen. Susan Collins of Maine, Sen. John Kennedy of Louisiana and Sen. Lisa Murkowski of Alaska. The debate will now go to the House of Representatives, but it is unlikely to go any further. Republicans dominate the House -- and in the unlikely event they agree to re-instate net neutrality, it will almost certainly not be accepted by President Trump.

Right now, net neutrality is, and is likely to remain, dead along purely political partisan lines. But outside of Washington it is not a partisan issue. Sen Markey points out in a twee that 82% of republicans, 90% of democrats, and 86% of all Americans support the concept of net neutrality (statistics from the Program for Public Consultation at the University of Maryland).

The issue can be characterized by universal equal and full access to the internet versus a more efficient and better managed internet. Net neutrality holds that the internet should be equally accessible by and to everyone, always. Opponents hold that some control by the communications companies, particularly the ability to set differential prices, will lead to greater investment in the internet infrastructure and better broadband. The problem with the latter argument is that the communications companies have a history of using such powers to their own benefit and the cost of others.

"Make no mistake," warns Sean McGrath, online privacy expert at BestVPN; "the abolition of net neutrality will erode the democratic fabric that binds the Internet together. It will allow internet service providers and cable companies to dictate the winners and losers in the digital world and it will give a very small number of market players near-limitless power, stifling the rights of citizens that cannot afford to play by their rules."

The fear is that ISPs will block or slow down selected services unless the user pays a premium.

Francis Dinha, CEO and co-founder of the open source VPN protocol OpenVPN, believes that many companies will be forced to re-evaluate their business models since consumers are unlikely to pay for services that have traditionally been free.

"With this in mind," he comments, "there are solutions for users to get around blocking or slowdown. Marketers can use a VPN service that supports strong encryption and good obfuscation techniques to circumvent any slowdown or blocking of any public internet service. It will be very difficult for ISPs to slow down or block a VPN service that supports advanced obfuscation techniques." Note that the VPN industry is likely to be the major non-ISP beneficiary of the end of net neutrality.

There are also specific security concerns over the demise of net neutrality. One is a potential increase in fraudulent activity. If users are forced to pay for better services, the paid accounts will more likely be shared among family and friends. Once they are shared, they are more likely to be stolen by hackers.

"Up to 25 percent of video streaming subscribers share passwords," explains Vanita Pandey, VP of strategy and product marketing at ThreatMetrix. "If the end of net neutrality results in the sluggish Netflix experiences some predict, friends and family will pass around credentials for the fastest broadband account, which will inevitably get posted online, where they'll join more than 9 billion other stolen credentials -- names, addresses, passwords, PIN codes and more -- available to fraudsters on the dark web. As it stands, wayward login credentials will cost streaming companies $650 million in lost potential revenue this year. Across all industries, cybercrime fueled by stolen identity credentials will result in global losses of $3 trillion or more."

After Wednesday's vote, net neutrality activists are jubilant. "This is a historic victory for the free and open Internet, and a major step forward for the future of free expression and democracy," announced Evan Greer, deputy director of Fight for the Future. The reality, however, is that this vote will probably have no ultimate effect on the FCC's ruling against net neutrality -- that would probably require a change in the political landscape before any legislation cements the process.

This is now a purely partisan political issue -- and the only real beneficiary of Wednesday's vote is the Democratic party. The debate now goes to the House of Representatives, where net neutrality will almost certainly be confirmed as dead. But with so much consumer support, Democrats will hope that voters will punish Republican politicians who go against their wishes in the upcoming mid-term elections.


DHS Publishes New Cybersecurity Strategy
18.5.2018 securityweek  BigBrothers

The U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) this week published its long-delayed Cybersecurity Strategy. It had been mandated by Congress to deliver a strategy by March 2017, and did so on May 15, 2018.

The strategy is defined in a high-level document (PDF) of 35 pages. Its scope is to provide "the Department with a framework to execute our cybersecurity responsibilities during the next five years to keep pace with the evolving cyber risk landscape by reducing vulnerabilities and building resilience; countering malicious actors in cyberspace; responding to incidents; and making the cyber ecosystem more secure and resilient."

This framework comprises five pillars containing seven separate goals. The pillars are risk identification; vulnerability reduction Including the twin goals of protecting federal systems and critical industries); threat reduction by proactive means; consequence mitigation (that is, improved incident response); and to enable cybersecurity outcomes. The last pillar comprises the twin goals of strengthening the security and reliability of the cyber ecosystem, and improving the management of its own activities.

"The cyber threat landscape is shifting in real-time, and we have reached a historic turning point," said DHS Secretary Kirstjen Nielsen. "Digital security is now converging with personal and physical security, and it is clear that our cyber adversaries can now threaten the very fabric of our republic itself. That is why DHS is rethinking its approach by adopting a more comprehensive cybersecurity strategy. In an age of brand-name breaches, we must think beyond the defense of specific assets -- and confront systemic risks that affect everyone from tech giants to homeowners. Our strategy outlines how DHS will leverage its unique capabilities on the digital battlefield to defend American networks and get ahead of emerging cyber threats."

Of necessity, however, the five pillars and seven goals are defined in very basic terms. They define objectives, sub-objectives and outcomes -- but with little on methods. For example, goal #1 (the risk identification pillar) is to assess evolving cybersecurity risks. This will be achieved by working with "stakeholders, including sector-specific agencies, nonfederal cybersecurity firms, and other federal and nonfederal entities, to gain an adequate understanding of the national cybersecurity risk posture, analyze evolving interdependencies and systemic risk, and assess changing techniques of malicious actors."

However, nobody was able to predict, detect or prevent Russian meddling in the 2016 presidential election, nor the WannaCry and NotPetya outbreaks. The implication is that something new and beyond just increased interagency cooperation needs to be done to achieve genuine risk identification.

The third pillar, threat reduction together with goal #4 (prevent and disrupt criminal use of cyberspace) is also interesting. The strategy states, "We will reduce cyber threats by countering transnational criminal organizations and sophisticated cyber criminals." Again, the obvious question is, 'How?'. The strategy states, "our law enforcement jurisdiction is broad". But it does not reach into those countries that are generally considered to be the prime movers of serious cyber criminality: Russia, China, Iran and North Korea.

Indeed, the U.S. government has so far failed to repatriate Edward Snowden from Russia, nor even to apprehend Julian Assange in the European Union. It is difficult to see how the DHS will be able to prevent and disrupt advanced foreign criminal use of cyberspace without resorting to new tactics -- such as a more aggressive active defense verging on hacking back. Neither 'active defense' nor 'hack back' are mentioned in the strategy document.

Ray DeMeo, COO at Virsec, has similar concerns. "Cybersecurity is an inherently global issue and it's good that the DHS strategy recognizes the need for a 'global approach with robust international engagement'," he told SecurityWeek. "But it's yet unclear how an agency with a domestic mandate is going to effectively engage globally. The reality is that a large portion of internet crime is driven from the international "wild west" from areas with lax law enforcement, or actual nation-state sponsorship. This problem is as much diplomatic as it is technological."

These caveats aside, it is good to see a formal strategy to cover the DHS' entire theater of responsibility with a clearly stated objective: "By 2023, the Department of Homeland Security will have improved national cybersecurity risk management by increasing security and resilience across government networks and critical infrastructure; decreasing illicit cyber activity; improving responses to cyber incidents; and fostering a more secure and reliable cyber ecosystem through a unified departmental approach, strong leadership, and close partnership with other federal and nonfederal entities."

"The strategy put forth by DHS is very comprehensive and well thought out," says Rishi Bhargava, co-founder at Demisto. "The inclusion of response plan coordination under the Consequence Mitigation section is a critical piece to be able to contain damage from an attack. Any strategy is as good as it's execution. I look forward to seeing this put in action across different departments and policies."

It is reassuring that the organization is not seeking to develop its own new framework, but to encourage the use of existing relevant frameworks. "DHS," says the document, "must expand efforts to encourage adoption of applicable cybersecurity best practices, including NIST's Framework for Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity."

It is a little surprising, however, that while NIST is specified, the Domain Message Authentication Reporting & Conformance (DMARC) protocol is not mentioned. In October 2017, DHS issued a binding operational directive requiring that all federal agencies start to use DMARC. By January 2018 it was reported that about half of the agencies had implemented DMARC, but only at its lowest level.

It is easy to be critical of a high-level strategy document -- it is the detail of implementation that will decide on the effectiveness of this strategy. For the moment, this document marks a valuable and important approach to unifying and strengthening the domestic cybersecurity remit of the DHS. "The DHS approach to managing cybersecurity risk on the national level," comments Brajesh Goyal, VP of engineering at Cavirin, "is a good analogy for what organizations need to do to manage their cyber-posture. A good framework for this is the NIST Cybersecurity Framework (CSF). This can serve as a foundation for other security in-depth actions."

"It's important that the DHS has finally published its cybersecurity strategy," explains DeMeo; "but by definition, this is high-level. For the most part, these are sensible recommendations. What's critical now is making this strategy actionable. One of the document's guiding principles is to foster innovation and agility -- this is a big ask, where existing time horizons must be reduced from years down to months. We need to dramatically accelerate collaboration with the private sector, where meaningful security innovation is happening daily, if we are going to change the asymmetric nature of today's threat landscape."


U.S. Senate Votes to Restore 'Net Neutrality' Rules
17.5.2018 securityweek  BigBrothers

The US Senate voted Wednesday to restore so-called "net neutrality" rules aimed at requiring all online data to be treated equally, the latest step in a years-long battle on internet regulation.

The 52-47 vote is likely to be symbolic, however, since the measure faces an uphill battle in the House of Representatives and would need enough lawmaker support to overturn a probable presidential veto.

The vote marked the latest step in a contentious fight over rules governing online access over the past decade including court challenges and various moves by regulators.

Related: Security Implications of the End of Net Neutrality

In December, the Federal Communications Commission voted 3-2 along party lines to reverse a 2015 order which established net neutrality and which itself had faced court challenges and intense partisan debate.

In the Senate, three Republicans joined Democrats in the vote under the Congressional Review Act, which allows lawmakers to overturn a regulatory body.

FCC chairman Ajit Pai, appointed by President Donald Trump, has argued that the 2015 rules were "heavy-handed" and failed to take into account the rapidly changing landscape for online services and were discouraging investment in advanced networks.

Net neutrality backers have argued that clear rules are needed to prevent internet service providers from blocking or throttling services or websites for competitive reasons.

Some activists fear internet service providers will seek to extract higher fees from services that are heavy data users, like Netflix or other streaming services, with these costs passed on to consumers.

The battle has been largely along party lines, and has also been split with large tech firms supporting neutrality and telecom operators backing more flexible rules.

Although the Senate vote may not succeed in restoring neutrality rules, backers said it would allow voters to know where their lawmakers stand.

Democratic Senator Ed Markey said on Twitter the vote would "show the American people who sides with them, and who sides with the powerful special interests and corporate donors who are thriving under the @realDonaldTrump administration."

Ferras Vinh of the Center for Democracy & Technology, a digital rights group, welcomed the vote.

"Without net neutrality protections, internet service providers will have an explicit license to block, slow, or levy tolls on content, which will limit choices for internet users and suffocate small businesses looking to enter the market," Vinh said.

"These protections are the guiding principles of the open internet, facilitating innovation and enabling the spread of new ideas."

But USTelecom, an industry group representing major broadband carriers, expressed disappointment.

"This vote throws into reverse our shared goal of maintaining an open, thriving internet," said association president Jonathan Spalter.

"Consumers want permanent, comprehensive online protections, not half measures or election-year posturing from our representatives in Congress."


Kaspersky Lab to Move Core Infrastructure to Switzerland
16.5.2018 securityweek  BigBrothers

Swiss Data Storage

Company Will Open Transparency Center in Zurich by 2019; Data From Customers in North America Will be Stored and Processed in Switzerland

As part of its Global Transparency Initiative, Russia-based Kaspersky Lab today announced that it will adjust its infrastructure to move a number of "core processes" from Russia to Switzerland.

The security firm has had problems with the U.S. government. In September 2017, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) instructed government departments and agencies to stop using products from the Russia-based firm.

There is no hard evidence that Kaspersky has ever colluded with the Russian government; and the lost U.S. government market is small in global terms. The bigger problem, however, is the knock-on effect that U.S. government criticism has on trust levels in the wider market.

In December 2017, Lithuania banned the use of Kaspersky Lab software within certain critical national industries. In April 2018, Twitter stopped accepting ads From Kaspersky Lab; and now, on May 15, 2018, the Dutch government announced it will phase out Kaspersky Lab anti-virus software 'as a precautionary measure'.

Justice Minister Ferdinand Grapperhaus told the Dutch parliament, “The (Dutch) cabinet has carried out an independent review and analysis and made a careful decision on that basis. Although there are no concrete cases of misuse known in the Netherlands, it cannot be excluded.”

Kaspersky Lab Logo

In December 2017, the UK's National Cyber Security Center published a letter it had sent to government permanent secretaries. It included, "In practical terms, this means that for systems processing information classified SECRET and above, a Russia-based provider should never be used."

It is to maintain or regain trust that is behind Kaspersky's Global Transparency Initiative, announced in October 2017.

"The new measures," the firm announced, "comprise the move of data storage and processing for a number of regions, the relocation of software assembly and the opening of the first Transparency Center," which will be in Zurich.

The measures in question include customer data storage and processing for most regions; and software assembly including threat detection updates. Transparency will be provided by making the source code available for review by responsible stakeholders in a dedicated Transparency Center.

The company said that by the end of 2018, its products and threat detection rule databases (AV databases) "will start to be assembled and signed with a digital signature in Switzerland, before being distributed to the endpoints of customers worldwide."

The firm is going further by making plans for its processes and source code to be independently supervised by a qualified third-party. To this end, it is supporting the creation of a new, non-profit organization able to assume this responsibility not just for itself, but for other partners and members who wish to join.

“The third-party organization is a non-profit organization to be established independently for the purpose of producing professional technical reviews of the trustworthiness of the security products of its members (including Kaspersky Lab)," the firm told SecurityWeek.

“Since transparency and trust are becoming universal requirements across the cybersecurity industry, Kaspersky Lab is supporting the creation of a new, non-profit organization to take on this responsibility, not just for the company, but for other partners and members who wish to join. The details of the new organization are currently being discussed and will be shared as soon as they are available.”

Switzerland has been chosen as the site of the Center as much for its symbolic importance as anything else. “We considered several locations for our first Transparency Center, and Switzerland most closely met our criteria as well as our policy of complete neutrality," Kaspersky Lab told SecurityWeek.

"We detect and remediate any malware, regardless of its source or purpose, while Switzerland has a long and famous history of neutrality. We also value Switzerland’s robust approach to data protection legislation.” Noticeably, Switzerland is one of just a handful of non-EU companies that has been recognized by Europe as having 'adequate' privacy controls.

Noticeably, Kaspersky Lab does not link the move specifically to the effects of the U.S. ban, but sees wider issues of global trust emerging. “We are implementing these measures first and foremost in response to the evolving, ultra-connected global landscape and the challenges the cyber-world is currently facing," it said.

"This is not exclusive to Kaspersky Lab, and we believe other organizations will in future also choose to adapt to these trends. Having said that, the overall aim of these measures is transparency, verified and proven, which means that anyone with concerns will now be able to see the integrity and trustworthiness of our solutions.”


Serbia Arrests FBI-sought Cybercrime Suspect
16.5.2018 securityweek  BigBrothers

Serbian police said Wednesday they had arrested a man sought by the FBI under suspicion of being part of a group of cybercriminals who called themselves "The Dark Overlord".

The arrest of the 38-year-old Serbian from Belgrade, identified only by his initials S.S., was carried out as part of an "international operation conducted by the FBI," a police statement said.

The goal was to identify and arrest hackers who used the name "The Dark Overlord" and had been committing cyberattacks since June 2016, the statement added.

Members of the group were "stealing information and personal data from US citizens, including property and intellectual property data, sensitive health insurance and medical treatment data," it said.

At least 50 people were victims of attacks, the investigation found.

Police said the arrested man is accused of "illegal access to protected computers, computer networks and extorsion".

In late April, a British and Dutch-led operation brought down a website linked to more than four million cyberattacks around the world, with banking giants among the victims.

Two people, suspected of being administrators of the webstresser(.)org website were arrested in Serbia at the time.


Cambridge Analytica Shared Data With Russia: Whistleblower
16.5.2018 securityweek  BigBrothers

Political consulting group Cambridge Analytica used Russian researchers and shared data with companies linked to Russian intelligence, a whistleblower told a congressional hearing on interference in the 2016 US election Wednesday.

Christopher Wylie, who leaked information on the British-based firm's hijacking of data on millions of Facebook users, told a Senate panel he believes Russian intelligence services had access to data harvested by the consultancy.

Wylie told the panel that Russian-American researcher Aleksandr Kogan, who created an application to harvest Facebook user profile data, was working at the same time on Russian-funded projects, including "behavioral research."

"This means that in addition to Facebook data being accessed in Russia, there are reasonable grounds to suspect that CA may have been an intelligence target of Russian security services...(and) that Russian security services may have been notified of the existence of CA's Facebook data," Wylie said in his written testimony.

Wylie added that Cambridge Analytica "used Russian researchers to gather its data, (and) openly shared information on 'rumor campaigns' and 'attitudinal inoculation'" with companies and executives linked to the Russian intelligence agency FSB.

The hearing is part of a broad inquiry on both sides of the Atlantic over the misuse of Facebook data by the consulting firm working on Donald Trump's 2016 campaign.

Facebook has accused Cambridge Analytica of misappropriating its user data by violating terms of the data agreement with Kogan, the academic researcher.

On Tuesday, the New York Times reported that the FBI and Justice are investigating Cambridge Analytica for potential criminal violations.

The Times said it was unclear whether the probe was linked to the one led by Special Counsel Robert Mueller, who is investigating whether the Trump campaign colluded with Russia.

'Black ops' at CA

Wylie told the panel that "the ethos of the firm was 'anything goes'" for its political campaigns, including "attempting to divert health ministry funds in a struggling African country to support a politician's re-election campaign."

He added that he was aware of "black ops" at the company, "which I understood to include using hackers to break into computer systems to acquire kompromat or other intelligence for its clients."

He said that one of the tactics used to interfere with voter participation included "weaponizing fear."

"In one country, CA produced videos intended to suppress turnout by showing voters sadistic images of victims being burned alive, undergoing forced amputations with machetes and having their throats cut in a ditch," he said.

"These videos also conveyed Islamophobic messages. It was created with a clear intent to intimidate certain communities, catalyze religious hatred, portray Muslims as terrorists and deny certain voters of their democratic rights."

Cambridge Analytica announced earlier this month it was shutting down, unable to recover from the Facebook-linked scandal.

Its chief executive Alexander Nix was suspended after he was filmed by undercover reporters bragging about ways to win political campaigns, including through blackmail and honey traps.

Another whistleblower said that Britons' personal data may have been misused by a pro-Brexit campaign ahead of the 2016 referendum in which Britain voted to leave the European Union.


Operation Hotel – Ecuador spent millions on spy operation for Julian Assange
16.5.2018 securityaffairs BigBrothers

According to The Guardian newspaper, Ecuador spent millions on spy operation for Julian Assange after he hacked the embassy network.
According to a report published by the Guardian, Ecuador spied on WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange at its London embassy where he took in political asylum since 2012,

In 2012 a British judge ruled he should be extradited to Sweden to face allegations of sexual assault there, but Assange explained that they were political accusations.

“Ecuador bankrolled a multimillion-dollar spy operation to protect and support Julian Assange in its central London embassy, employing an international security company and undercover agents to monitor his visitors, embassy staff and even the British police, according to documents seen by the Guardian.” reads the report published by The Guardian.

“Over more than five years, Ecuador put at least $5m (£3.7m) into a secret intelligence budget that protected the WikiLeaks founder while he had visits from Nigel Farage, members of European nationalist groups and individuals linked to the Kremlin.”

The newspaper revealed Equador spent $5.0 million on the operation codenamed “Operation Guest” and later “Operation Hotel” that was approved by the then Ecuadorian president, Rafael Correa, and the then foreign minister, Ricardo Patiño.

Initially, the operation aimed at the Assange’s protection, but later became a spying operation on the journalist. From June 2012 to the end of August 2013, Operation Hotel cost Ecuador $972,889, according to documents belonging to the Senain, the Ecuadorian intelligence agency.

The experts hired by Equador monitored Assange’s daily activities and any contact with external staff and visitors, the stayed in a rented flat near the embassy at a cost of £2,800 a month.

Julian Assange

“Documents show the intelligence programme, called “Operation Guest”, which later became known as “Operation Hotel” – coupled with parallel covert actions – ran up an average cost of at least $66,000 a month for security, intelligence gathering and counter-intelligence to “protect” one of the world’s most high-profile fugitives.” continues the newspaper. the paper said.

According to The Guardian, that cited documents it has vieved, Assange hacked the communications system within the embassy gaining access to staff communications.

“In an extraordinary breach of diplomatic protocol, Assange managed to compromise the communications system within the embassy and had his own satellite internet access, according to documents and a source who wished to remain anonymous.” continues the paper

“By penetrating the embassy’s firewall, Assange was able to access and intercept the official and personal communications of staff,”

Wikileaks denied Assange had hacked the embassy network.

WikiLeaks

@wikileaks
No, @Guardian, @JulianAssange did not "hack into" embassy
satellites. That's an anonymous libel aligned with the current UK-US government onslaught against Mr. Assange's asylum--while he can't respond. You've gone too far this time. We're suing. https://www.newsweek.com/assange-how-guardian-milked-edward-snowdens-story-323480 …

8:19 PM - May 15, 2018
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Twitter Ads info and privacy
In response, Ecuador has forbidden internet access for Assange in recent months with the installation of a jammer, the Government as also restricted the number of visitors he can receive.

“Assange claims the accusations were politically motivated and could lead to him being extradited to the United States to face imprisonment over WikiLeaks’ publication of secret US military documents and diplomatic cables in 2010.” reported the AFP agency.

“Ecuador in December made Assange an Ecuadoran citizen and unsuccessfully tried to register him as a diplomat with immunity as part of its efforts to have him leave the embassy without risk of being detained.”

Last year, Sweden dropped its investigation on Assange, but the British authorities still plan to arrest him for breaching his bail conditions.


Dutch Government plans to phase out the use of Kaspersky solutions
16.5.2018 securityaffairs BigBrothers

Dutch Government plans to phase out the use of Kaspersky solutions while the security firm confirmed that its code infrastructure is going to move to Switzerland.
The antivirus firm Kaspersky Lab made the headlines again, the company confirmed that its code infrastructure is going to move to Switzerland. The news arrives just after the comment from the Netherlands government of the risks associated with the usage of Kaspersky Lab software.

Dutch government announced on Monday it plans to phase out the use of anti-virus software developed by Kaspersky Labs “as a precautionary measure” and recommending companies involved in the protection of critical infrastructure to do the same.

Dutch Government fear the aggressive Russian cyber strategy cyber that targets among others the country interests.

“In a letter to parliament, Justice Minister Ferdinand Grapperhaus said the decision was made because the Russian government had an “offensive cyber programme that targets among others the Netherlands and Dutch interests”.” reported The New York Times.

“He also said Moscow-based Kaspersky was subject to Russian laws that could oblige it to comply with Russian state interests.”

In response to the accusations from several governments, Kaspersky is moving a number of its core activities from Russia to Switzerland as part of its “Global Transparency Initiative.” It has been estimated that the overall costs of the transfer are $12m.

“The (Dutch) cabinet has carried out an independent review and analysis and made a careful decision on that basis,” Grapperhaus said. “Although there are no concrete cases of misuse known in the Netherlands, it cannot be excluded.”

Grapperhaus explained the Dutch government would consider revising the decision “if circumstances justify” doing so.


The U.S. DHS ban on the use of Kaspersky software by the U.S. Federal government in 2017, while Kaspersky continues to deny any cooperation with Russian intelligence,

Britain’s National Cyber Security Centre for agencies and organizations also suggests avoiding the usage of Kaspersky solutions for the protection of systems that manage classified information.

In December, Lithuania announced it will ban the products of the cybersecurity giant Kaspersky from computers in critical infrastructure.

In April, Twitter banned Kaspersky from advertising on its platform citing DHS ban for its alleged ties with Russian intelligence agencies.


Anonymous defaced Russia govt website against Telegram ban
16.5.2018 securityaffairs BigBrothers

Anonymous collective hacked and defaced the subdomain of the Russia’s Federal Agency for International Cooperation (Rossotrudnichestvo) site to protest against the government censorship, with a specific reference to the ban on Telegram.
Anonymous hacked the official website of Russia’s Federal Agency for International Cooperation (Rossotrudnichestvo), the cyber attack occurred on May 10th (Rossotrudnichestvo). The popular collective hacked and defaced the subdomain of the site to protest against the government censorship, with a specific reference to the ban on Telegram. Last month, the Russian authorities blocked the Telegram app in the country because the company refused to hand over encryption keys of its users to Federal Security Service (FSB) of Russia for investigation purposes.

“The website of a government agency tasked with promoting Russia’s image abroad has been hijacked by hackers who posted a message with a threat against the state body involved in a campaign to block a popular messaging app.” reads The Moscow Times.

Since May 3rd, 2018, Russia’s media and communication regularity authority Roskomnadzor blocked over 50 virtual private networks (VPNs), Web Proxies and Anonymizing networks.

Anonymous defaced one of the subdomains of Rossotrudnichestvo, the hackers published the NSFW image and several messages against the ongoing government censorship.

“Greetings, Roskomnadzor. Your recent destructive actions against Runet led us to the idea that you are just a handful of incompetent brainless worms. You no longer have to be able to continue this pointless vandalism. Consider this as our last warning. Yours, Anonymous.” reads the message published on the defaced domain.

Anonymous hack Russia Website
Source: Hackread.com

“That defacement was accompanied by the image of a cartoon character wearing a Roskomnadzor arm patch using a flamethrower on the “internet,” as well as a symbol of Telegram founder Pavel Durov’s “Digital Resistance” which he declared against political censorship.” continues the media outlet.

Currently, the Rossotrudnichestvo website is up and active, while the defaced subdomain prev.rs.gov.ru was offline.


ZTE Woes Loom as US-China Trade Tensions Rise
13.5.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

With a major Chinese smartphone maker on the rocks following US sanctions, the trade spat between Washington and Beijing appears to be taking a turn for the worse for tech firms in the two global economic powerhouses.

Chinese telecom giant ZTE said in the past week its major operations had "ceased" following last month's US ban on American sales of critical technology to the company, raising the possibility of its collapse.

ZTE depended on American chips and other components, and is unable to continue operating without key supplies.

US officials imposed the ban last month, saying ZTE failed to abide by an agreement to stop selling to Iran and North Korea.

While the ZTE case has a specific legal basis, the ban comes as US-China trade relations have hit a rough patch, amid an intense rivalry for supremacy in key technology fields such as artificial intelligence and 5G, the next-generation wireless systems in the works.

The US administration has barred military and government employees from using smartphones from ZTE and fellow Chinese maker Huawei.

President Donald Trump earlier this year blocked a deal that would have allowed a Singapore-based firm to acquire US chipmaker Qualcomm, claiming it would enable Huawei to set the pace the global rollout of 5G technology.

The trade troubles threaten a technology sector that is increasingly intertwined with major players in the United States and China.

"It's going to disrupt procurement, supply lines, it will affect a lot of companies in various ways," said one technology industry executive who asked to remain anonymous.

"Nobody's panicking yet but people are nervous and watching."

Accelerating independence drive

James Lewis, a technology specialist with the Center for Strategic and International Studies, said the tensions are likely to prompt China to step up efforts to disconnect from the US tech sector.

"The biggest impact will be to accelerate China's desire to have non-American sources of supply," Lewis said.

"They don't want to be held hostage" to US tech firms.

Lewis said the technology trade tensions stem from genuine concerns in Washington that critical 5G and related telecom technologies will be dominated by China-based Huawei.

"Huawei is trying to become the telecom company for the world," Lewis said. "They are the strongest across the board in 5G... This is a place where China's model of capital works better."

Lewis said that with companies like Huawei and ZTE facing obstacles in the United States, "American companies see the opening to the China market closing more rapidly than they might have thought."

In the near-term, Lewis said, Chinese firms still depend on some elements of US technology, but they are moving to become more autonomous.

Still, he said Washington has some justified national security concerns about preventing Huawei from becoming too dominant.

Increasing reliance on Chinese telecom equipment would give Beijing an edge in global surveillance and intelligence, he said.

"The equipment is always calling home," he said. "If you control the updater and the infrastructure you have an immense advantage."

Huawei has long disputed any links to the Chinese government, while noting that its infrastructure and computing products are used in 170 countries.

A statement from Huawei said its products "meet the highest standards of security, privacy and engineering in every country we operate," adding that "no government has ever asked us to compromise the security or integrity of any of our networks or devices."

Victory dance?

Matt Gold, an adjunct Fordham University law professor and former deputy assistant US trade representative, said the latest problems over ZTE are unlikely to worsen relations because "the current situation is about as bad as it can get without a complete freefall."

Gold said that while the president has authority under domestic law to impose sanctions for national security reasons, such moves may violate international trade rules and laws if the actions come in the absence of war or other emergency.

In the current climate, Gold said, US lawmakers appear inclined to impose stricter limits on Chinese investments in US tech firms as a way to stay ahead of China.

The Trump administration, according to Gold, could take a risky hard-line path of imposing new tariffs and restrictions on technology, but is more likely to seek to negotiate some concessions.

He said it is probable that "after many months of negotiations, China will give the US a series of concessions, including some things they had already agreed to and some of which were promises they had given before."

And all that, Gold said, "will be face saving for President Trump, who will declare a great victory."


No Evidence Russian Hackers Changed Votes in 2016 Election: Senators
9.5.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

Hackers backed by the Russian government attempted to undermine confidence in the voting process in the period leading up to the 2016 presidential election, but there is no evidence that they manipulated votes or modified voter registration data, according to a brief report published on Tuesday by the Senate Intelligence Committee.

According to the Senate panel, threat actors had attempted to access numerous state election systems and in some cases voter registration databases.

Authorities are confident that Russian threat actors targeted election systems in at least 18 states, and there is some evidence that three other states may have also been hit. These numbers only cover local or state government organizations – attacks on political parties and NGOs are not included.

Several other states reported seeing malicious activity, but investigators have not been able to confidently attribute the incidents to Russia.

Nearly all the targeted states observed attempts to find vulnerabilities in their systems. These scans were often aimed at the website of the Secretary of State and voter registration infrastructure, the Senate panel said in its report.

In at least six states, Russian hackers attempted to breach voting-related websites, and in a small number of cases they were able to gain unauthorized access to election infrastructure components, and even obtained the access necessary for altering or deleting voter registration data. However, it does not appear that they could have manipulated individual votes or aggregate vote totals.

The Russian government is believed to have launched this campaign at least as early as 2014 with the goal of gathering information and discrediting the integrity of the United States’ voting process and election results, senators said.

The Senate panel has admitted that its assessment, as well as the assessments of the DHS and FBI, are based on information provided by the targeted states, and there may be some attacks or breaches that have not been detected.

“While the full scope of Russian activity against the states remains unclear because of collection gaps, the Committee found ample evidence to conclude that the Russian government was developing capabilities to undermine confidence in our election infrastructure, including voter processes,” senators wrote in their report.

“The Committee does not know whether the Russian government-affiliated actors intended to exploit vulnerabilities during the 2016 elections and decided against taking action, or whether they were merely gathering information and testing capabilities for a future attack. Regardless, the Committee believes the activity indicates an intent to go beyond traditional intelligence collection,” they added.

The Trump administration recently imposed sanctions against several Russian spy agencies and 19 individuals for trying to influence the 2016 presidential election.


Researchers Link Several State-Sponsored Chinese Spy Groups
7.5.2018 securityweek APT  BigBrothers

Researchers have discovered links between several cyber espionage groups believed to be sponsored by the Chinese government and found that at least some of them may be working from the Xicheng District of Beijing.

A report published last week by 401TRG, the threat research and analysis team at ProtectWise, revealed links between several campaigns conducted over the past decade. Researchers claim that various threat groups previously attributed to Chinese-speaking actors are all connected to China’s state intelligence apparatus under what they call the “Winnti umbrella.”

Threat actors such as Winnti, Gref, PlayfullDragon, APT17, DeputyDog, Axiom, BARIUM, LEAD, PassCV, Wicked Panda, and ShadowPad are all believed to be part of the Winnti umbrella based on the use of similar tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs), and overlaps in infrastructure and operations. Experts believe they are “the work of individual teams, including contractors external to the Chinese government, with varying levels of expertise, cooperating on a specific agenda.”

These hacker groups have been active since at least 2009 – possibly as early as 2007 – and their initial targets are often gaming studios and high-tech companies located in countries such as the United States, Japan, South Korea and China. The main goal appears to be harvesting code-signing certificates and manipulating software, with a secondary objective of financial gain.

Researchers said the Winnti umbrella’s main targets appear to be political, such as Uyghur and Tibetan activists, Tibetan and Chinese journalists, the government of Thailand (e.g. Bookworm), and major international tech companies.

These groups continue to launch campaigns, with operations seen as recently as late March. In the attacks observed this year, the hackers have focused on phishing – particularly targeted at Office 365 and Gmail accounts – rather than malware and exploits.

The cyberspies often target cloud storage accounts from which they hope to obtain code-signing certificates. In some cases, they also seek files and documents that could help them escalate privileges and move laterally within the victim’s network.

While the attackers have taken steps to hide their identity, they have made some mistakes, providing investigators important clues about their possible location.

“In the attackers’ ideal situation, all remote access occurs through their own C2 infrastructure, which acts as a proxy and obscures their true location,” 401TRG said in its report. “However, we have observed a few cases of the attackers mistakenly accessing victim machines without a proxy, potentially identifying the true location of the individual running the session. In all of these cases, the net block was 221.216.0.0/13, the China Unicom Beijing Network, Xicheng District.”


European Central Bank announced a framework for cyber attack simulation on financial firms
5.5.2018 securityaffairs BigBrothers

Last week, the European Central Bank has published the European framework for testing financial sector resilience to cyber attacks.
The framework aims to simulate the effects of cyber attacks on critical systems in the banking industry in the European Union.

The move is the response to the numerous cyberheists that hit the financial industry in the past years, like the attacks against the SWIFT system and the assault against online and mobile services at the Netherlands’ three top banks.

European Central Bank framework

The framework also includes the involvement of “red teams” for vulnerability assessments and penetration tests of systems used by companies in the financial sector.

“The European Central Bank (ECB) today publishes the European Framework for Threat Intelligence-based Ethical Red Teaming (TIBER-EU), which is the first Europe-wide framework for controlled and bespoke tests against cyber attacks in the financial market.” reads the announcement published by the ECB.

“The TIBER-EU framework facilitates a harmonised European approach towards intelligence-led tests which mimic the tactics, techniques and procedures of real hackers who can be a genuine threat. TIBER-EU based tests simulate a cyber attack on an entity’s critical functions and underlying systems, such as its people, processes and technologies. This helps the entity to assess its protection, detection and response capabilities against potential cyber attacks.”

The main goal for the Framework is to facilitate testing for cross-border entities under oversight of several authorities.

TIBER-EU aims to help organizations measure their ability in detecting and responding cyber attacks.

The Threat Intelligence-based Ethical Red Teaming (TIBER-EU) framework will provide a guideline for operators in the sector to carry out any security tests.

“It is up to the relevant authorities and the entities themselves to determine if and when TIBER-EU based tests are performed,” the ECB said.

“Tests will be tailor-made and will not result in a pass or fail – rather they will provide the tested entity with insight into its strengths and weaknesses, and enable it to learn and evolve to a higher level of cyber maturity,” continues the announcement.

Initially, the adoption of the framework will not be mandatory, the tests will be tailor-made and “will not result in a pass or fail – rather they will provide the tested entity with insight into its strengths and weaknesses, and enable it to learn and evolve to a higher level of cyber maturity.”

The instructions on how to “How to implement the European framework for Threat
Intelligence-based Ethical Red Teaming” are available here.


The Pentagon bans Huawei and ZTE phones from stores on military bases
5.5.2018 securityaffairs BigBrothers

The Pentagon is ordering retail outlets on US military bases to stop selling Huawei and ZTE products due to unacceptable security risk they pose.
Smartphones manufactured by Chinese firms Huawei and ZTE are banned by US Military, the decision was taken by the Pentagon.

The Pentagon is ordering retail outlets on US military bases to stop selling Huawei and ZTE products.

The Pentagon considers the security risk posed by the adoption of the devices manufactured by the Chinese firms unacceptable, US officials believe the smartphones could be used to spy on military personnel.

“Huawei and ZTE devices may pose an unacceptable risk to the department’s personnel, information and mission,” Pentagon spokesman Major Dave Eastburn said on Friday.

“In light of this information, it was not prudent for the department’s exchanges to continue selling them.”

Eastburn confirmed that the decision to ban the Huawei phones and related products was taken on April 25.

“Given security concerns about ZTE cell phones and related products, the (Pentagon’s) exchange services also removed ZTE products from their stores,” he added.

ZTE did not immediately comment the ban, while Huawei promptly replied by highlighting high quality of its products and their reliability in term of security.

“We remain committed to openness and transparency in everything we do and want to be clear that no government has ever asked us to compromise the security or integrity of any of our networks or devices,” said Huawei spokesman Charles Zinkowski in a statement.

The Federal Communications Commission also ban federal funds from being spent on wireless equipment made by companies that pose a security risk to the US infrastructure. The FCC’s proposal in a section detailing the federal government’s concerns with foreign tech providers explicitly refers both ZTE and Huawei.

In February, Dan Coats, the Director of National Intelligence, along with several other top intel officials, invited Americans to avoid buying Huawei and ZTE products.

“Chinese cyber espionage and cyber attack capabilities will continue to support China’s national security and economic priorities,” Coats told the Senate Intelligence Committee.

Huawei and ZTE ban

In April, the UK GCHQ intelligence agency warned UK telcos firms of the risks of using ZTE equipment and services for their infrastructure.

The alert was issued by the National Cyber Security Centre that said the Chinese firm “would present risk to UK national security that could not be mitigated effectively or practicably”.

ZTE is a state-owned enterprise and many experts highlighted the risks of using its products.

The problems for ZTE are not ended, the U.S. Department of Commerce’s Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) announced that Chinese firm has been banned from purchasing goods from US companies. This root cause is that ZTE was discovered violating Iran and North Korean sanctions.


U.S. Military Bans Huawei, ZTE Phones

4.5.2018 securityweek  BigBrothers

Personnel on US military bases can no longer buy phones and other gear manufactured by Chinese firms Huawei and ZTE, after the Pentagon said the devices pose an "unacceptable" security risk.

Concerns have heightened at the Pentagon about consumer electronics being used to snoop on or track service members.

"Huawei and ZTE devices may pose an unacceptable risk to (military) personnel, information and mission," Pentagon spokesman Major Dave Eastburn said on Friday.

"In light of this information, it was not prudent for the Department's exchanges to continue selling them," he added, referring to the military-run shops on US bases around the world.

Eastburn said the order to pull Huawei devices was given on April 25.

"Given security concerns about ZTE cell phones and related products, the (Pentagon's) exchange services also removed ZTE products from their stores," he said.

Eastburn could not discuss the technical aspects of the potential threats, but The Wall Street Journal said the Pentagon fears the Chinese government could track soldiers using Huawei or ZTE devices.

Huawei spokesman Charles Zinkowski said the firm's devices meet the highest standards of security, privacy and engineering in every country it operates in, including the US.

"We remain committed to openness and transparency in everything we do and want to be clear that no government has ever asked us to compromise the security or integrity of any of our networks or devices," Zinkowski said in a statement.

ZTE did not immediately respond to a request for comment.

In January, the Pentagon said it was reviewing its policy on fitness apps and wearable fitness trackers after exercise-logging company Strava published a map compiling its users' activity.

In Iraq and Syria, viewers could easily spot beacons of activity in remote places where military bases are located, presumably indicating favorite jogging or walking routes.

In February, Dan Coats, the Director of National Intelligence, along with several other top intel officials, said Americans should not buy Huawei or ZTE products.

"Chinese cyber espionage and cyber attack capabilities will continue to support China's national security and economic priorities," Coats told the Senate Intelligence Committee.


North Korea Denies it Hacked UN Sanctions Committee Database
4.5.2018 securityweek  BigBrothers

North Korea on Wednesday denied hacking the database of a UN committee tasked with monitoring sanctions against Pyongyang, and called on Washington to focus on peace efforts ahead of a planned summit between the countries' leaders.

In a statement, the North Korean mission at the UN said Pyongyang "has never recognized the illegal and unlawful Security Council's 'sanctions resolutions'" and "is not interested in what the Sanctions Committee does," adding the idea that it had carried out a hacking operation was "nonsense."

"The US and hostile forces should squarely recognize the trend of the times and make efforts to do the work helpful to detente and (the) peace process on the Korean peninsula rather than manipulating plots with that hacking incident," the statement concluded.

The mission added the US had made the hacking accusations during a closed-door Sanctions Committee meeting.

But the US mission denied having made such a claim. "These quotes and comments attributed to the US delegation are entirely false," a spokesman said.

US pressure saw the UN impose three sets of economic sanctions against North Korea last year over its nuclear weapons programs, notably affecting sectors such as coal, iron, fishing, textiles and oil.

The latest exchange comes as ties between the US and North Korea have rapidly warmed, with a historic summit meeting between President Donald Trump and Kim Jong Un set to be held within a matter of weeks.

It comes on the heels of a summit between Kim and his South Korean counterpart Moon Jae-in, spurring hope for a final settlement to end a decades-long conflict.


Trend Micro Scan Engine Used by North Korea's SiliVaccine Antivirus
1.5.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

Researchers have analyzed an older version of North Korea’s SiliVaccine antivirus and discovered that it uses an outdated scanning engine from Japanese security solutions provider Trend Micro.

Obtaining SiliVaccine is not an easy task, but a copy of the software was sent back in 2014 to Martyn Williams, a journalist specializing in North Korean technology. Williams published a review of the antivirus in September 2014.

The journalist recently provided a copy of the software to researchers at Check Point, who made a series of interesting discoveries.

Williams received a copy of SiliVaccine via email from an individual claiming to be a Japanese engineer named Kang Yong Hak, who provided the antivirus to the journalist along with what appeared to be a patch.

SiliVaccine

Check Point’s analysis of SiliVaccine revealed that the antivirus – apparently a version from 2013 – relied on a scanning engine developed by Trend Micro. The Japanese security firm’s own analysis showed that the version used in SiliVaccine was more than 10 years old and it had been used in a variety of its products.

“Trend Micro has never done business in or with North Korea. We are confident that any such usage of the module is entirely unlicensed and illegal, and we have seen no evidence that source code was involved,” Trend Micro said. “The scan engine version at issue is quite old and has been widely incorporated in commercial products from Trend Micro and third party security products through various OEM deals over the years, so the specific means by which it may have been obtained by the creators of SiliVaccine is unknown.”

Trend Micro has found evidence suggesting that its scan engine has been used in multiple versions of SiliVaccine. The company says it typically takes a strong stance against piracy, but initiating legal action would not help in this particular case, and it believes the use of its engine does not pose any risk to customers.

Check Point’s analysis revealed that SiliVaccine uses Trend Micro’s scan engine and the company’s pattern files to load malware signatures. However, the pattern files used by the North Korean antivirus are encrypted using a custom protocol and there are some differences in the engine itself, including the use of compiler optimization not present in the original software.

Another major difference is related to the fact that the SiliVaccine engine has been configured to not detect a particular signature. Researchers have not been able to find the file associated with that signature, but noted that the original Trend Micro scan engine does detect the threat.

According to experts, SiliVaccine was developed by a couple of organizations named PGI (Pyonyang Gwangmyong Information Technology) and STS Tech-Service, which appears to be linked to Japan through a couple of other companies. It’s worth noting that relations between Japan and North Korea are, as described by Wikipedia, “severely strained and marked by tension and hostility.”

Researchers also analyzed the patch file received by Williams in 2014 and determined that it delivers a first-stage dropper of the Jaku malware. A 2016 report on Jaku revealed that the malware had infected roughly 19,000 systems around the world. Experts discovered links to the Dark Hotel campaign, which, similar to Jaku, has been tied to North Korea.


NATO Exercise Tests Skills of National Cyber Defenders
30.4.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

More than 1,000 experts from nearly 30 countries have tested their ability to protect IT systems and critical infrastructure networks at NATO’s Locked Shields 2018 live-fire cyber defense exercise.

A total of 22 Blue Teams took part in the exercise, including representatives of NATO, the European Union, the United States, the United Kingdom, Estonia, Finland, Sweden, Latvia, France, the Czech Republic, and South Korea.

Locked Shields, organized by the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence (CCDCOE) since 2010, took place on April 23-26 in Tallinn, Estonia, and it was won by a 30-member team representing NATO. Teams from France and the Czech Republic finished in second and third place, respectively.NATO Locked Shields 2018

The exercise tested not only the technical abilities of national cyber defense teams when faced with a severe attack, but also their decision-making skills, including cooperation with other teams.

The drill was based on a scenario involving a fictional country named Berylia, which got hit by a number of hostile events and coordinated cyberattacks targeting a civilian Internet services provider and a military airbase. The attacks disrupted the power grid, drones, 4G public safety networks, and other critical infrastructure.

Locked Shields involved 4,000 virtualized systems and over 2,500 attacks. Participants were tasked with maintaining complex IT systems while completing a wide range of tasks, including reporting incidents, making strategic decisions, and conducting forensic investigations.

“The exercise serves as a valuable platform for senior decision-makers to practice the coordination required to address complex cyber incidents, both internally and internationally. In the strategic game of Locked Shields Blue Teams had to determine at what level the information should be shared, who has the authority to make a decision and give guidelines, what are the potential legal implications,” said Cdr. Michael Widmann, chief of the NATO CCDCOE Strategy Branch.

“Overall the exercise was a success. Teams coordinated in a complex and dynamic environment and addressed key issues necessary to endure intense cyber attack,” Widmann added.


EU, US Police Cripple Islamic State Media Mouthpieces
30.4.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

European and US police forces have struck at the heart of Islamic State's propaganda machine, seizing servers and "punching a hole" in its ability to spread its radical jihadist message online.

The transatlantic takedown was spread over eight countries and was coordinated by the EU's police agency in "a major operation over a two-year period", the head of Europol, Rob Wainwright, told AFP on Friday.

Wednesday and Thursday's operation was the latest in a campaign targeting in particular the Amaq news agency used by IS to broadcast claims of attacks and spread its message of jihad.

"With this takedown action, targeting major IS-branded media outlets like Amaq, but also al-Bayan radio, Halumu and Nasher news, IS's capability to broadcast and publicise terrorist material has been compromised," Europol said in a statement.

The "simultaneous multinational takedown" was coordinated by Europol from its headquarters in The Hague, and led by the Belgian federal prosecutor.

"Dozens and dozens" of police fanned out in their countries, seizing servers in the Netherlands, Canada and the United States as well as in Bulgaria, France and Romania.

'Technically challenging'

The goal was "to destabilise this apparatus by seizing and dismantling servers used to diffuse IS propaganda and to identify and arrest its administrators," the Belgian prosecutor said in a statement.

"With this groundbreaking operation we have punched a big hole in the capability of IS to spread propaganda online and radicalise young people in Europe," Wainwright said.

Britain's Counter Terrorism Internet Referral Unit was also involved in identifying "top-level domain registrars abused by IS", and the Bulgarian interior ministry confirmed "access was blocked to four servers, used for disseminating information" by Amaq in its country.

"It was so technically challenging that we were only really able to do it because of our experience in major cybercrime takedowns," Wainwright told AFP.

"We basically ran the cyber playbook against IS," he said, adding police forces around the world had spent years gathering intelligence to locate the servers being used by the jihadists.

'Squeezed' in battle and online

While a US-led international coalition has been combatting IS on the battlefields of Iraq and Syria taking back territory it had seized in 2014, nations have also warned that a multi-pronged effort was needed, including choking off funding and its online access.

"They've been squeezed on the battlefield, and now they've been really badly squeezed, badly hit, on the online platform as well," said Wainwright.

IS used Amaq to claim "every major attack since 2015 in Europe", he said, including the deadly assaults in Paris, Brussels, Barcelona and Berlin.

"The technical infrastructure which allows it to put these terrible propaganda videos and messages out has been knocked offline," Wainwright told AFP, speaking on his last day as Europol chief.

But Europol's investigation is still ongoing, and arrests could follow.

At its height, the IS media portfolio included smartphone apps for children, websites, and a glossy magazine, full of post-apocalyptic prophesies and articles declaring the "caliphate" was the only legitimate and viable home for Muslims.

But as IS's structure has crumbled, its media empire has waned too. Al-Bayan radio, which once broadcast on frequency mode and offered a wide range of statements, news and talks in several languages, had long moved online and reduced its activities.

On Friday, however, Nasher news -- the main Telegram account on which Amaq statements are posted in the region -- remained active, claiming jihadist fighters had damaged three Syrian army vehicles in fighting in southern Damascus.

"We are realistic in recognising that there still might be a retained possibility of re-establishing the network," Wainwright said, highlighting that this week's action was the third in a series of such takedowns.

"But we're getting stronger every time, and narrowing the space for them to re-create their online presence."


NCSC Joins Secure Chorus to Promote End-to-End Secure Communications
30.4.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

The UK's National Cyber Security Center (NCSC) has become the first government agency to join Secure Chorus, a not-for-profit private company limited by guarantee, whose ownership rests with its members. The purpose of Secure Chorus is to develop a secure interoperable cross-platform multimedia communications ecosystem suitable for government and industry use.

Members of Secure Chorus include major global telecommunication operators, system integrators, defense prime contractors, technology companies, academic institutions and trade bodies including Vodafone, O2, BAE Systems Applied Intelligence, Leonardo, Sepura, Serbus, Cryptify, Armour Communications, SQR Systems, ISARA Corporation, Secoti, Surevine, Galaxkey, Cyber Synopsis, CSIT, UCL and techUK.

Like the NCSC itself, Secure Chorus has spun out of GCHQ (specifically, CESG). It was originally formed in 2012 as an industry-led working-group focused on supporting the UK government’s requirement for protecting OFFICIAL and OFFICIAL SENSITIVE communications, with the aim of ensuring that any multimedia communication in UK government is protected. Secure Chorus became a limited company in 2016, led by its current chairperson Elisabetta Zaccaria.

As an independent company, the Secure Chorus remit has grown, now describing itself as "serving as a platform for public-private collaboration and development of common standards and capabilities for secure communication for the global digital economy." The NCSC is a strong advocate for its use within UK government.

A CESG document written in November 2015 and published by the NCSC in August 2016 reported, "CESG is committed to growing the Secure Chorus ecosystem to support more vendors and service providers. 4G Voice (VoLTE) will provide the perfect opportunity for service providers to offer end-to-end-security to government and enterprise customers by adopting the Secure Chorus standard."

"Secure Chorus’ interoperability standards are based on an open cryptography standard," Zaccaria told SecurityWeek. "Our cryptography standard of choice has achieved international adoption and is used by 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project), a global initiative, providing system specifications for cellular telecommunications network technologies, which has adopted the cryptography standard for use in Mission-Critical applications, such as emergency services communications."

In the 1990s, during what is now known as 'the First Crypto War", key escrow was a major proposal for UK government access to crypto keys. Many security professionals believe we have now entered the Second Crypto War with government demands on both sides of the Atlantic for government backdoors into end-to-end encryption products. However, Zaccaria insists that government involvement with Secure Chorus from inception, and now the NCSC's membership, is not a subtle re-emergence of the key escrow policy.

"Many systems rely upon centralized key management solutions to provide much-needed enterprise control and management features," she said. "Secure Chorus’ chosen cryptography standard is one of several major protocols that use a key management server. It is often a misconception that the legitimate key management server is a 'backdoor', when for many regulated and enterprise environments it is critical to enable the recovery of data, especially in light of the soon to be implemented EU GDPR regulation -- which is sector agnostic and requires any enterprise to comply with 'data subjects'' right of access to his/her 'personal data', among other key requirements."

Despite the necessity for key management, any key management server becomes a target for cybercriminals, and does provide a 'backdoor' into encrypted content for any person or organization that has access to the server and the stored keys. In both cases, the greater the centralization of keys within a single server, the greater the threat.

Zaccaria told SecurityWeek this is not an issue for Secure Chorus. "An enterprise can run its own KMS for its own users, maintaining full control over its own security system. In addition, thanks to the properties of the chosen cryptography standard, communication between two enterprise user groups managed by different KMS can then also be easily enabled."

She added, "This means each enterprise can enable communication with selected external user groups without bringing these user groups into their own security perimeter."

"One of the key objectives of the National Cyber Security Centre," said Dr Ian Levy, technical director at the NCSC, "is to enable a safe digital economy and we see easy, secure communication for enterprises as key to that.

"Secure Chorus will play a role in convening a much-needed forum to bring together global industry, governments and academia to promote the development of an ecosystem of secure and interoperable products based on open standards."


Researchers discovered the control console of a ski lift in Austria open online
29.4.2018 securityaffairs BigBrothers

Two security experts discovered that the control panel of a Ski lift in Austria was exposed online without any protection.
The control panel of a Ski lift in Austria was exposed online, the disconcerting discovery was made on March 16 by the security experts Tim Philipp Schäfers and Sebastian Neef with security organization InternetWache.org.

The ski lift is Patscherkofelbahn, a sky facility that connects the village of Igls with the Patscherkofel resort.

The two researchers promptly reported the discovery to the Austrian Computer Emergency and Response Team (CERT).

“We have also done in this case: we received the message on a Friday afternoon, we passed it on later in the evening to our contact in Innsbruck.” reported the CERT in a blog post.

Officials from the city of Innsbruck have shut down the ski lift after the security duo has reported their findings.

“The control of the Patscherkofelbahn was accessible via a web interface unencrypted and without the need for authentication via the Internet. In addition, the corresponding control software was not up to date, but pointed to one of us found and reported to the manufacturer vulnerability, “says Schäfers in an interview with the Futurezone.

The experts discovered the Human Machine Interface used to control the ski lift was exposed online without authentication.

ski lift Human Machine Interface

An attacker with access to the Human Machine Interface is in the position to control several settings for the sky facility, including the speed, the distance between cable cars, and the cable tension.

Ski lift parameter 2

The two researchers promptly reported the discovery to the Austrian Computer Emergency and Response Team (CERT) that passed their contact to the authorities at the city of Innsbruck.

As a precautionary measure, the authorities shut down the Patscherkofelbahn ski lift and started a security audit, at the time of writing the facility is still offline.

While the experts were reporting their discovery to Innsbruck officials, the NBC media outlet shared a footage of a malfunctioning ski lift in the ski resort of Gudauri, Georgia.

Even if the Gudauri accident is not linked to any other event occurred at Patscherkofelbahn. media noticed that the ski lifts in both facilities are manufactured by the Austrian firm Doppelmayr.

The CERT Austria confirmed that the problem has been solved and Innsbruck officials are plans to deploy a secure system before the summer season opens.


European and US police hit the Islamic State propaganda machine
28.4.2018 securityaffairs BigBrothers

A coordinated effort of law enforcement agencies (law enforcement authorities of the European Union Member States, Canada, and the USA) hit the Islamic State propaganda machine.
European law enforcement agencies coordinated by Europol conducted an unprecedented multinational cyber operation against the Islamic State’propaganda machine.

Authorities have “punched a big hole” in Islamic State’s propaganda machine, they targeted news agencies and radio stations in a two-day takedown operation.

“On 25 April 2018 law enforcement authorities of the European Union Member States, Canada and the USA launched a joint action against the so-called Islamic State (IS) propaganda machine in order to severely disrupt their propaganda flow.” read the press release published by Europol.

“The takedown operation was coordinated by the European Union Internet Referral Unit (EU IRU) within the European Counter Terrorism Centre (ECTC) at the Europol headquarters.”

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Europol

@Europol
#BREAKING: Takedown of Islamic State propaganda machine in international operation coordinated by Europol. Amaq – the main mouthpiece of the terrorist organisation – among those knocked down offline https://www.europol.europa.eu/newsroom/news/islamic-state-propaganda-machine-hit-law-enforcement-in-coordinated-takedown-action … #IS #terrorism

10:02 AM - Apr 27, 2018
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The operation hit Islamic State media outlets, including the Amaq and Nashir news agencies and al-Bayan radio.

The authorities seized the servers and are analyzing data to identify the administrators behind principal media outlets.

“With this groundbreaking operation we have punched a big hole in the capability of IS [Isis] to spread propaganda online and radicalise young people in Europe.” said Rob Wainwright, executive director of Europol.

Europol hit Islamic State

This isn’t the first time Europol and other agencies target Islamic State propaganda machine since 2015 they have conducted numerous operations to shut down the infrastructure used by the terrorists.

In August 2016, an international joint operation conducted by the police hit the Amaq’s mobile application and web infrastructure, another operation was conducted in June 2017 and led to the identification of radicalised individuals in more than 100 countries.

Commissioner Dimitris Avramopoulos said: “Today’s international take-down action, with the support of Europol, shows our global strength and our unwavering resolve to fight against terrorist content online. Daesh is no longer just losing territory on the ground – but also online. We will not stop until their propaganda is entirely eradicated from the Internet.”

“This shows that by working together we can stamp out the poisonous propaganda Daesh [Isis] has used to fuel many of the recent terror attacks in Europe. For too long the internet has been open to terrorists and those who seek to do us harm. Those days are coming to an end thanks to this type of co-ordinated global work.” said the EU security commissioner, Julian King.


Police shut down the biggest DDoS-for-hire service (webstresser.org) and arrested its administrators
26.4.2018 securityaffairs BigBrothers

The European police have shut down webstresser.org, the world’s biggest DDoS-for-hire service, that allowed crooks to launch over 4 million attacks.
An international operation dubbed conducted by the European law enforcement agencies led by the UK’s National Crime Agency (NCA) and the Dutch Police, with the help of Europol, has taken down the world’s biggest DDoS-for-hire service.

The operation dubbed Power Off allowed to shut down the biggest DDoS-for-hire service (webstresser.org) and arrest its administrators, according to the investigators the platform was involved in over 4 million attacks and arrested its administrators.

The police arrested 6 members of the crime group behind the ‘webstresser.org‘ website in Scotland, Croatia, Canada, and Serbia on Tuesday.

The Europol confirmed that Webstresser.org had 136,000 registered users and was used to target online services from banks, government institutions, police forces and the gaming world.

“The administrators of the DDoS marketplace webstresser.org were arrested on 24 April 2018 as a result of Operation Power Off, a complex investigation led by the Dutch Police and the UK’s National Crime Agency with the support of Europol and a dozen law enforcement agencies from around the world.” reads the press release published by the Europol.

“Webstresser.org was considered the world’s biggest marketplace to hire Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) services, with over 136 000 registered users and 4 million attacks measured by April 2018.”

DDoS-for-hire service allows criminals without specific technical skills to launch powerful cyber attacks by renting their service.

DDoS-for-hire service

“Stressed websites make powerful weapons in the hands of cybercriminals,” said Jaap van Oss, Dutch chairman of the Joint Cybercrime Action Taskforce.

“International law enforcement will not tolerate these illegal services and will continue to pursue its admins and users,”

The service was shuttered and the police seized the hacking platform, the Europol announced “further measures” were also taken against the top users in the above four countries, as well as in Italy, Australia, Hong Kong and Spain.

Registered user on Webstresser.org could access the DDoS-for-hire service an entry fee of €15 per month.

“We have a trend where the sophistication of certain professional hackers to provide resources is allowing individuals – and not just experienced ones – to conduct DDoS attacks and other kind of malicious activities online”, said Steven Wilson, Head of Europol’s European Cybercrime Centre (EC3). “It’s a growing problem, and one we take very seriously. Criminals are very good at collaborating, victimising millions of users in a moment form anywhere in the world. We need to collaborate as good as them with our international partners to turn the table on these criminals and shut down their malicious cyberattacks.”

Abusing legitimate booter services or using a DDoS-for-hire service is a crime, the Europol remarked that penalties can be severe.

“DDoS attacks are illegal. Many IT enthusiasts get involved in seemingly low-level fringe cybercrime activities, unaware of the consequences that such crimes carry. The penalties can be severe: if you conduct a DDoS attack, or make, supply or obtain stresser or booter services, you could receive a prison sentence, a fine or both.” concluded the Europol.


Portugal is the 21st country to join the NATO Cyber-Defence Centre
25.4.2018 securityaffairs BigBrothers

Welcome Portugal, on Tuesday the state joined the NATO Cyber-Defence Centre. The centre has the mission to enhance the capability, cooperation and information sharing among NATO, its member nations and partners in cyber defence.
The NATO Cyber-Defence Centre has a new member, on Tuesday Portugal joined the organization.

The NATO Cyber-Defence Centre is a multinational and interdisciplinary hub of cyber defence expertise, it was founded in 2008 in Tallin (Estonia).

The Centre attained the status of International Military Organisation on 28 October 2008. It is an International Military Organisation with a mission to enhance the capability, cooperation and information sharing among NATO members and partners in cyber defence.

“We are facing adversaries who target our common values in cyberspace: freedom, truth, trust,” centre director Merle Maigre said at the ceremony.

“To build resilience we need to come together. That is why I am glad to welcome Portugal as together we are stronger,”

NATO Cyber-Defence CentreIn 2017, the centre was targeted by nation-state hackers, Estonia accused Russia for the cyber assault on its information networks.

Portugal is the 21st country to join NATO’s cyber defence centre, other centre members are Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States.

Australia, Norway, and Japan will join the NATO Cyber-Defence Centre in the next future.


Portugal Joins NATO Cyber-Defence Centre
25.4.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

Portugal on Tuesday became the 21st country to join NATO's cyber defence centre, the Tallinn-based body said at a flag-raising ceremony.

"We are facing adversaries who target our common values in cyberspace: freedom, truth, trust," centre director Merle Maigre said at the ceremony.

"To build resilience we need to come together. That is why I am glad to welcome Portugal as together we are stronger," she added.

The centre was founded in 2008 in the capital of cyber-savvy Estonia, ranked as having one of the world's highest internet user rates, which itself had come under attack the previous year.

Estonia accused Russia, NATO's old Cold War foe, of being behind the attacks on its official sites and information networks.

At the centre, data experts from across Europe and the United States work to protect the information networks of the Western defence alliance's 29 countries.

The centre's current members are Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States.

Australia, Norway and Japan have said they also plan to join.


Russia Says to Probe Facebook After Telegram Crackdown
18.4.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

Russia's telecoms watchdog plans to probe Facebook before the end of the year after blocking access in the country to the popular messaging app Telegram, its head said on Wednesday.

"We will conduct a probe of the company before the end of 2018," the head of state regulator Roskomnadzor, Alexander Zharov, told pro-Kremlin newspaper Izvestia.

Russia's telecoms regulator has repeatedly warned Facebook it could be banned this year unless it complies with a law on the personal data of Russian nationals.

A 2014 law requiring foreign messaging services, search engines and social networking sites to store the personal data of Russian users inside the country has caused widespread concern as it is seen as putting the information at risk of being accessed by Russian intelligence services.

Zharov told Izvestia that Facebook still did not comply with the Russian legislation.

"They are already significantly late in their deadlines and in complying with other laws," Zharov said, referring to Facebook.

"The question of a ban will be raised" if Facebook does not fully comply with the law, he said, adding that he meets with representatives of the social media giant "around once every half a year."

Roskomnadzor began blocking the popular messaging app Telegram on Monday after a court banned the service for refusing to give the security services access to private conversations.

The ruling came after a long-running battle between the Russian authorities and Telegram, which has a reputation for securely encrypted communications, as Moscow pushes to increase surveillance of internet activities.

Telegram, a free application that lets people exchange messages, stickers, photos and videos, has attracted more than 200 million users since its launch by Russia's Pavel Durov and his brother Nikolai in 2013.

On Tuesday, Roskomnadzor blocked millions of IP addresses that were used to get around the Telegram ban.

Facebook and Telegram are widely used by the opposition to President Vladimir Putin to coordinate protests and make political statements.

The Kremlin's press service also used Telegram to communicate with journalists but earlier this week switched to ICQ, a 1990s chat service now controlled by Kremlin-friendly billionaire Alisher Usmanov.


UK NCSC, DHS and the FBI Warn of Russian hacking campaign on Western networks
18.4.2018 securityaffairs BigBrothers

UK NCSC, DHS, and the FBI warn of Russian hacking campaign on Western networks, state-sponsored hackers are targeting network infrastructure key components.
US and Britain government agencies warn of Russian state-sponsored cyber attacks to compromise government and business networking equipment. Russian hackers aim to control the data flaw “to support espionage, extract intellectual property, maintain persistent access to victim networks and potentially lay a foundation for future offensive operations,”

The operation was “to support espionage, extract intellectual property, maintain persistent access to victim networks and potentially lay a foundation for future offensive operations,” Washington and London said in a joint statement.

“Russian state-sponsored actors are using compromised routers to conduct spoofing ‘man-in-the-middle’ attacks to support espionage, extract intellectual property, maintain persistent access to victim networks and potentially lay a foundation for future offensive operations,” reads a joint statement issued by UK and US Goverments.

“Whoever controls the routing infrastructure of a network essentially controls the data flowing through the network.”

According to the US DHS, the campaign is part of well known Grizzly Steppe.

In December 2016, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) published a Joint Analysis Report(JAR) that provided information about the tools, infrastructure and TTPs used by the Russian civilian and military intelligence Services (RIS) against United States election.

U.S. Government linked the cyber activity to a Russian threat actor designated as GRIZZLY STEPPE. It was the first time that the JAR attributed a malicious cyber activity to specific countries or threat actors.

The JAR reports the activity of two different RIS actors, the APT28 and the APT29, that participated in the cyber attacks on a US political party. The APT29 known as (Cozy Bear, Office Monkeys, CozyCar, The Dukes and CozyDuke) broke into the party’s systems in summer 2015. The APT28 known as (Fancy Bear, Pawn Storm, Sofacy Group, Sednit and STRONTIUM) entered in spring 2016.

Back to the present, the new alert was issued by Britain’s National Cyber Security Centre, DHS and the US Federal Bureau of Investigation.

Russian hacking espionage

The alert came from the UK National Cyber Security Centre, DHS and the US Federal Bureau of Investigation, the government agencies believe hackers could compromise Western critical infrastructures like power grids and water utilities.

Hackers specifically target routers, switches and firewalls with the intent to compromise the target networks to control traffic and manipulate it for espionage and to deliver malware.

“Targets are primarily government and private-sector organizations, critical infrastructure providers, and the Internet service providers (ISPs) supporting these sectors. This report contains technical details on the tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs) used by Russian state-sponsored cyber actors to compromise victims. Victims were identified through a coordinated series of actions between U.S. and international partners.” states the report.

“This report builds on previous DHS reporting and advisories from the United Kingdom, Australia, and the European Union. [1-5] This report contains indicators of compromise (IOCs) and contextual information regarding observed behaviors on the networks of compromised victims.

According to the report, Russian threat actors attempt to exploit flaws in legacy systems or weak protocols and service ports associated with network administration activities. Cyber actors use these weaknesses to

identify vulnerable devices;
extract device configurations;
map internal network architectures;
harvest login credentials;
masquerade as privileged users;
modify
device firmware,
operating systems,
configurations; and
copy or redirect victim traffic through Russian cyber-actor-controlled infrastructure.
The experts explained that threat actors behind the Russian hacking campaign do not need to leverage zero-day vulnerabilities or install malware to compromise networking devices. In most cases, Russian hackers exploited the following issues:

devices with legacy unencrypted protocols or unauthenticated services,
devices insufficiently hardened before installation, and
devices no longer supported with security patches by manufacturers or vendors (end-of-life devices).
“FBI has high confidence that Russian state-sponsored cyber actors are using compromised routers to conduct man-in-the-middle attacks to support espionage, extract intellectual property, maintain persistent access to victim networks, and potentially lay a foundation for future offensive operations.” states the alert.

The Government experts warn hackers are specifically targeting devices utilizing Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE), Cisco Smart Install (SMI), and Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).

The main problem is that device administrators often fail to apply a robust configuration, in many cases, they leave default settings and fail to protect theri systems by for example by applying necessary patches.

In this scenario it is quite easy for threat actors to target networking infrastructure.


US, UK Detail Networking Protocols Abused by Russian Cyberspies
17.4.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

A joint technical alert issued on Monday by the United States and the United Kingdom details how cyberspies believed to be working for the Russian government have abused various networking protocols to breach organizations.

According to the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the United Kingdom’s National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC), the hackers targeted routers, switches, firewalls, and network-based intrusion detection systems (NIDS). Their main targets have been government and private-sector organizations, critical infrastructure operators, and their Internet service providers (ISPs).

“FBI has high confidence that Russian state-sponsored cyber actors are using compromised routers to conduct man-in-the-middle attacks to support espionage, extract intellectual property, maintain persistent access to victim networks, and potentially lay a foundation for future offensive operations,” the report reads.

The first technical report from the DHS and FBI accusing Russia of cyberattacks was the GRIZZLY STEPPE report published in December 2016. Another technical report blaming Russia for cyber operations was published in March, when the U.S. accused Moscow of campaigns targeting the energy and other critical infrastructure sectors. The alert on critical infrastructure attacks was first released in October 2017, but the attacks had not been openly attributed to Russia at the time.

The latest technical alert focuses on the tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs) used by Russian threat actors, specifically the networking protocols they have abused in their attacks. According to authorities, the attackers identify vulnerable devices, extract their configuration, map internal network architectures, harvest login credentials, and use them to gain access to the system as privileged users. The hackers then modify the targeted device’s firmware, operating system and configuration so that the victim’s traffic is redirected through their own infrastructure.

In the reconnaissance phase of their campaign, the attackers scan the Web for devices that have Internet-facing ports and services. The targeted protocols include Telnet, HTTP, the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) and Cisco’s Smart Install (SMI).

Data collected during these initial scans can help the cyberspies obtain information about the devices and the organizations using them.

In the weaponization and delivery phases of the attack, hackers send specially crafted SNMP and SMI messages that cause the targeted device to send its configuration file to an attacker-controlled server via Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP). The configuration file can contain password hashes and other information that can be useful to the threat actor.

Legitimate credentials can also be obtained through brute-force attacks and other methods, and they ultimately allow the hackers to access the device via Telnet, SSH, or its web management interface.

The Cisco Smart Install Client is a legacy utility that allows no-touch installation of new Cisco switches. Attackers can abuse the SMI protocol to modify the configuration file on switches running IOS and IOS XE software, force the device to reload, load a new OS image, and execute high-privilege commands.

Hackers have been abusing insecurely configured SMI installations since 2016 when an exploitation tool was made public. Researchers also discovered recently that Smart Install is affected by a critical vulnerability (CVE-2018-0171) that can be exploited for remote code execution, but there is no indication that this flaw has been used in attacks.

Cisco has warned organizations about the risks associated with Smart Install since 2016 and it recently issued a new warning following the discovery of CVE-2018-0171. The networking giant says the protocol has been abused in critical infrastructure attacks by the Russia-linked threat group known as Dragonfly (aka Crouching Yeti and Energetic Bear).

Once they access a device with compromised credentials or via a backdoor planted by uploading a malicious OS image, attackers can mirror or redirect the victim’s traffic through their own network, the agencies said in their report. One other protocol cyberspies have abused while in a man-in-the-middle (MitM) position is Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE), a tunneling protocol developed by Cisco.

“Cyber actors are not restricted from modifying or denying traffic to and from the victim,” the technical alert reads. “Although there are no reports of this activity, it is technically possible.”

The report from the FBI, DHS and NCSC also includes recommendations on how organizations can defend themselves against these types of attacks.


US, Britain Warn of Russian Campaign to Hack Networks
17.4.2018 securityweek  BigBrothers

Russian government-sponsored hackers are compromising the key hardware of government and business computer networks like routers and firewalls, giving them virtual control of data flows, Britain and the United States warned Monday.

The operation was "to support espionage, extract intellectual property, maintain persistent access to victim networks and potentially lay a foundation for future offensive operations," Washington and London said in a joint statement.

"Russian state-sponsored actors are using compromised routers to conduct spoofing 'man-in-the-middle' attacks to support espionage, extract intellectual property, maintain persistent access to victim networks and potentially lay a foundation for future offensive operations," they said.

"Whoever controls the routing infrastructure of a network essentially controls the data flowing through the network."

The US Department of Homeland Security said the hacking was part of a broad operation dubbed Grizzly Steppe, which DHS says comprises concerting cyberattacks by Moscow's civilian and military intelligence agencies.

The router hacking operation has targeted both government and private sector groups, and the key providers of network infrastructure and internet services serving them.

The announcement came in an unprecedented joint alert that underscored closer cooperation between Western governments fighting what they say is an ongoing, multifaceted hacking and online disinformation campaign by Moscow.

The alert came from the Britain's National Cyber Security Centre, DHS and the US Federal Bureau of Investigation.

In came after more than one year of separate warnings over the attempted hacking of key infrastructure like power and water utilities in Western countries.

The two sides did not give any examples of systems that had been broken into, but said those compromised risked losing data, identities, passwords and even control of their own systems.

- Critical network components targeted -

The hacking effort goes to the critical components of a computer network: the routers, switches and firewalls designed to safely and accurate deliver data from one computer to another.

Taking over a router virtually would give a hacker the ability to manipulate, divert or stop any data from going through it.

In an operation like an electric power plant, the hacker could shut down the service or physically damage a plant.

A hacker could also "potentially lay a foundation for future offensive operations," the joint alert said.

"The current state of US and UK network devices, coupled with a Russian government campaign to exploit these devices, threatens our respective safety, security, and economic well-being," it said.

Both countries have accused Moscow of concerted efforts to use social media to interfere with public affairs, particularly with the British Brexit referendum and US presidential election in 2016.


UK GCHQ spy agency warns telcos of the risks of using ZTE equipment and services
17.4.2018 securityweek  BigBrothers

The UK GCHQ intelligence agency warns UK telcos firms of the risks of using ZTE equipment and services for their infrastructure.
The alert was issued by the National Cyber Security Centre that said the Chinese firm “would present risk to UK national security that could not be mitigated effectively or practicably”.

Let’s remind that the ZTE is a state-owned enterprise and many experts highlighted the risks of using its products.

The Agency did not provide further details about the threat to UK telco infrastructure, it only explained that at the time it is not possible to mitigate the risks of adopting the Chinese equipment.

“NCSC assess[es] that the national security risks arising from the use of ZTE equipment or services within the context of the existing UK telecommunications infrastructure cannot be mitigated,” reads the statement issued by the GCHQ.

The problems for ZTE are not ended, the U.S. Department of Commerce’s Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) announced that Chinese firm has been banned from purchasing goods from US companies. This root cause is that ZTE was discovered violating Iran and North Korean sanctions.

ZTE, such as Huawei, are considered as potential threats by the US Government too, but differently from ZTE has worked with UK intelligence to demonstrate that its products don’t represent a threat. Huawei created a Cyber Security Evaluation Centre, also known as “the Cell,” in Banbury to allow intelligence the review of its products and software.

“HCSEC fulfilled its obligations in respect of the provision of assurance that any risks to UK national security from Huawei’s involvement in the UK’s critical networks have been sufficiently mitigated,” reads the Huawei Cyber Security Evaluation Centre (HCSEC) Oversight Board: annual report 2017.

ZTE

In March, UK suspended ZTE from the immigration scheme used by foreign companies to allow foreign nationals to work locally.

The news was reported in exclusive by El Reg that wrote: “The Home Office has suspended the Tier 2 visa sponsor license for the Chinese state-owned telecomms giant, the fourth largest supplier of telecommunications equipment in the world.”

“The Register understands that ZTE had not fulfilled its duties under the Tier 2 scheme, which includes a “robust compliance system”.”

While experts have never discovered a backdoor in Huawei devices, in 2012 researchers spotted a critical security hole in ZTE phones.

“ZTE Corp, the world’s No.4 handset vendor and one of two Chinese companies under U.S. scrutiny over security concerns, said one of its mobile phone models sold in the United States contains a vulnerability that researchers say could allow others to control the device.” reported the Reuters at the time.


UK GCHQ director confirmed major cyberattack on Islamic State
16.4.2018 securityaffairs BigBrothers

GCHQ director Jeremy Fleming announced this week that the U.K. has launched a major cyberattack on the Islamic State (IS) terrorist organization.
According to the spy chief, the GCHQ the attack was launched in collaboration with the U.K. Ministry of Defence and has distributed operations of the Islamic State.

The UK intelligence believes this is the first time it “systematically and persistently degraded an adversary’s online efforts as part of a wider military campaign,”

GCHQ Islamic State
Source BBC

Fleming explained that UK cyber experts have operated to disrupt online activities and networks of the Islamic State, and deter an individual or group.

“These operations have made a significant contribution to coalition efforts to suppress Daesh propaganda, hindered their ability to coordinate attacks, and protected coalition forces on the battlefield,” GCHQ chief told an audience at the Cyber UK conference in Manchester.

“In 2017 there were times when Daesh found it almost impossible to spread their hate online, to use their normal channels to spread their rhetoric, or trust their publications. Of course, the job is never done – they will continue to evade and reinvent. But this campaign shows how targeted and effective offensive cyber can be,”

Mr. Fleming did not reveal details of the cyber attacks because it was “too sensitive to talk about,” he praised the success of such kind of operations against a threat that is abusing technology to spread propaganda.

“Much of this is too sensitive to talk about, but I can tell you that GCHQ, in partnership with the Ministry of Defence, has conducted a major offensive cyber campaign against Daesh.” added Mr. Fleming.

“These operations have made a significant contribution to coalition efforts to suppress Daesh propaganda, hindered their ability to coordinate attacks, and protected coalition forces on the battlefield. But cyber is only one part of the wider international response. This is the first time the UK has systematically and persistently degraded an adversary’s online efforts as part of a wider military campaign.”

The US CYBERCOM and Europol have also been conducting cyber operations against online activities of the Islamic State.

Mr. Fleming has also spoken about Russia defining its cyber activity as an “unacceptable cyber-behaviour” that was a “growing threat” to the West.

“We’ll continue to expose Russia’s unacceptable cyber behaviour, so they’re held accountable for what they do, and to help Government and industry protect themselves. The UK will continue to respond to malicious cyber activity in conjunction with international partners such as the United States. We will attribute where we can.” added Flaming.
“And whilst we face an emboldened Russia, we also see the tectonic plates in the Middle East moving. We see Iran and its proxies meddling throughout the region. The use of Chemical Weapons in Syria. We’re watching the dispersal of Daesh fighters. Serious Crime Gangs smuggling people from Eastern Europe and Northern Africa.”

Flaming also cited the NotPetya ransomware attack on Ukraine that both UK and US attributed to Russia.

“They’re not playing to the same rules,” Mr Fleming concluded. “They’re blurring the boundaries between criminal and state activity.”


Britain Says Russia Spied on Skripals Before Poisoning
14.4.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

Russia was spying on former double agent Sergei Skripal and his daughter Yulia for at least five years before they were poisoned with a nerve agent, Britain's National Security Adviser Mark Sedwill said in a letter to NATO released on Friday.

Sedwill also said that Russia has tested means of delivering chemical agents "including by application to door handles", pointing out that the highest concentration of the chemical found after the attack was on Skripal's front door handle.

"We have information indicating Russian intelligence service interest in the Skripals, dating back at least as far as 2013, when email accounts belonging to Yulia Skripal were targeted by GRU cyber specialists," Sedwill wrote in the letter, referring to Russia's foreign military intelligence agency.

The Skripals were found slumped on a bench in the English city of Salisbury on March 4. Britain has blamed Russia for the attempted murder -- a charge that Moscow has strongly denied.

After testing samples from Salisbury, the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) on Thursday confirmed Britain's findings about the nerve agent used in the attack.

Skripal had moved to Britain in 2010 as part of a spy exchange after being imprisoned in Russia for selling secrets to British intelligence while he was working for the GRU.

His daughter, who lives in Moscow, was visiting him when the two were poisoned in an attack that has triggered an international diplomatic crisis between Russia and the West.

Sedwill's letter to NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg alleged that Russia had "the technical means, operational experience and motive for the attack on the Skripals and that it is highly likely that the Russian state was responsible".

But Russia's embassy to London on Friday accused the British government of failing to produce evidence to support its claims.

Ambassador Alexander Yakovenko said the embassy would be publishing its own 33-page report about the incident.

Yakovenko also questioned the authenticity of a statement in which Yulia Skripal, who was discharged from hospital earlier this week, turned down Russian consular assistance.

"We are not allowed to see our citizens, talk to doctors, have no idea about the treatment the Russian nationals receive."

"We cannot be sure that Yulia's refusal to see us is genuine. We have every reason to see such actions as the abduction of two Russian nationals," Yakovenko said.

Covert chemical weapons programme

Sedwill said "credible open-source reporting and intelligence" showed that in the 1980s the Soviet Union developed a family of nerve agents known as Novichoks at a base in Shikhany near Volgograd.

"The codeword for the offensive chemical weapons programme (of which Novichoks were one part) was FOLIANT," he said.

"It is highly likely that Novichoks were developed to prevent detection by the West and to circumvent international chemical weapons controls," he said.

By 1993, when Russia signed the Chemical Weapons Convention, Sedwill said it was "likely" that some Novichoks had passed testing to allow their use by the Russian military.

He said Russia developed some Novichoks even after ratifying the convention.

In the 2000s, Sedwill said Russia had trained military personnel in using these weapons, including on door handles, and Russia "has a proven record of conducting state-sponsored assassination".

"Within the last decade, Russia has produced and stockpiled small quantities of Novichoks under the same programme," he said.

Russia has denied having any chemical weapons.


When the Russian Malware coder Gatsoev is praised by the Russian head of Information Department of the Ministry of Education and Science of North Ossetia
14.4.2018 securityaffairs BigBrothers

When the Russian young Malware coder is praised by the Russian head of Information Department of the Ministry of Education and Science of North Ossetia. Under the spotlight: the story of Atsamaz Gatsoev (aka “1ms0rry”) who has set up his illegal business.
A new write-up made by a security researcher known as Benkow (@Benkow_) has been published, as ever on Sunday, and to be more precise on Sunday 8 April.

It’s about the story of a malware coder from Russia who is developing and selling two kinds of malware (a password stealer and a miner) with a lot of features and a variegated commercial offer: this malware actor is targeting also Russian people with his malware but Mr. Freud would absolve him (form the psychological point of view) analysing his nickname. The nickname, in fact, is “Im Sorry” (1ms0rry) which maybe talks about his interior drama: nevertheless, looking at what he does in his life the drama and the sorrow are for the thousands of victims he makes cry with his work.

The incredible side of this story is that the man has declared to not be worried to be recognized with his real name after Benkow crew has unmasked the real identity of this young criminal with a great page of investigative journalism.

But let’s go with order.

First of all we have to say that this time the post is written in cooperation with some Benkow’s (and this post author Odisseus) friends and the list of them is reported below in the same order can be found on the Benkow_ post: they are “.sS.!, coldshell, fumik0_, siri_urz, VxVault, Cybercrime-Tracker, MalwareMustDie, .sS.! (again)”.

Yes, at the beginning of the post there is this image showing there are no doubts that #MalwareMustDie team has also given a contribution in this post: interviewed by the author of this post, Odisseus, mr. @unixfreaxjp said that, of course, we have to expect more to come about malware and reversing from the #MMD team in the future.

Going back to the post published by Benkow, we have a very interesting work about the malware analysis referring the features spotted in the wild of a password Stealer malware made by “1ms0rry”: everything starts from a post published on a Russian hacker forum at the URL of the ifud.ws site the 7th of September 2017. There, a Russian hacker called “1ms0rry” – on Twitter (@ims0rry_off) – has published a post about a “Stealer N0F1L3 + admin panel ims0rry” with many different features. But let’s give a look at the malware capabilities.

First Malware: Starter Stealer N0F1L3 v1

Giving a closer look to his advertising page on the hack forum page as is possible to read in English – translated by Russian thanks to Google – the following detailed features of the malware are offered: the “Starter Stealer” is written in C# and is able to steal passwords from 7 internet browsers: the price is 20$ for the build version and 600$ for the source code.

But this is not all, the malware is able to do more:

Steal passwords and cookies from Chrome, Opera, Kometa, Orbitum, Comodo, Amigo, Torch and Yandex
Attack Crypto-Currencies wallets (btc, electrum, ltc, eth, bcn, DSH, XMR, ZEC)
Steal Filezilla Passwords
Get every file on the desktop with the extensions .txt .doc .docx .log
The password stealer malware has also the following features:

It is declared as FUD (maximum error from 0 to 5)
works without admin rights
build weight is 2 mb
supports all add-ons
The Benkow post reports that what is interesting how 1ms0rry stealer is able to attack also Russian browsers like Yandex.

As is possible to see in the C&C logs provided by the Benkow post, many IP addresses are related to the Russian Federation:

Regarding the C&C panels, they have some the vulnerabilities: it can be easy to change the password, Benkow reports how to, providing even detailed list of IOCs and Yara for the malware admin panel.

First Malware, the Advanced version N0F1L3 v2

The malware offer list includes an advanced version of the password stealer which is named N0F1L3 v2 and is injected by this malware called “Paradox Crypter” almost recognized by most of Antivirus and having a good detection ratio on Virustotal (46/67)

The advanced version is written in C – C++ and now is able to steal password also from Firefox.

Second Malware 1ms0rry Miner

The second malware is a made by a loader and a miner: the LoaderBot is developed in .NET and as Benkow says it reuses a lot of code by N0F1L3.

The LoaderBot it is a process that kills itself in the Task Manager then is not visible and install itself in the following PATH: C:\users\%userprofile%\AppData\Roaming\Windows\

The persistence of the LoaderBot is achieved by installing the adding an item in the Windows Registry hive called at the startup: HKCU\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run

As shown by Benkow the available feature are Update, Download and Execute, and the connection to the C&C is achieved using a Mozilla User-Agent defined like as “Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; WOW64; rv:53.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/53.0”

This means that first the infection is carried on by the Loader then the attacker installs the Miner.

The Miner is developed in C++, is able to hide itself, to detect a Wallet address in the clipboard and replace it: it runs RunPe using a known process hollowing procedure and the following System API CreateProcessA(Suspended)/SetThreadContext/WriteProcessMemoryResumeThread/ and the code is a copy paste from GitHub

For the details of C&C, vulnerabilities and attack vector they are widely provided in the Benkow research.

What is interesting now is how has been correlated with the “1ms0rry” nickname with a very promising Russian student named Ацамаз Гацоев or Atsamaz Gatsoev.

The core of the story: 1ms0rry identity has been unmasked

First of all the Russian guy has a Twitter account that is “Im Sorry” with the following URL: https://twitter.com/ims0rry_off. The account is still working at the moment, and the malware actor is answering till 17 hours ago at the moment we are writing.

“Im Sorry” answered to the tweet where Benkow launched his post about him telling to be happy to have people talking about his work, because he doesn’t hide his identity, on the contrary, he is happy that his crimes are associated to him.

That probably explains why as a malware actor he didn’t try to hide himself arriving to answer to another security researcher who was highlighting the IP address of one of his C&C panel:

At the beginning point, looking for “Im Sorry” have been found some accounts on different platforms: he has an account on Telegram, on GitHub and different mail addresses like:

gornostay322@mail.ru
lordatsa@mail.ru
your_email@whatever.com
with the following nicknames:

Gatsoev
hype
ims0rry
s0rry
Your Name
Then looking for lordatsa@mail.ru Benkow has found a mail.ru account at the following URL https://my.mail.ru/mail/lordatsa/photo that give us a first name and a second name: Аца Гацоев (Atsa Gatsoev) enabling to find something more, for instance the information contained in this Weblancer profile: https://www.weblancer.net/users/hypega/

Many interesting things are here, says Benkow:

the name Ацамаз Гацоев (Atsamaz Gatsoev) is the same as the mail.ru account,
The username used is hypega. hype was used to commit on github, hypega for “hypeGatsoev”
The personal website in the profile’s information is http://lordatsa.wix.com/gatsoevsummary and “lordatsa” is used as username for mail.ru http://lordatsa.wix.com/gatsoevsummary is also interesting to get other two profiles on VK and Google Plus.
From Google Plus the step to achieve the YouTube profile is easy: a good surprise is that in one of his videos Benkow and his crew found a special evidence related to a path raised during the password straealer reversing: a directory named [NEW] builder on the desktop of the user “gorno” is exactly what is raised in the pdb analysis of the LoaderBot: c:\Users\gorno\Desktop\[NEW] builder\Bot\Miner\obj\Release\LoaderBot.pdb
Then the user is “gorno” as is possible to see in the video at second 6 that there is Thermida and a local path, again “gorno” C:\Users\gorno\Desktop\winhost.exe

And again in another video it is possible to see “the viruscheckmate user” that is again “hypega”.

The name “hypega” give the opportunity to retrieve another 2 very interesting links:

a Portfolio website: at wix.com/e-consultant
a A GitHub account: com/Gatsoev/Nerve_MobileApp
This last one gives us the final proof that “1ms0rry” is Atsamaz Gatsoev.

How a criminal is working for the office of Russian “Information technologies and communications” of North Ossetia

What is probably confusing, looking at his photographs, is that he has the “face” of the good boy: and this is confirmed from a very recent and amazing post by Alan Salbiev in the 2013 known as “head of the Information Department of the Ministry of Education and Science of North Ossetia” and from 2017 is at “Management of North Ossetia-Alania in information technologies and communications Local business Vladikavkaz, Russia”

The 20th of March he writes the following Facebook post talking about “1ms0rry” as one who has done a great job in his office and more over he says that on “February 25, 2018 at competitions on sports hacking at the University ITMO our hero confidently walked rivals from Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Khanty-Mansiysk, Penza, Pyatigorsk, etc. As a result, a schoolboy from Vladikavkaz entered the top 15 in St. Petersburg.

At Atsamaz there is a dream – to enter the University of ITMO. Our Office will provide every possible assistance to a talented guy”.

Here the post:

We don’t know how much Mr. Alan Salbiev knows about his “dream” if he knows if he is a criminal or if he thinks that as a CTF hacker he has to get his Gym to become a perfect champion in Russia hacking and illegally stealing password or cryptocurrency to people in Russian and around the world.

For sure Europol or FBI now are hoping he is going to participate soon in competitions on sports hacking or some CTF competitions in Europe or USA.


U.K. Launched Major Cyberattack on Islamic State: Spy Chief
13.4.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

The head of Britain’s Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) revealed this week that the U.K. has launched a major cyberattack on the Islamic State (IS) group, significantly disrupting its operations.

The attack was launched by the GCHQ in collaboration with the U.K. Ministry of Defence. The operation was the “first time the UK has systematically and persistently degraded an adversary’s online efforts as part of a wider military campaign,” GCHQ director Jeremy Fleming told an audience at the Cyber UK conference in Manchester.

“These operations have made a significant contribution to coalition efforts to suppress Daesh propaganda, hindered their ability to coordinate attacks, and protected coalition forces on the battlefield,” the spy chief said.

According to Fleming, these operations have been aimed at disrupting services or a specific online activity, deter an individual or group, or destroy equipment and networks used by the Islamic State, which is also known as ISIL, ISIS and Daesh.

“In 2017 there were times when Daesh found it almost impossible to spread their hate online, to use their normal channels to spread their rhetoric, or trust their publications. Of course, the job is never done – they will continue to evade and reinvent. But this campaign shows how targeted and effective offensive cyber can be,” Fleming said.

Ilia Kolochenko, CEO of web security firm High-Tech Bridge, says such attacks are not surprising.

“In the near future, we will see more offensive cyber operations backed by nations under attack. Unfortunately, cybercriminals, drug dealers and terrorists enjoy almost absolute impunity in the digital world, causing more damage there than on the streets, and it’s good to see the UK take a stand,” Kolochenko told SecurityWeek. “The efforts to suppress propaganda and hinder coordinated attacks will ultimately protect UK citizens.”

“From a legal point of view, it may be a tricky question, however,” Kolochenko added, “as some of their targets may be European or American citizens, raising complicated issues of the international law.”

The US military's secretive Cyber Command (CYBERCOM) and Europol have also been conducting operations aimed at the Islamic State’s online activities.

Pro-IS groups have continued launching hacker attacks and spreading propaganda, with some experts believing the terrorist organization has taken refuge in its “virtual caliphate.” However, even online, where its capabilities have for years already been described as relatively weak and poorly organized, IS has been in decline.


North Korean Hackers Behind Online Casino Attack: Report
5.4.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

The infamous North Korean hacking group known as Lazarus is responsible for attacking an online casino in Central America, along with various other targets, ESET says.

The Lazarus Group has been active since at least 2009 and is said to be associated with a large number of major cyber-attacks, including the $81 million cyber heist from Bangladesh's account at the New York Federal Reserve Bank.

Said to be the most serious threat against banks, the group has shown increased interest in crypto-currencies and has recently updated its arsenal of tools.

ESET now reports that an attack on an online casino in Central America and assaults on various other targets last year are the doings of this group. The attackers used a similar toolset in all incidents, including the KillDisk wiping tool.

Also referred to as Hidden Cobra, the Lazarus Group is said to be backed by the North Korean government. The hackers use a broad range of custom tools, but also leverage various projects that are either available from GitHub or provided commercially.

In the attack against an online casino in Central America, the hackers used various tools alongside the destructive KillDisk disk-wiper. Almost all of the malicious tools were designed to run as a Windows service and require administrator privileges for that, meaning that the attackers expected such privileges, ESET points out.

Detected as NukeSped, one of the tools is a TCP backdoor. The malware dynamically resolves the required DLL names during initial execution, and also constructs dynamically the procedure names of Windows APIs. The backdoor listens to a specific port that it ensures is not blocked by the firewall.

Featuring support for 20 commands with functionality similar to previously analyzed Lazarus samples, the malware can be used to gather information on the system, search for files, create processes, drop files on the infected systems, and inject into Explorer or other processes.

ESET also stumbled upon a session hijacker, a console application capable of creating a process as another currently–logged-in user on the victim’s system, just as the TCP backdoor can upon receiving a specific command from the attackers.

Discovered on the compromised casino’s network, the malware is related to the session hijacker used in the Polish and Mexican attacks, ESET says.

On said network, the security researchers also found a simple command line tool accepting several switches, which was designed to inject into/kill processes, terminate/reinstall services, and drop/remove files.

Two variants of the KillDisk malware were used in the attack, likely unrelated to the iterations previously used in cyber-attacks against high-value targets in Ukraine in December 2015 and December 2016.

The disk wiper was found on over 100 machines in the casino’s network, either to cover an espionage operation, or to extort the victim or sabotage the systems. The use of KillDisk simultaneously with various Lazarus-linked malware suggests that it was this group of hackers who deployed the disk wiper.

Not only do these variants share many code similarities, but they are almost identical to the KillDisk variant that previously targeted financial organizations in Latin America.

ESET also discovered a series of format strings that allowed them to attribute the discovered malware samples and attacks to the Lazarus Group, and which represent a relevant, static characteristic of the group’s modus operandi, the researchers say.

As part of the attack against said online casino, the actor also used Mimikatz, which can extract Windows credentials, along with a tool designed to recover passwords from popular web browsers. Although dated December 2014, the tool remains efficient against Chrome (64.0.3282.186), Chromium (67.0.3364.0), Edge (41.16299.15.0) and Internet Explorer (11.0.9600.17843).

The attackers used malicious droppers and loaders to download and execute their tools onto the victim systems. Remote access tools such as Radmin 3 and LogMeIn were also used, to control machines remotely.

“This recent attack against an online casino in Central America suggests that hacking tools from the Lazarus toolset are recompiled with every attack (we didn’t see these exact samples anywhere else). The attack itself was very complex, consisted of several steps, and involved tens of protected tools that, being stand-alone, would reveal little from their dynamics,” ESET says.


Airbnb China will share hosts information with the government
2.4.2018 securityaffairs BigBrothers

Airbnb China announced that it will share user data belonging to Chinese users with the Government to comply with national laws and regulations.
Airbnb announced that it will share user data belonging to Chinese users with the Government. The company is notifying the Chinese users it will share guest’s information with local authorities to comply with national laws and regulations.

According to an email obtained by TechNode, Airbnb hosts with a listing in China were notified by the company by email that their information could be shared with Chinese authorities without further notice starting from 30 March 2018.

“Online short-term rental services operate in a gray area in China, which has strict regulations for hospitality businesses. Guests must check in with a valid ID such as Chinese identification cards or passports and their information are recorded by hotels in a central register operated by local police bureaus.” reads a blog post published by Technode.com.

“For foreign visitors, the rules are even stricter. They need to be registered within 24 hours of arrival into China. If international visitors are not staying at a hotel or guesthouse, they must report to the police and depending on the local regulation, provide documentation such as rental contracts or property titles.”

Airbnb China email-copy
Source Technode.com

Previously, the Airbnb hosts were submitting passport and other required traveler information.

Airbnb China implemented a “deactivate my China listing” button to allow hosts to remove their listing.

National laws and regulations require the hotel and lodging industry to share data with the government. The Chinese Government aims to automate the information sharing so that traveler’s data are directly available for government agencies.

“Like all businesses operating in China, Airbnb China must comply with local laws and regulations,” said Airbnb spokesman Jake Wilczynski. “The information we collect is similar to information hotels in China have collected for decades.”

In China, Airbnb faces tough competition from local companies Xiaozhu and Tujia, both complying with government laws.


Russian hacker Yevgeni Nikulin was extradited to the United States
31.3.2018 securityaffairs BigBrothers 

Last week, the Czech Republic announced it had extradited the Russian hacker Yevgeni Nikulin (29) to the United States.
Yevgeni Nikulin was requested by the US for alleged cyber attacks on social networks and by the Russian authorities that charged him with frauds. According to US authorities, the man targeted LinkedIn and Formspring and hacked into the file hosting service Dropbox.

The Russian criminal was arrested in Prague in October 2016 in an international joint operation with the FBI.

The case is in the middle of an arm wrestling between Moscow and Washington, the US Government are accusing Russia to have interfered with 2016 Presidential election through hacking.

Yevgeni Nikulin

Source: US Defense Watch.com

In May 2017, a Czech court ruled that Nikulin can be extradited to either Russia or the United States, leaving the final decision to the Justice Minister Robert Pelikan.

The Czech justice ministry confirmed “the extradition of Russian citizen Yevgeni Nikulin to the United States,” ministry spokeswoman Tereza Schejbalova said on Twitter.

The extradition “took place overnight,” she added.

Nikulin was transferred via plane after midnight Thursday.

“We confirm extradition to the United States,” a spokeswoman said in a text message. “He has already flown out.”


Prague Extradites Russian Hacker to US for Alleged Cyberattacks
31.3.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

The Czech Republic on Friday said it had extradited a Russian hacker to the United States where he is wanted for alleged cyberattacks on social networks.

Yevgeni Nikulin, who is also sought by his native Russsia on fraud charges, had been in a Prague prison since he was arrested in the Czech capital in 2016 in a joint operation with the FBI.

The case comes amid accusations by Washington that Russia tried to "interfere" through hacking in the 2016 US election won by Donald Trump, charges the Kremlin has dismissed.

The Czech justice ministry "confirms the extradition of Russian citizen Y. Nikulin to the United States," ministry spokeswoman Tereza Schejbalova said on Twitter.

The extradition "took place overnight," she added.

A US government plane left Prague soon after midnight Thursday and landed nine hours later near Washington, according to the website flightaware.com.

Following Nikulin's arrest, Moscow accused Washington of harassing its citizens and vowed to fight Nikulin's extradition.

It then issued a separate arrest warrant for him over alleged theft from the WebMoney settlement system.

The US has charged Nikulin with hacking into social networks LinkedIn and Formspring and into the file hosting service Dropbox, Nikulin's lawyer Martin Sadilek told AFP at the time.

He also said Nikulin alleges that FBI investigators had tried twice to persuade him to confess to cyberattacks on the US Democratic Party.

Last year, a Prague court ruled that Nikulin could be extradited to either Russia or the United States, with the final say left to the Czech justice minister.


Foreign Companies in China Brace for VPN Crackdown
30.3.2018 securityweek  BigBrothers

Chinese people and foreign firms are girding for a weekend deadline that will curb the use of unlicensed software to circumvent internet controls, as the government plugs holes in its "Great Firewall".

A virtual private network (VPN) can tunnel through the country's sophisticated barrier of online filters to access the global internet.

VPNs give users a way to see blocked websites such as Facebook, Twitter, Google and Western news outlets, as well as certain business network tools such as timesheets, email and directories.

But new government regulations unveiled last year sent chills among users of the software, with a March 31 deadline for companies and individuals to only use government-approved VPNs.

Currently, many foreign companies have their own VPN servers in locations outside of China. But in the future, dedicated lines can only be provided by China's three telecom operators.

Critics have slammed the new policy as a revenue grab that will eliminate cheaper VPN options and make internet users more vulnerable to surveillance.

But some companies are still planning to comply.

"We will apply for a VPN line with (the government)," the chief executive of a foreign-owned technology company told AFP.

"As a company that is globally-focused based in Beijing, I think that's the best option... because we don't want to break the rules or have our VPN access disrupted," she said, requesting anonymity.

Some embassies in Beijing experienced disruptions to their communications due to restrictions on VPN usage late last year, prompting the European Union delegation to send a letter to the government to complain, diplomatic sources told AFP.

American Chamber of Commerce Shanghai President Kenneth Jarrett warned that foreign companies and their employees could "bear the brunt of the new policies".

"Foreign companies, especially entrepreneurs and smaller companies rely on overseas platforms such as Google Analytics and Google Scholar," Jarrett told AFP.

"Limiting access to affordable VPNs will make it harder for these companies to operate efficiently and just adds to the frustration of doing business in China."

The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology has dismissed concerns that using state-approved providers could jeopardise the security of private data, saying they "are not able to see information related to your business".

'At the mercy of regulators'

A member of China-based anti-censorship group GreatFire.org, which tracks internet restrictions, said the new rules are aimed at wiping out low-cost Chinese VPN providers and increasing control over access to information.

"Are foreign companies at the mercy of Chinese regulators? Yes, probably. Will there be more surveillance? Absolutely," said the member, who uses the alias Charlie Smith.

Under the new licensing regulations, it is unclear whether companies or individuals will be punished for using unauthorised VPNs, or if the software will be blocked.

But on December 21, Chinese citizen Wu Xiangyang from the south Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region was given a five-and-a-half-year prison sentence and 500,000 yuan ($76,000) fine.

Wu "illegally profited" from setting up VPN servers and selling software "without obtaining relevant business licenses", according to a news site managed by the Supreme People's Procuratorate.

It was the most severe known VPN-related conviction.

Last September, a 26-year-old man from Guangdong province was sentenced to nine months in prison in a similar case.

Samm Sacks, who researches China's technology policy at the US-based Center for Strategic and International Studies, said it is likely that China will be lenient to most foreign companies.

"We will probably see selective enforcement. So far, there have not been many foreign companies that have experienced problems with their company VPNs," Sacks said.

"It just adds a new layer of uncertainty at a time when foreign companies are already facing a host of challenges to doing business in China," she said.

In the European Chamber of Commerce in China's 2017 survey of its members, companies reported suffering from restricted internet and slow and unstable connections in China, before new VPN restrictions were announced.

"Poor internet connectivity not only damages China's efforts to portray itself as an innovative society, it also impacts overall productivity," chamber president Mats Harborn told AFP.

"Some reported losses of more than 20 percent of their annual revenue as a result."

'No, we don't sell VPNs'

Earlier this month, in the southern trade hub of Guangzhou, a small shop with the letters "VPN" painted in red on its wall said they no longer offered them.

"No, we don't sell VPNs," a Chinese shopkeeper said curtly, refusing to explain why.

But it was business as usual for a nearby store that was licensed to sell VPNs from state-owned telecommunications operator China Telecom.

"We've had no problems. Our clients are mostly Chinese and African traders who want to keep in touch using Whatsapp," a technician said. jch/lth/klm/aph


U.S. Charges 9 Iranians With Hacking Universities to Steal Research Data
29.3.2018 thehackernews BigBrothers

The United States Department of Justice has announced criminal charges and sanctions against 9 Iranians involved in hacking universities, tech companies, and government organisations worldwide to steal scientific research resources and academic papers.
According to the FBI officials, the individuals are connected to the Mabna Institute, an Iran-based company created in 2013 whose members were allegedly hired by the Iranian government for gathering intelligence.
Though the content of the papers is not yet known, investigators believe it might have helped Iranian scientists to develop nuclear weapons.
In past four years, the state-sponsored hacking group has allegedly infiltrated more than 320 universities in 22 countries—144 of which were in the United States—and stolen over 30 terabytes of academic data and intellectual property.
The group used spear-phishing attacks to target more than 100,000 e-mail accounts and computer systems of the professors around the world, and successfully compromised 7,998 of those accounts till last December—3,768 of them at US universities.

"Their primary goal was to obtain usernames and passwords for the accounts of professors so they could gain unauthorized access and steal whatever kind of proprietary academic information they could get their hands on," said the FBI agent who investigated the case.
According to the indictment unsealed today in a Manhattan federal court, Mabna Institute also shared stolen credentials with the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC)—a branch of Iran's Armed Forces responsible for gathering intelligence.
The group then exfiltrated the academic data and sold the content via Megapaper.ir and Gigapaper.ir, Iranian websites "where customers could access the online library systems of the hacked universities."
Following are the names and roles of the nine Iranians who were charged by the U.S. federal court:
Gholamreza Rafatnejad — one of the founding members of the Mabna Institute.
Ehsan Mohammadi — another founding member of the Mabna Institute and responsible for organising hacking campaign along with Rafatnejad.
Seyed Ali Mirkarimi — a hacker and Mabna Institute contractor, who was engaged in crafting and sending malicious spear phishing emails to steal credentials belonging to university professors.
Mostafa Sadeghi — another hacker working with the Mabna Institute, who allegedly compromised more than 1,000 university professors’ accounts and exchanged their credentials with Iranian partners.
Sajjad Tahmasebi — a Mabna Institute contractor who was maintaining the list of stolen credentials and helped other hackers in reconnaissance process in order to prepare the list of targeted universities and professors to facilitate the spear phishing campaign.
Abdollah Karima — a businessman who owned and operated a website to sell stolen academic materials online.
Abuzar Gohari Moqadam — an Iranian professor who exchanged stolen credentials for compromised accounts with Mabna Institute founders.
Roozbeh Sabahi — another contractor for the Mabna Institute.
Mohammed Reza Sabahi — another Mabna Institute contractor, who assisted in making the lists of targeted university professors and academic databases.
"Although it is difficult to calculate a dollar loss amount, through the course of the conspiracy, U.S.-based universities spent approximately $3.4 billion to procure and access data that the Iranians accessed for free because of their criminal activity," FBI said.
Targeted countries include Japan, China, Australia, Canada, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Malaysia, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Singapore, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and the United Kingdom.
The US also imposes sanctions on "Game of Thrones" hacker
Besides these 9 Iranian hackers, the U.S. Department of Treasury has also charged a 10th Iranian hacker, named Behzad Mesri, in connection with cyber attacks against HBO and with leaking "Game of Thrones" episodes last summer.
According to the authorities, Mesri compromised multiple user accounts belonging to HBO in order to "repeatedly gain unauthorized access to the company’s computer servers and steal valuable stolen data including confidential and proprietary information, financial documents, and employee contact information."
Mesri then attempted to extort HBO for $6 million to delete the stolen data.


GoScanSSH Malware spread avoiding Government and Military networks
27.3.2018 securityaffairs BigBrothers

Security experts at Cisco Talos discovered a new piece of malware dubbed GoScanSSH that was being used to compromise SSH servers exposed online.
Security researchers at Cisco Talos have discovered a new piece of malware dubbed GoScanSSH that was being used to compromise SSH servers exposed online.

The malicious code was written in Go programming language, uncommon for malware development, and implements several interesting features, for example, it tries to avoid infecting devices on government and military networks.

“Talos identified a new malware family that was being used to compromise SSH servers exposed to the internet. This malware, which we have named GoScanSSH, was written using the Go programming language, and exhibited several interesting characteristics.” reads the analysis published by Talos.

The attacker created unique malware binaries for each infected system, researchers also reported that the GoScanSSH command and control (C2) infrastructure was leveraging the Tor2Web proxy service making hard the tracking of the C&C infrastructure and resilient to takedowns.

GoScanSSH conducted brute-force attack against publicly accessible SSH servers that allowed password-based SSH authentication. The hackers are leveraging a word list containing more than 7,000 username/password combinations. When GoScanSSH discovered a valid credential set, a unique GoScanSSH malware binary is then created and uploaded to the compromised SSH server and executed.

While scanning for vulnerable SSH servers, GoScanSSH randomly generates IP addresses, avoiding special-use addresses. the malware then compares each IP address to a list of CIDR blocks that the malicious code will not attempt to scan because they are network ranges primarily controlled by various government and military entities.

The malware specifically avoids ranges assigned to the U.S. Department of Defense, experts also noticed that one of the network ranges in the list is assigned to an organization in South Korea.

The researchers detected more than 70 unique malware samples associated with the GoScanSSH malware family, the experts observed samples that were compiled to support multiple system architectures including x86, x86_64, ARM and MIPS64.

The experts also observed multiple versions (e.g, versions 1.2.2, 1.2.4, 1.3.0, etc.) of the malware in the wild, a circumstance that suggests the threat actors behind the malicious code is continuing to improve the malware.

GoScanSSH malware dns queries
According to the researchers, threat actors are likely trying to compromise larger networks, experts believe attackers are well resourced and with significant skills.

They are being active since June 2017 and already deployed 70 different versions of the GoScanSSH malware using over 250 distinct C&C servers.

The analysis of passive DNS data related to all of the C2 domains collected from all of the samples Talos analyzed confirmed that the number of infected systems is low.

“In analyzing passive DNS data related to all of the C2 domains collected from all of the samples Talos analyzed, resolution attempts were seen dating back to June 19, 2017, indicating that this attack campaign has been ongoing for at least nine months. Additionally, the C2 domain with the largest number of resolution requests had been seen 8,579 times.” states the analysis published by Talos.

Further details on the GoScanSSH malware, including IoCs, are reported in the analysis published by Talos.


Pentagon Looks to Counter Ever-stealthier Warfare
26.3.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

The US military has for years enjoyed a broad technological edge over its adversaries, dominating foes with superior communications and cyber capabilities.

Now, thanks to rapid advances by Russia and China, the gap has shrunk, and the Pentagon is looking at how a future conflict with a "near-peer" competitor might play out.

Air Force Secretary Heather Wilson recently warned that both Russia and China are experimenting with ways to take out the US military's satellites, which form the backbone of America's warfighting machine.

"They know that we are dominant in space, that every mission the military does depends on space, and in a crisis or war they are demonstrating capabilities and developing capabilities to seek to deny us our space assets," Wilson said.

"We're not going to let that happen."

The Pentagon is investing in a new generation of satellites that will provide the military with better accuracy and have better anti-jamming capabilities.

Such technology would help counter the type of "asymmetric" warfare practised by Russia, which combines old-school propaganda with social media offensives and cyber hacks.

Washington has blamed Moscow for numerous cyber attacks, including last year's massive ransomware attack, known as NotPetya, which paralyzed thousands of computers around the world.

US cyber security investigators have also accused the Russian government of a sustained effort to take control of critical US infrastructure systems, including the energy grid.

Russia denies involvement and so far, such attacks have been met with a muted US military response.

- Public relations shutdown -

General John Hyten, who leads US Strategic Command (STRATCOM), told lawmakers the US has "not gone nearly far enough" in the cyber domain.

He also warned that the military still does not have clear authorities and rules of engagement for when and how it can conduct offensive cyber ops.

"Cyberspace needs to be looked at as a warfighting domain, and if somebody threatens us in cyberspace, we need to have the authorities to respond," Hyten told lawmakers this week.

Hyten's testimony comes after Admiral Michael Rogers, who heads both the NSA -- the leading US electronic eavesdropping agency -- and the new US Cyber Command, last month said President Donald Trump had not yet ordered his spy chiefs to retaliate against Russian interference in the 2016 US election.

Russia has also been blamed for the March 4 poisoning of former spy Sergei Skripal and his daughter Yulia, who were found unconscious on a bench outside a shopping center in England.

NATO countries are working to determine when a cyber attack might trigger the alliance's Article 5 collective defense provision, General Curtis Scaparrotti, the commander of NATO forces in Europe, said this month.

NATO "recognizes the difficulty in indirect or asymmetric activity that Russia is practising, activities below the level of conflict," Scaparrotti said.

In 2015, the Air Force opened the highly secretive National Space Defense Center in Colorado, where airmen work to identify potential threats to America's satellite network.

After officials told a local newspaper, The Gazette, that the center had started running on a 24-hour basis, Air Force higher ups grew alarmed that too much information had been revealed.

In an example of how sensitive the issue of cybersecurity now is, the Air Force reacted by putting its entire public operations department on a "stand down" while it reviews how it interacts with journalists.


The City of San Diego is suing the Experian credit agency for 2013 security breach
25.3.2018 securityaffairs  BigBrothers

According to the lawsuit filed by San Diego city attorney Mara Elliott the Experian credit agency never notified the 2013 security breach to the affected consumers as required under California law.
The City of San Diego, California is suing the Experian credit agency for the security breach that the company suffered in 2013.

“San Diego City Attorney Mara Elliott has filed a lawsuit against consumer credit giant Experian, contending the company suffered a massive data breach that affected 250,000 people in San Diego and millions more — but never told customers about it.” states a blog post published on The San Diego Union-Tribune.

“Elliott’s office cited the Internal Revenue Service in saying hackers filed more than 13,000 false returns using the hacked information, obtaining $65 million in fraudulent tax refunds.”

According to the lawsuit filed by San Diego city attorney Mara Elliott, the security breach that was first reported by the popular expert Brian Krebs, lasted for nine months ending in 2013. The company never notified it to the affected consumers as required under California law.

According to The San Diego Union-Tribune, the city attorney argued that data belonging to some 30 million consumers could have been stolen, including information for 250,000 people in San Diego.

According to Krebs, the Vietnamese man Hieu Minh Ngo ran an identity theft service (Superget[dot]info and Findget[dot]me) and gained access to sensitive consumer information by posing himself as a licensed private investigator in the United States.

The Identity theft service superget[]info was based on data from consumer databases maintained by a company that Experian purchased in 2012.

Source: Krebsonsecurity.com

The man was paying Experian thousands of dollars in cash each month for access to 200 million consumer records, then he was reselling them to more than 1,300 users of his ID theft service.

The man was arrested by US authorities and pleaded guilty to identity fraud charges, he was sentenced in July 2014 to 13 years in jail.

In December 2013, an executive from Experian told Congress that the company was not aware of any consumers that were a victim of a scam-related to the stolen data.

The court order is asking the company to formally notify consumers whose personal information was involved in the security theft and to pay costs for identity protection services for those people.

“The law carries penalties up to $2,500 for each violation, meaning the company could be facing potentially millions in fines.” The San Diego Union-Tribune added.


US imposes sanctions on nine Iranian hackers involved in a massive state-sponsored hacking scheme
24.3.2018 securityaffairs BigBrothers

The US DoJ and Department of the Treasury on Friday announced charges against nine Iranian hackers for alleged involvement in state-sponsored hacking activities.
The US Department of Justice and Department of the Treasury on Friday announced charges against nine Iranians for alleged involvement in a massive state-sponsored hacking scheme, the hackers hit more than 300 universities and tens of companies in the US and abroad and stole “valuable intellectual property and data.”

According to the Treasury Department, since 2013, the Mabna Institute hit 144 US universities and 176 universities in 21 foreign countries.

The hackers also targeted the US Department of Labor, the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, and many private and non-governmental organizations.

The sanctions also hit the Mabna Institute, an Iran-based company, that had a critical role in coordinating the attacks on behalf of Iran’s Revolutionary Guards.

The nine defendants are Gholamreza Rafatnejad, 38; Ehsan Mohammadi, 37; Abdollah Karima, aka Vahid Karima, 39; Mostafa Sadeghi, 28; Seyed Ali Mirkarimi, 34; Mohammed Reza Sabahi, 26; Roozbeh Sabahi, 24; Abuzar Gohari Moqadam, 37; and Sajjad Tahmasebi, 30, they are all residents of Iran.

Gholamreza Rafatnejad (38) and Ehsan Mohammadi (37) are the two founders of the Mabna Institute.

“The indictment alleges that the defendants worked on behalf of the Iranian government, specifically the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps,” said Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein in prepared remarks illustrated at a press conference on Friday.

“They hacked the computer systems of approximately 320 universities in 22 countries. One-hundred forty-four of the victims are American universities. The defendants stole research that cost the universities approximately $3.4bn to procure and maintain.”

The US indictment revealed a coordinated effort from 2013 through the end of 2017 involving online cyber espionage on academics with the intent to discover their research interests.

Iranians hackers launched spear phishing attack using messages that would appear to be sent from another professor. The messages usually embedded a malicious link to a bogus domain using to steal victim’s login credentials.

Mabna Institute employees “engaged in the theft of valuable intellectual property and data from hundreds of US and third-country universities… for private financial gain.” said Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein.

“For many of these intrusions, the defendants acted at the behest of the Iranian government and, specifically, the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps,”

Geoffrey Berman, US Attorney for the Southern District of New York revealed that the spear phishing campaign targeted more than 100,000 university professors worldwide and about 8,000 accounts were compromised.

The Iranian hackers exfiltrated 31 terabytes, roughly 15 billion pages of academic projects were stolen.

The stolen data included “research, and other academic data and documents, including, among other things, academic journals, theses, dissertations, and electronic books.”

One of the 10 Iranians subject to sanctions, Behzad Mesri was already known to the US authorities. In November 2017, the United States charged the Iranian computer expert Behzad Mesri of ‘Games of Thrones‘ HBO hack, the man was charged with stealing scripts and plot summaries for ‘Games of Thrones’.

The Manhattan US attorney Joon Kim said Mesri is “had previously hacked computer systems for the Iranian military”. The man threatened to release stolen data unless HBO paid a $6 million ransom in Bitcoin.

Prosecutors confirmed that the Iranian man was a member of the Iranian-based Turk Black Hat Security hacking group that targeted hundreds of websites in the United States and around the world.

Experts discovered that Masri and Charming Kitten were linked through the member of Turk Black Hat group “ArYaIeIrAN.” another member of Turk Black Hat.

Iranian hackers

Back to the present, the Justice Department said that besides targeting university professors in the United States, the hackers also compromised accounts in Australia, Canada, China, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Singapore, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.


Lone DNC Hacker Guccifer 2.0 is linked to the GRU, the Russian military intelligence agency
24.3.2018 securityaffairs BigBrothers

The US investigators concluded that the Russia-linked hacker Guccifer 2.0 is directly tied to the GRU, the Russian military intelligence agency.
Guccifer 2.0 is the alleged hacker behind the DNC hack that also released a huge trove of documents about House Democrats, including Nancy Pelosi’s sensitive data.

Guccifer 2.0

In February 2016, researchers from security company CrowdStrike, pointed out that the DNC attack wasn’t the result of the action of a lone wolf, instead, two sophisticated Russian espionage groups, COZY BEAR and FANCY BEAR were involved in the cyber espionage operation.

A portion of the intelligence community believes that the Russia-linked hacker Guccifer 2.0 is a Russian intelligence agent.

This week, The Daily Beast published a report that confirms that Guccifer 2.0 is linked to the GRU, Russia’s military intelligence agency.

“Guccifer 2.0, the “lone hacker” who took credit for providing WikiLeaks with stolen emails from the Democratic National Committee, was in fact an officer of Russia’s military intelligence directorate (GRU), The Daily Beast has learned.” reads the analysis published by The Daily Beast.

“It’s an attribution that resulted from a fleeting but critical slip-up in GRU tradecraft.”

In January 2017, the US intelligence linked the the DNC hack and the cyber attacks against the Hillary Clinton’s campaign to Russian intelligence groups.

Guccifer 2.0 took credit for some of the attacks denying any link with the Kremlin, by US authorities believe the hacker is a product of a Russian disinformation campaign.

The experts at cybersecurity firm ThreatConnect also determined that Guccifer 2.0 was linked to Russian intelligence. According to ThreatConnect, Guccifer 2.0 had been using a Virtual Private Network service, Elite VPN, to remain anonymous, but on one occasion he failed to activate the VPN client before logging on.

According to a source familiar with the government’s Guccifer investigation, the hacker was using a system having a Moscow-based IP address that was logged by an American social media company.

“Almost immediately various cyber security companies and individuals were skeptical of Guccifer 2.0 and the backstory that he had generated for himself,” said Kyle Ehmke, an intelligence researcher at the cyber security firm ThreatConnect. “We started seeing these inconsistencies that led back to the idea that he was created hastily… by the individual or individuals that affected the DNC compromise.”

“Working off the IP address, U.S. investigators identified Guccifer 2.0 as a particular GRU officer working out of the agency’s headquarters on Grizodubovoy Street in Moscow. (The Daily Beast’s sources did not disclose which particular officer worked as Guccifer.)” continues the report.

The GRU military agency is believed to run the dreaded Fancy Bear APT, that is behind the DNC hack, cyber espionage campaign against NATO and Obama’s White House and cyber attacks against the World Anti-Doping Agency, and numerous militaries and government agencies in Europe, Central Asia, and the Caucasus.

The special counsel Robert Mueller determined that Russia intelligence interfered with US elections in the attempt to boost Trump’s candidacy.

On July 22, 2016, WikiLeaks began releasing the documents stolen by Guccifer 2.0, a huge trove of approximately 19,000 emails and 8,000 attachments stolen by the hacker. Trump promptly promoted the leak on Twitter, while his adviser Roger Stone in an article written for Breitbart (a name familiar with Cambridge Analytica case too), sustained that Guccifer 2.0 was a Romanian hacktivist.

“Sometime after its hasty launch, the Guccifer persona was handed off to a more experienced GRU officer, according to a source familiar with the matter. The timing of that handoff is unclear, but Guccifer 2.0’s last blog post, from Jan. 12, 2017, evinced a far greater command of English than the persona’s earlier efforts.” concluded The Daily Beast.

“It’s obvious that the intelligence agencies are deliberately falsifying evidence,” the post read. “In my opinion, they’re playing into the hands of the Democrats who are trying to blame foreign actors for their failure.”


U.S. Imposes Sanctions on Iranians for Hacking
23.3.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

U.S. Charges Iranians in Massive Hacking Scheme

The United States unveiled charges on Friday against nine Iranians for their alleged involvement in a massive state-sponsored hacking scheme which targeted hundreds of universities in the US and abroad and stole "valuable intellectual property and data."

Ten Iranians were also hit with sanctions along with an Iranian company, the Mabna Institute, which engaged in computer hacking on behalf of Iran's Revolutionary Guards, the US Treasury Department said.

The two founders of the Mabna Institute, Gholamreza Rafatnejad, 38, and Ehsan Mohammadi, 37, were among the nine Iranians indicted in New York and whose assets are subject to US seizure.

Since 2013, the Mabna Institute carried out cyber intrusions into the computer systems of 144 US universities, the Treasury Department said, and 176 universities in 21 foreign countries.

Mabna Institute employees and contractors "engaged in the theft of valuable intellectual property and data from hundreds of US and third-country universities... for private financial gain," it said.

"For many of these intrusions, the defendants acted at the behest of the Iranian government and, specifically, the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps," Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein said.

The US Department of Labor, the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, dozens of private firms and non-governmental organizations such as the United Nations Children's Fund were also allegedly targeted.

Geoffrey Berman, US Attorney for the Southern District of New York, said the Iranians conducted spearphishing attacks designed to steal passwords from email accounts in one of the "largest state-sponsored" hacking schemes ever uncovered.

- 8,000 accounts compromised -

The email accounts of more than 100,000 university professors worldwide were targeted, Berman said, and about 8,000 accounts were compromised.

He said 31 terabytes -- about 15 billion pages -- of academic data and intellectual property were stolen.

This included "research, and other academic data and documents, including, among other things, academic journals, theses, dissertations, and electronic books," the Justice Department said.

"The defendants targeted data across all fields of research and academic disciplines, including science and technology, engineering, social sciences, medical, and other professional fields," it said.

David Bowdich, deputy director of the FBI, said the defendants are in Iran and "apprehending these individuals presents a challenge."

"(But) the long arm of the law reaches worldwide," he said. "You cannot hide behind a keyboard half way around the world and expect not to be held to account," Berman said.

One of the 10 Iranians subject to sanctions, Behzad Mesri, was already indicted in November 2017 in connection with the theft of scripts and plot summaries for HBO's "Game of Thrones," and for trying to extort $6 million in Bitcoin out of the network.

The Justice Department said that besides targeting university professors in the United States, the hackers also compromised accounts in Australia, Canada, China, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Singapore, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.

Rafatnejad, Mohammadi and the seven other Mabna Institute employees or contractors were charged with identity theft, conspiracy to commit computer intrusions and other crimes.


Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) hacked over the weekend
22.3.2018 securityaffairs BigBrothers

Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) power utility confirmed early this week that it has been hacked over the weekend.
A few days ago, the US government issued an alert to warn of cyber attacks powered by Russian state-sponsored hackers against US critical infrastructure.

News of the day is that Puerto Rico power utility, aka Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority or PREPA, confirmed early this week that it has been hacked over the weekend.

Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority PREPA

Last year, PREPA filed a form of U.S. bankruptcy to shed some $9 billion in debt. Puerto Rico Governor Ricardo Rossello plans to privatize the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority and to modernize the outdated infrastructure.

The bankrupt power utility confirmed that there is no risk for its customers because their data were not compromised by hackers.

The hackers did not access the customer service system at Puerto Rico power utility.

According to the Executive Director Justo Gonzalez Torres, on Sunday night, the computer infrastructure of PREPA suffered a security breach, he also added that an investigation is ongoing.

“In these moments we are protecting the systems and working to resolve the situation,” said Gonzalez.

At the time there is no evidence for the involvement of Russian hackers in the attack against the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority.Anyway, the attribution of such kind of cyber attacks is very hard because threat actors adopt sophisticated techniques to remain stealth
“As of Monday evening, there was no indication that Russia was to blame for PREPA’s hack.” reported the Reuters.

“When asked about potential sources of the attack, a spokesman for PREPA said the matter was “being investigated and referred to the relevant authorities,” declining to say who those authorities were.”

In September, the PREPA grid was destroyed when Hurricane Maria that hit Puerto Rico, 3.4 million residents of the U.S. commonwealth went in the dark.


Telegram Must Give FSB Encryption Keys: Russian Court
21.3.2018 securityweek BigBrothers 

Moscow - Russia's Supreme Court on Tuesday ruled the popular Telegram messenger app must provide the country's security services with encryption keys to read users' messaging data, agencies reported.

Media watchdog Roskomnadzor instructed Telegram to "provide the FSB with the necessary information to decode electronic messages received, transmitted, or being sent" within 15 days, it said on its website.

Telegram had appealed against an earlier ruling that it must share this information, but this appeal was rejected on Tuesday.

If it does not provide the keys it could be blocked in Russia.

The free instant messaging app, which lets people exchange messages, photos and videos in groups of up to 5,000 people, has attracted more than 100 million users since its launch in 2013.

Telegram's self-exiled Russian founder Pavel Durov said in September 2017 the FSB had demanded backdoor access.

When Telegram did not provide the encryption keys, the FSB launched a formal complaint.

Durov wrote last year that the FSB's demands are "technically impossible to carry out" and violate the Russian Constitution which entitles citizens to privacy of correspondence.

Tuesday's ruling is the latest move in a dispute between Telegram and the Russian authorities as Moscow pushes to increase surveillance of internet activities.

Last June, Russia's state communications watchdog threatened to ban the app for failing to provide registration documents. Although Telegram later registered, it stopped short of agreeing to its data storage demands.

Companies on the register must provide the FSB with information on user interactions.

From this year they must also store all the data of Russian users inside the country, according to controversial anti-terror legislation passed in 2016 which was decried by internet companies and the opposition.


U.S. Military Should Step Up Cyber Ops: General
21.3.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

Washington - US efforts to conduct offensive and defensive operations in cyberspace are falling short, a top general warned Tuesday amid ongoing revelations about Russian hacking.

General John Hyten, who leads US Strategic Command (STRATCOM), told lawmakers the US has "not gone nearly far enough" in the cyber domain, also noting that the military still lacks clear rules of cyber engagement.

"We have to go much further in treating cyberspace as an operational domain," Hyten told the Senate Armed Services Committee.

"Cyberspace needs to be looked at as a warfighting domain, and if somebody threatens us in cyberspace we need to have the authorities to respond."

Hyten noted, however, that the US had made some progress in conducting cyber attacks on enemies in the Middle East, such as the Islamic State group.

His testimony comes weeks after General Curtis Scaparrotti, commander of NATO forces in Europe, warned that US government agencies are not coordinating efforts to counter the cyber threat from Russia, even as Moscow conducts a "campaign of destabilization."

And last month, Admiral Michael Rogers, who heads both the NSA -- the leading US electronic eavesdropping agency -- and the new US Cyber Command, said President Donald Trump had not yet ordered his spy chiefs to retaliate against Russian interference in US elections.

The US has accused Russia of actively interfering in the 2016 presidential election, stealing Democratic party communications and pushing out disinformation through social media.

It also accuses Moscow of stealing hacking secrets of the US intelligence community -- while US cyber security investigators have accused the Russian government of a sustained effort to take control of critical US infrastructure systems including the energy grid.

Hyten added the military needs clear authorities and rules of engagement so operators know when and how to respond to attacks.

"We need to have specific rules of engagement in cyber that match the other domains that we operate in," Hyten said.

"We need to delegate that authority all the way down so we can deal with threats that exist that challenge the United States."


U.S. Military Should Step Up Cyber Ops: General
21.3.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

Washington - US efforts to conduct offensive and defensive operations in cyberspace are falling short, a top general warned Tuesday amid ongoing revelations about Russian hacking.

General John Hyten, who leads US Strategic Command (STRATCOM), told lawmakers the US has "not gone nearly far enough" in the cyber domain, also noting that the military still lacks clear rules of cyber engagement.

"We have to go much further in treating cyberspace as an operational domain," Hyten told the Senate Armed Services Committee.

"Cyberspace needs to be looked at as a warfighting domain, and if somebody threatens us in cyberspace we need to have the authorities to respond."

Hyten noted, however, that the US had made some progress in conducting cyber attacks on enemies in the Middle East, such as the Islamic State group.

His testimony comes weeks after General Curtis Scaparrotti, commander of NATO forces in Europe, warned that US government agencies are not coordinating efforts to counter the cyber threat from Russia, even as Moscow conducts a "campaign of destabilization."

And last month, Admiral Michael Rogers, who heads both the NSA -- the leading US electronic eavesdropping agency -- and the new US Cyber Command, said President Donald Trump had not yet ordered his spy chiefs to retaliate against Russian interference in US elections.

The US has accused Russia of actively interfering in the 2016 presidential election, stealing Democratic party communications and pushing out disinformation through social media.

It also accuses Moscow of stealing hacking secrets of the US intelligence community -- while US cyber security investigators have accused the Russian government of a sustained effort to take control of critical US infrastructure systems including the energy grid.

Hyten added the military needs clear authorities and rules of engagement so operators know when and how to respond to attacks.

"We need to have specific rules of engagement in cyber that match the other domains that we operate in," Hyten said.

"We need to delegate that authority all the way down so we can deal with threats that exist that challenge the United States."


Supreme Court in Russia ruled Telegram must provide FSB encryption keys
21.3.2018 securityaffairs BigBrothers
A Supreme Court in Russia ruled Telegram must provide the FSB with encryption keys to access users’ messaging data to avoid being blocked.
Bad news for Telegram, a Supreme Court in Russia ruled the company must provide the FSB with encryption keys to access users’ messaging data. If Telegram will refuse to comply the request the authorities will block the service in Russia.

Media watchdog Roskomnadzor asked Telegram to share technical details to access electronic messages shared through the instant messaging app.

Roskomnadzor requested to “provide the FSB with the necessary information to decode electronic messages received, transmitted, or being sent” within 15 days.

In June, Roskomnadzor, the Russian Government threatened to ban the popular instant messaging app because the company refused to be compliant with the country’s new data protection laws. In July, the company agreed to register with Russia authorities to avoid the local ban, but it did not share user data.

Telegram

Telegram appealed against the ruling, but the Supreme Court rejected the request of the company.

Telegram founder Pavel Durov labeled the FSB request as “technically impossible to carry out” and unconstitutional, then he left Russia in September 2017 in response to the request of the FSB.

In July, Russia’s Duma approved the bill to prohibit tools used to surf outlawed websites

Russian authorities requested private firms operating in the country to provide the FSB with information on user activities, all the data related to Russian users must be stored in local servers according to anti-terror legislation that passed in 2016.


US Accuses Russian Government of Hacking Infrastructure
19.3.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

The Russian government is behind a sustained hacking effort to take over the control systems of critical US infrastructure like nuclear power plants and water distribution, according to US cyber security investigators.

A technical report released by the Department of Homeland Security on Thursday singled out Moscow as directing the ongoing effort that could give the hackers the ability to sabotage or shut down energy and other utility plants around the country.

It was the first time Washington named the Russian government as behind the attacks which have been taking place for nearly three years.

The allegation added to a series of accusations of political meddling and hacking against Russia that led to Washington announcing fresh sanctions against the country this week.

"Since at least March 2016, Russian government cyber actors ... targeted government entities and multiple US critical infrastructure sectors, including the energy, nuclear, commercial facilities, water, aviation, and critical manufacturing sectors," the report from the DHS Computer Emergency Readiness Team said.

DHS, together with the Federal Bureau of Investigation, said the Russian hackers targeted two groups -- the infrastructure operators themselves, and also peripheral "staging targets" which could be used as stepping stone into the intended targets.

Staging targets included third party firms supplying services and support to the main targets but may have less secure networks. The hackers had a deep toolbox of methods to enter target systems, they said.

The hacking effort paralleled Russia's alleged operation to interfere with the 2016 US presidential election and continue with online media manipulation throughout 2017.

DHS did not identify specific targets which the Russians broke into. But it said they were able to monitor the behavior of control systems, install their own software, collect the credentials of authorized users, monitor communications, and create administrator accounts to run the systems.

- Sustained attack -

The government has been issuing warnings to operators of US infrastructure -- power producers and distributors, water systems, and others -- about foreign hacking since 2016.

In January a White House report said cyberattacks cost the United States between $57 billion and $109 billion in 2016, and warned that the broader economy could be hurt if the situation worsens. It pointed the finger mainly at attackers from Russia, China, Iran, and North Korea.

Last September the private security firm Symantec outlined hacking efforts focused against US and European energy systems by a high-skilled group it dubbed Dragonfly 2.0.

"The Dragonfly group appears to be interested in both learning how energy facilities operate and also gaining access to operational systems themselves, to the extent that the group now potentially has the ability to sabotage or gain control of these systems should it decide to do so."

Symantec did not name the origin of the group, but the DHS report included Symantec's Dragonfly analysis in its allegations against Russia.

On Thursday the government announced sanctions against Russia's top spy agencies and more than a dozen individuals, citing both the election meddling and cyberattacks.

"We will continue to call out malicious behavior, impose costs, and build expectations for responsible actions in cyberspace," said Rob Joyce, the cybersecurity coordinator on the White House's National Security Council.


DHS and FBI accuse Russian Government of hacking US critical infrastructure
19.3.2018 securityaffairs BigBrothers

Department of Homeland Security and Federal Bureau of Investigation issued a joint technical alert to warn of attacks on US critical infrastructure powered by Russian
Last week, the Department of Homeland Security and Federal Bureau of Investigation issued a joint technical alert to warn of attacks on US critical infrastructure powered by Russian threat actors. The US-CERT blamed the APT group tracked as Dragonfly, Crouching Yeti, and Energetic Bear.

Last week the US-CERT updated its alert by providing further info that and officially linking the above APT groups to the Kremlin.

The Alert (TA18-074A) warns of “Russian Government Cyber Activity Targeting Energy and Other Critical Infrastructure Sectors,” it labels the attackers as “Russian government cyber actors.”

“This alert provides information on Russian government actions targeting U.S. Government entities as well as organizations in the energy, nuclear, commercial facilities, water, aviation, and critical manufacturing sectors.” reads the alert.

“It also contains indicators of compromise (IOCs) and technical details on the tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs) used by Russian government cyber actors on compromised victim networks.”

The analysis of indicators of compromise (IoCs), the Dragonfly threat actor is still very active and its attacks are ongoing.

“DHS and FBI characterize this activity as a multi-stage intrusion campaign by Russian government cyber actors who targeted small commercial facilities’ networks where they staged malware, conducted spear phishing, and gained remote access into energy sector networks.” continues the alert. “After obtaining access, the Russian government cyber actors conducted network reconnaissance, moved laterally, and collected information pertaining to Industrial Control Systems (ICS).”

On the other side, the Russian Government has always denied the accusations, in June 2017 Russian President Putin declared that patriotic hackers may have powered attacks against foreign countries and denied the involvement of Russian cyberspies.

According to the DHS, the Russi-linked APT groups targeted two groups. the infrastructure operators and also peripheral “staging targets” which could be used as stepping stone into the intended targets.

“This campaign comprises two distinct categories of victims: staging and intended targets. The initial victims are peripheral organizations such as trusted third-party suppliers with less secure networks, referred to as “staging targets” throughout this alert.” continues the alert.

“The threat actors used the staging targets’ networks as pivot points and malware repositories when targeting their final intended victims. NCCIC and FBI judge the ultimate objective of the actors is to compromise organizational networks, also referred to as the “intended target.“”

critical infrastructure Russia

The alert doesn’t include details of specific targets compromised by Russians hackers.

The Russian hackers were able to compromise the control systems by installing their custom malware to harvest credentials of authorized users, monitor communications, and gain control of the systems.

Only last week, the government announced sanctions against Russia’s top spy agencies and more than a dozen individuals.


Sofacy Targets European Govt as U.S. Accuses Russia of Hacking
16.3.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

Just as the U.S. had been preparing to accuse Russia of launching cyberattacks against its energy and other critical infrastructure sectors, the notorious Russia-linked threat group known as Sofacy was spotted targeting a government agency in Europe.

The United States on Thursday announced sanctions against Russian spy agencies and more than a dozen individuals for trying to influence the 2016 presidential election and launching cyberattacks, including the destructive NotPetya campaign and operations targeting energy firms.

The Department of Homeland Security and Federal Bureau of Investigation issued a joint technical alert via US-CERT last year to warn about attacks launched by a group known as Dragonfly, Crouching Yeti and Energetic Bear on critical infrastructure. Researchers previously linked Dragonfly to the Russian government and now the DHS has officially stated the same.

US-CERT has updated its alert with some additional information. The new version of the alert replaces “APT actors” with “Russian government cyber actors.” The DHS said that based on its analysis of malware and indicators of compromise, Dragonfly attacks are ongoing, with threat actors “actively pursuing their ultimate objectives over a long-term campaign.”

This is not the first time the U.S. has imposed sanctions on Russia over its attempt to influence elections. Russia has also been accused by Washington and others of launching the NotPetya attack last year. The Kremlin has always denied the accusations, but President Vladimir Putin did admit at one point that patriotic hackers could be behind the attacks.

If Dragonfly and Sofacy (aka Fancy Bear, APT28, Sednit, Tsar Team and Pawn Storm) are truly operating out of Russia, they don’t seem to be discouraged by sanctions and accusations.

On March 12 and March 14, security firm Palo Alto Networks spotted attacks launched by Sofacy against an unnamed European government agency using an updated variant of a known tool.

Sofacy has been using a Flash Player exploit platform dubbed DealersChoice since at least 2016 and it has continued improving it. The latest version has been delivered to a government organization in Europe using a spear phishing email referencing the “Underwater Defence & Security” conference, which will take place in the U.K. later this month.

What makes the new version of DealersChoice interesting, according to Palo Alto Networks, is the fact that it employs a clever evasion technique that has not been seen in the past.

Older versions of DealersChoice loaded a malicious Flash object as soon as the bait document was opened. The latest samples, however, include the Flash object on page three of the document and it’s only loaded if users scroll down to it. This Flash object, displayed in the document as a tiny black box, contacts the command and control (C&C) server to download an additional Flash object that contains the actual exploit.

Malicious Flash object hidden in document

Kaspersky reported last week that it had seen overlaps between attacks launched by Sofacy and campaigns conducted by other state-sponsored cyberspies, including ones linked to China and the United States.


U.S. Hits Russia With Sanctions for Election Meddling
15.3.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

Donald Trump's administration on Thursday levied sanctions against Russia's top spy agencies and more than a dozen individuals for trying to influence the 2016 US presidential election and two separate cyberattacks.

The announcement follows a lengthy delay that had caused anger on Capitol Hill and raised questions about Trump's willingness to confront Moscow.

The measures target five entities and 19 individuals -- including the FSB, Russia's top spy service; the military intelligence agency, or GRU; and 13 people recently indicted by Robert Mueller, the US special counsel handling a sprawling Russia probe.

Sanctions were also levied against individuals behind the separate Petya cyberattack and an "ongoing" attempt to hack the US energy grid.

The move comes despite Trump's repeated denial that Russia tried to tilt the election in his favor, fearing it could call his victory over Hillary Clinton into question.

The president has also decried more damaging allegations that his campaign colluded with the Kremlin -- the subject of Mueller's ongoing investigation that has seen several key aides indicted or make plea deals.

"It took 14 months," leading Democratic Senator Amy Klobuchar said of the sanctions. "Finally."

"Now we must protect our elections going forward," she added.

Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin said the decision showed the administration was "confronting and countering malign Russian cyber activity, including their attempted interference in US elections, destructive cyberattacks, and intrusions targeting critical infrastructure."

"These targeted sanctions are a part of a broader effort to address the ongoing nefarious attacks emanating from Russia," he added.

- Moscow's 'response' -

Moscow said it was preparing its response.

"We view this calmly. We have begun to prepare response measures," deputy foreign minister Sergei Ryabkov told Interfax news agency.

He claimed the US move was designed to coincide with Russia's presidential election on Sunday.

Many of the main entities and individuals hit -- including the spy agencies and 'troll factory' boss Yevgeny Prigozhin -- already face assets freezes and travel bans, either put in place under Barack Obama's administration or for actions linked to Russia's actions in Ukraine.

But the decision heaps pressure on Moscow as it faces separate punitive measures for an alleged attempt to kill a Russian-born British informant with a nerve agent west of London.

Britain, France, Germany and the United States condemned the attack on the Russian ex-spy and his daughter, saying there was "no plausible alternative explanation" to Moscow's involvement.

Trump said Thursday "it looks like" Russia was behind that attack.

"I've spoken with the (British) prime minister and we are in discussions," he added. "A very sad situation. It certainly looks like the Russians were behind it. Something that should never, ever happen, and we're taking it very seriously."

Moscow has denied being involved, claiming the British government was trying to "deflect attention" from difficult negotiations with the European Union over Brexit.


SOC Performance Improves, But Remains Short of Optimum: Report
13.3.2018 securityweek  BigBrothers

The good news is that security operations centers (SOCs) are becoming more efficient. The not-so-good news is that there is still considerable scope for improvement.

This is the conclusion of the fifth annual Micro Focus State of Security Operations Report for 2018 (PDF), which draws on the experience of 200 assessments of 144 discreet SOC organizations in 33 countries. In greater detail, there has been an overall 12% improvement in SOC maturity -- the most significant shift yet in the five years of the survey. Despite this, the median SOC maturity level stands at just 1.42 across all industries; significantly below the Micro Focus recommended target of 3.0,

The report uses the Micro Focus Security Operations Maturity Model (SOMM) methodology for assessments. This is based on the Carnegie Mellon Software Engineering Institute Capability Maturity Model for Integration (SEI-CMMI), which has been updated by Micro Focus at regular intervals to remain relevant with current information security trends and threat capabilities.

SOMM evaluates SOCs on the basis of people and processes, technology, and business capabilities. Despite the remaining room for improvement, this year's results show that organizations are beginning to see a return on their security investments and are seeing more value out of the security solutions they have deployed.

“Over the last five years, we have watched organizations attempt to achieve a complete security transformation by applying Band-Aids – such as the purchase of peripheral products or dismantling of solutions – only to find poor results and poor business alignment,” said Matthew Shriner, vice president, Security Professional Services for Micro Focus. “With that in mind, it is refreshing that when it comes to cyber defense capability, Micro Focus is seeing a much higher degree of operational sophistication than ever before. Nearly 25% of organizations assessed are meeting business goals, representing a nearly 10% year-over-year improvement.”

The SOMM gives a rating between 0 and 5. '0' represents a complete lack of capability, while '5' is given for a capability that is consistent, repeatable, documented, measured, tracked, and continually improved upon. Micro Focus believes that enterprises should seek a maturity level of 3, while managed security service providers should target a level between 3 and 4. The reliable detection of malicious activity, and a systematic approach to managing that activity are considered to be the most important success criteria for mature cyber defense.

Despite the overall improvement in maturity levels, the report notes that "20 percent of cyber defense organizations that were assessed over the past 5 years failed to score a security operations maturity model (SOMM) level 1. These organizations continue to operate in an ad-hoc manner with undocumented processes and significant gaps in security and risk management."

Geographically, the top performing areas are South America (SOMM score of 1.89) and the Benelux countries (1.79). In both cases the report suggests this may be down to a continuing trend "toward the use of niche service providers with a high degree of maturity, and initial investment by new service provider organizations entering the market. Niche provider SOC organizations in those regions are often willing to deliver a highly customized service to their customers and are starting to explore Hunt-as-a-Service offerings as part of their services portfolio."

The UK and DACH countries (Germany, Austria and Switzerland) all showed improvement -- 17% for the former and 9% for the latter. "Analysis," notes the report, "revealed multinational organizations making security investments in preparation for the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) which is currently scheduled to become enforceable in May of 2018. The consolidation and relocation of SOCs within the EMEA regions to form Security Fusion Centers have also improved the effectiveness of security operations."

North American SOCs showed only a limited improvement of 1%; but that follows a major improvement of 34% last -- and at 1.53, it remains ahead of the UK's 1.47. "Security operations teams in North America," says the report, "once again led as the region most willing to undergo external evaluations of their cyber defense capability and experienced accelerated results based on the implementation of targeted roadmaps."

Cloud migration has proven a problem for many SOCs. In most organizations, the cloud strategy focuses on application functionality without accounting for security and logging requirements. "Plans to monitor," notes the report, "did not follow key assets to the cloud for most security operations centers, leaving these SOCs with visibility only into the functionality that remained within legacy data center space."

In 2015, Micro Focus noted that organizations had begun to invest in big data lakes and analytics. By 2017, assessments showed that some SOCs are performing successful analytics, usually mining historical data for TTPs and IoCs -- but, "for the majority of organizations assessed such investments continue to be a science experiment with an uncertain future."

The use of deception grids continues to grow. The purpose is to increase the cost of an attack by tricking the attacker into deploying resources that are ineffective; while simultaneously learning about both the attacker and his intentions. Micro Focus expects this practice to grow, and will monitor the use of deception grids and their effect on SOC maturity in future years.

Overall, Micro Focus is optimistic over SOC progress in 2017, but warns that SOCs are no quick fix for security. "Successful security operations programs require an assessment of the risk management, security, and compliance objectives of the organization and the active tuning of the solutions deployed."


Internet Provider Redirects Users in Turkey to Spyware: Report
12.3.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

Hundreds of users in Turkey and Syria have been redirected to nation-state malware at the Internet Service Provider (ISP) level, a recent Citizen Lab report reveals.

Following ESET’s discovery that ISPs might be involved in the FinFisher distribution, Citizen Lab launched its own investigation into the matter, only to discover that Türk Telekom has been using Sandvine/Procera Networks Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) devices for the delivery of FinFisher when users attempted to download certain legitimate Windows applications.

Furthermore, the same DPI middleboxes at a Telecom Egypt demarcation point were used to hijack Egyptian users’ unencrypted Internet connections en masse, to redirect them to affiliate ads and in-browser crypto-currency mining scripts.

Middleboxes on Türk Telekom’s network were redirecting users to spyware-laden versions of legitimate programs such as Avast Antivirus, CCleaner, Opera, and 7-Zip, Citizen Lab reports. This was possible because “official websites for these programs […] directed users to non-HTTPS downloads by default,” the Citizen Lab report reads.

Targeted users in Turkey and Syria attempting to download applications from CBS Interactive’s Download.com were also redirected to versions of the programs containing spyware. The lack of HTTPS once again made the redirection possible.

The malicious versions of the targeted applications were initially packed with the FinFisher lawful intercept spyware, but the actor then switched to the StrongPity spyware.

Citizen Lab also found that middleboxes at a Telecom Egypt demarcation point redirected users across dozens of ISPs to affiliate ads and browser crypto-currency mining scripts. The scheme, called AdHose, would either redirect users en masse to ads for short periods of time, or would target some JavaScript resources and defunct websites for ad injection.

The characteristics of the middleboxes were eventually matched to Sandvine PacketLogic devices, which can prioritize, degrade, block, inject, and log various types of Internet traffic.

The company making PacketLogic devices was initially called Procera Networks, but was recently renamed. Its owner, U.S.-based private equity firm Francisco Partners, also invested in dual-use technology companies such as Internet surveillance and monitoring provider NSO Group, Citizen Lab points out. The NSO Group’s mobile spyware has been used to target journalists, lawyers, and human rights defenders.

“In Egypt and Turkey, we also found that devices matching our Sandvine PacketLogic fingerprint were being used to block political, journalistic, and human rights content,” Citizen Lab reports.

In Egypt, they would block human rights, political, and news websites such as Human Rights Watch, Reporters Without Borders, Al Jazeera, Mada Masr, and HuffPost Arabic. In Turkey, they would block Wikipedia, the website of the Dutch Broadcast Foundation (NOS), and the website of the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK).

According to Citizen Lab, Sandvine also appears to maintain a resident solutions engineer or other support staff in Turkey or Egypt, which “raises questions regarding company awareness of, or participation in, activities with significant human rights impact.”

Sandvine’s PacketLogic product does include support for in-path network injection, meaning that it could be used to inject data into the targeted connection. Thus, it is possible that government-linked entities in both Turkey and Egypt might have used the device to inject spyware.

However, Citizen Lab does point out that their technical attribution could only establish that “code that makes the same distinctive implementation choices as PacketLogic’s was used in the injection.” This does not exclude the possibility that another vendor copied PacketLogic’s design or copied PacketLogic’s code, or that Sandvine and other companies used the same third-party codebase in their products.

Citizen Lab also revealed that they contacted both Sandvine and their owner Francisco Partners on February 12, 2018, to notify them on the investigation’s findings. In their response letter, Sandvine said Citizen Lab’s statements were “false, misleading, and wrong.” The company also said the PacketLogic product wasn’t able of payload injection.

“Our research, however, does not suggest that the PacketLogic device is capable of injecting traffic with the malicious code outright. Rather, the spyware injection and advertising injection were carried out by injecting HTTP 307 redirects that caused a target’s browser to automatically fetch malicious code from a separate website,” Citizen Lab says.

Furthermore, the company expressed its commitment to the ethical use of the product and referenced to a webpage regarding Ethics and Human Rights protection. It also revealed that it has the “technical means in place to prevent misuse of its technology,” but the safeguards appear to have come up short, the report reads.

“The findings of this report also illustrate the urgent need for ubiquitous adoption of HTTPS by website developers. Handling web traffic over unencrypted channels leaves users vulnerable to network injection techniques that may expose them to spyware, unwanted advertising, or other Internet scams. Particularly on sites offering software downloads, companies and developers responsible for such platforms must ensure the proper use of encryption,” Citizen Lab points out.

Responding to a SecurityWeek inquiry, Sandvine said they would conduct their own investigation into the matter and take the appropriate measures to reduce the misuse of their product.

“We remain disappointed that we were not able to get the Report in advance of its media release in order to further our ongoing Business Ethics Committee investigation of the claims made by The Citizen Lab. We have conducted a preliminary review of the Report and we are pleased that the Report concedes that the Sandvine product is not physically responsible for injection of any malicious payload content.

“We are now able to advance our investigation into any possible misuse of the packet redirect capabilities of the Sandvine product as one link in a broader system using other players and vendors to perpetuate the alleged abuses. We will review the Report for factual accuracy, determine if there are changes to product configuration or licenses that would reduce the potential for misuse of the Sandvine product, and, if the facts warrant, engage with the relevant customers and take appropriate action,” Sandvine said in an email.


China-Linked Spies Used New Malware in U.K. Government Attack
12.3.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

A known cyber espionage group believed to be operating out of China was last year spotted using new malware in an attack aimed at an organization that provides services to the U.K. government.

Details about the attack were presented last week at Kaspersky’s Security Analyst Summit (SAS) in Cancun by Ahmed Zaki, senior malware researcher at NCC Group.

The attack has been attributed to a threat actor known as APT15, Ke3chang, Mirage, Vixen Panda and Playful Dragon. NCC Group started analyzing the group’s recent activities after it targeted one of its customers, a global company that provides a wide range of services to the United Kingdom government.

Researchers believe the attackers had been targeting various U.K. government departments and military technology through its customer. NCC has not made any statements regarding attribution, but Zaki did mention during his presentation at SAS that APT15 was particularly active during hours that correspond to working hours in East Asia.

APT15 has been active since at least 2010 and it has targeted organizations all around the world using its own malware and Word, Adobe Reader and Java exploits. The group has improved its tools and techniques over the years, and NCC recently spotted two new backdoors it created.

One of the backdoors has been dubbed RoyalCLI and is considered a successor of BS2005, a piece of malware that is often used by the group. RoyalCLI leverages similar encryption and encoding routines, and they both communicate with command and control (C&C) servers via Internet Explorer using the IWebBrowser2 interface.

The malware uses the Windows command prompt (cmd.exe) to execute a majority of its commands. It’s designed to copy the cmd.exe file and modify it, which allows it to bypass policies that might prevent the command prompt from running on the targeted device.

The second backdoor, named RoyalDNS, uses DNS, specifically TXT records, to communicate with the C&C server. This piece of malware receives commands, executes them, and returns output through DNS.

In the case of the attack analyzed by NCC, the hackers compromised more than 30 hosts, with forensic artifacts showing that the initial intrusion may have occurred as early as May 2016. NCC was asked by the client to stop its investigation in June 2017, but resumed it in August after the threat actor managed to regain access to the victim’s network. Experts determined that the hackers had stolen a VPN certificate from a compromised host and used it to regain access via the corporate VPN.

APT15 attack

The commands sent by the attackers to the RoyalCLI and BS2005 malware were cached to the disk of compromised devices, allowing researchers to recover over 200 commands. Since one of the commands contained a typo, investigators determined that they were likely sent by a human operative rather than an automated process.

In addition to BS2005, RoyalCLI and RoyalDNS, APT15 used custom-built keyloggers, and Microsoft SharePoint and Exchange enumeration and data dumping tools. The group’s arsenal also includes widely available tools such as Mimikatz, CSVDE, NetEnum, and RemoteExec.

Moreover, the attackers relied on various Windows commands to conduct reconnaissance, including tasklist, ping, netstat, net, systeminfo, ipconfig and bcp. For lateral movement they leveraged the net command and manually copied files to and from compromised hosts.

“Through our investigation we were able to identify and monitor the attack process from start to finish, offering us unique insight into the behaviour of this group,” Zaki said. “It’s clear to see that this is a highly sophisticated threat actor that has no problem writing tools which are specific to its victims.”


Governments rely on Sandvine network gear to deliver spyware and miners
11.3.2018 securityaffairs  BigBrothers

According to Citizen Lab, some governments are using Sandvine network gear installed at internet service providers to deliver spyware and cryptocurrency miners.
Researchers at human rights research group Citizen Lab have discovered that netizens in Turkey, Egypt and Syria who attempted to download legitimate Windows applications from official vendor websites (i.e. Avast Antivirus, CCleaner, Opera, and 7-Zip) have been infected with a nation-state malware.

According to the organization, local governments with the help of internet service providers have used deep-packet inspection boxes to hijack the traffic.

“This report describes how we used Internet scanning to uncover the apparent use of Sandvine/Procera Networks Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) devices (i.e. middleboxes) for malicious or dubious ends, likely by nation-states or ISPs in two countries.” states the report published by Citizen Lab.

Citizen Lab started this investigation in September after the researchers at ESET uncovered a surveillance campaign using a new variant of FinFisher spyware, also known as FinSpy.

Finfisher infected victims in seven countries and experts believe that in two of them the major internet providers have been involved.

The Citizen Lab researchers have found Sandvine PacketLogic devices being used on the networks of Türk Telecom and Telecom Egypt for distributing malware designed for varying purposes, ranging from surveillance to cryptocurrency mining.

“After an extensive investigation, we matched characteristics of the network injection in Turkey and Egypt to Sandvine PacketLogic devices. We developed a fingerprint for the injection we found in Turkey, Syria, and Egypt and matched our fingerprint to a second-hand PacketLogic device that we procured and measured in a lab setting.” states the report.

“The apparent use of Sandvine devices to surreptitiously inject malicious and dubious redirects for users in Turkey, Syria, and Egypt raises significant human rights concerns.”

Sandvine device

Researchers highlighted that official websites for these legitimate applications redirect users to non-HTTPS downloads by default, making easy for attackers to redirect users.

The experts reported the case of the CBS Interactive’s Download.com, its users were redirected to downloads containing spyware in Turkey and Syria.

The surveillance malware the researchers found bundled by operators was similar to that used in the espionage campaigns conducted by StrongPity APT.

The expert discovered that the Sandvine boxes were used in Egypt to distribute either affiliate ads or browser cryptocurrency mining scripts.

“The middleboxes were being used to redirect users across dozens of ISPs to affiliate ads and browser cryptocurrency mining scripts. The Egyptian scheme, which we call AdHose, has two modes.” continues the report. “In spray mode, AdHose redirects Egyptian users en masse to ads for short periods of time. In trickle mode, AdHose targets some JavaScript resources and defunct websites for ad injection. AdHose is likely an effort to covertly raise money.”

According to Citizen Lab, the same boxes are also supposedly being used for censorship, for example blocking the access to websites like Human Rights Watch, Reporters Without Borders, Al Jazeera, Mada Masr, and HuffPost Arabic.

Citizen Lab reported Sandvine of their findings, but the firm flagged the study as “false, misleading, and wrong,” and asked the organization to return the second-hand PacketLogic device they used in their investigation.

Sandvine asked the experts to delay publication of the report, claiming that the researchers intentionally provided incorrect information.

On March 7, 2018, Sandvine sent a letter to the University of Toronto, to express its disappointment about the Citizen Lab analysis. External counsel responded to Sandvine’s letter on behalf of the University of Toronto and Citizen Lab on March 8, 2018.

Sandvine criticized the unethical approach of the researchers, it also pointed out that tests were conducted by acquiring a second-hand Sandvine PacketLogic PL7720 box for testing.

“You state, broadly, that Sandvine takes seriously its commitment to corporate social responsibility and ethical use of its products,” reads a letter sent by attorneys representing the University and Citizen Lab. “However, you have not responded to any of the specific questions asked of Sandvine by Citizen Lab in letters dated February 16 and March 1, 2018.”


Sofacy Attacks Overlap With Other State-Sponsored Operations
9.3.2018 securityweek BigBrothers  APT 
Attack

Kurt Baumgartner details latest Sofacy attacks at Kaspersky SAS

CANCUN - KASPERSKY SECURITY ANALYST SUMMIT - Attacks carried out by a Russian threat group appear to overlap with campaigns conducted by other cyberspies, including ones linked by researchers to China and the United States.

Kaspersky Lab revealed last month that the Russian threat actor known as Sofacy, APT28, Fancy Bear, Pawn Storm, Sednit and Strontium had shifted its focus from NATO member countries and Ukraine to Central Asia and further east, including China.

On Friday, at Kaspersky’s Security Analyst Summit (SAS), researcher Kurt Baumgartner revealed that the group appears to be particularly interested in military, defense and diplomatic entities in the far east.

Baumgartner also revealed that the attacks launched by Sofacy sometimes overlap with the operations of other state-sponsored cyberspies in terms of victims.

For instance, researchers discovered Sofacy’s Zerbrocy malware on machines that had also been compromised by Mosquito, a backdoor associated with Turla, a different threat actor linked to Russia. Shared victims include diplomatic and commercial organizations in Europe and Asia.

Sofacy’s SPLM malware (aka CHOPSTICK and X-Agent) was found on devices that had also been infected with other Turla malware, which often precedes SPLM.

SPLM has also been spotted on the same systems as malware known to have been used by a China-linked actor known as Danti.

According to Kaspersky, overlaps were generally found on systems belonging to government, technology, science, and military organizations in or based in Central Asia.

Another interesting overlap was between Sofacy and the English-speaking Lamberts group, which is also known as Longhorn. Security firms revealed last year that this cyber espionage group had been using some of the Vault 7 tools leaked by WikiLeaks. These tools are believed to have been developed and used by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).

Kaspersky said it had identified Sofacy backdoors and malware associated with the Lamberts, specifically Grey Lambert, on a server belonging to a military and aerospace conglomerate in China.

Researchers admit, however, that the presence of both Lamberts and Sofacy malware on the server could simply mean that the former planted a false flag, considering that the original delivery vector for the Sofacy tool remains unknown. It’s also possible that the Russian group exploited a previously unknown vulnerability, or that it somehow harnessed the Grey Lambert malware to download its own tools. The most likely scenario, according to experts, is that the Sofacy malware was delivered using an unknown PowerShell script or a legitimate app in which the attackers discovered a flaw.

“Sofacy is sometimes portrayed as wild and reckless, but as seen under our visibility, the group can be pragmatic, measured and agile. Their activity in the East has been largely under-reported, but they are clearly not the only threat actor interested in this region, or even in the same targets,” Baumgartner said. “As the threat landscape grows ever more crowded and complex, we may encounter more examples of target overlap and it could explain why many threat actors check victim systems for the presence of other intruders before fully launching their attacks.”

Kaspersky recently spotted the SPLM malware being used in an attack aimed at major air defense organization in China, while the Zebrocy tool has been used in high volume campaigns targeting entities in Armenia, Turkey, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Afghanistan, Mongolia, Japan and China.


NSA Used Simple Tools to Detect Other State Actors on Hacked Devices
7.3.2018 securityweek  BigBrothers

NSA uses simple tools to detect friendly parties and adversaries on hacked devices

An analysis of leaked tools believed to have been developed by the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA) provides a glimpse into the methods used by the organization to detect the presence of other state-sponsored actors on hacked devices, and it could help the cybersecurity community discover previously unknown threats.

Over the past few years, a mysterious hacker group calling itself Shadow Brokers has been leaking tools allegedly created and used by the Equation Group, a threat actor widely believed to be linked to the NSA. The Shadow Brokers have been trying to sell Equation Group tools and exploits, but without much success. They say their main goal has been to make money, but many doubt their claims.

One of the sets of files leaked by the hackers last year, named “Lost in Translation,” includes a series of modules dubbed “Territorial Dispute.” Researchers at the Laboratory of Cryptography and System Security (CrySyS Lab) of the Budapest University of Technology and Economics in Hungary, who have been involved in the analysis of Duqu and other advanced persistent threats (APTs), have conducted an investigation and they determined that the Territorial Dispute tools are designed to detect the presence of other state-sponsored groups.

According to CrySyS, the tools are relatively simple; they search the targeted device for specific files, Windows registry entries, and other indicators of compromise (IoCs) associated with known APTs.

Other Equation Group tools leaked by the Shadow Brokers are designed to allow operators to check for the presence of more common malware, but the Territorial Dispute modules are more interesting as they focus on state-sponsored attacks. Researchers believe the goal of these tools is likely to avoid any conflict with friendly parties and also minimize the chances of the NSA’s own malware getting detected.

There are several aspects that make the Territorial Dispute tools interesting. One of them is the fact that while typically there are tens or hundreds of IoCs associated with state-sponsored threat groups, these tools only look for 1-5 indicators.

Experts speculate that the reason behind this decision is to provide operators as little information as possible and prevent them from knowing too much about an attack. This theory is reinforced by the fact that each of the 45 signatures used by the detection engine has a very generic name, specifically SIG1 through SIG45.

Researchers say that while this seems like a strange decision, they believe the NSA may have conducted an analysis and determined that there is a significant risk of misappropriation. Limiting the number of IoCs included in the tools could represent a way to lower the risk.

Experts also noticed that if certain files are identified, the operator of the Territorial Dispute tools is informed that the malware is friendly or receives instructions to pull back. The list of instructions and observations includes “seek help immediately,” “dangerous malware - seek help ASAP,” “friendly tool - seek help ASAP” and “unknown - please pull back.”

CrySyS has attempted to link the IoCs to known threat groups using public information available via Google and by comparing them to data from its own malware repository, which contains roughly 150 Tb of malicious binaries. This led to the discovery of thousands of malware samples.

The IoCs appear to target known APTs whose activities have been analyzed by the cybersecurity industry over the past decade, including APT28 (aka Sofacy and Fancy Bear), Turla (aka Snake and Uroburos), Animal Farm, Duqu, Stuxnet, Flame, TeamSpy, Elderwood Group (Operation Aurora), Iron Tiger, and Dark Hotel, which have been linked to Russia, France, the United States, Israel, South Korea, and China.

While many of the IoCs are associated with known groups, there are also some indicators that researchers have not been able to link to any threat actor. This suggests that the NSA may be aware of attacks and attackers that are not known to the public.

Boldizsár Bencsát, one of the experts involved in this research, told SecurityWeek that the threat corresponding to the SIG32 signature could be a previously unknown APT. Searching Google for one of the SIG32 indicators of compromise points to a Trend Micro threat encyclopedia entry for a piece of malware first detected in 2010. However, there is no indication that this malware has been known to be used by state-sponsored hackers.

“We think that careful analysis of the leaked material and cross-checking with public information and malware databases can reveal interesting, previously unknown information about the APT scene,” Bencsát said. “Also, we can possibly get a better understanding about the knowledge of governmental organizations on these attacks.”

CrySyS does not exclude the possibility that – since these tools have been publicly available for nearly a year – others used these indicators of compromise to uncover previously unknown APTs. Furthermore, while the IoCs are limited, they can turn out to be useful for obtaining more information on a threat group and making connections between attackers, their operations and their tools.

Bencsát will detail this research on Friday at Kaspersky Lab’s Security Analyst Summit (SAS) in Cancun, Mexico.


Leaked NSA Dump Also Contains Tools Agency Used to Track Other Hackers
7.3.2018 thehackernews  BigBrothers

A years ago when the mysterious hacking group 'The Shadow Brokers' dumped a massive trove of sensitive data stolen from the US intelligence agency NSA, everyone started looking for secret hacking tools and zero-day exploits.
A group of Hungarian security researchers from CrySyS Lab and Ukatemi has now revealed that the NSA dump doesn't just contain zero-day exploits used to take control of targeted systems, but also include a collection of scripts and scanning tools the agency uses to track operations of hackers from other countries.
According to a report published today by the Intercept, NSA's specialized team known as Territorial Dispute (TeDi) developed some scripts and scanning tools that help the agency to detect other nation-state hackers on the targeted machines it infects.
NSA hackers used these tools to scan targeted systems for 'indicators of compromise' (IoC) in order to protect its own operations from getting exposed, as well as to find out what foreign threat actors are stealing and which hacking techniques they are using.
"When the NSA hacks machines in Iran, Russia, China and elsewhere, its operators want to know if foreign spies are in the same machines because these hackers can steal NSA tools or spy on NSA activity in the machines," the publication reports.
"If the other hackers are noisy and reckless, they can also cause the NSA's own operations to get exposed. So based on who else is on a machine, the NSA might decide to withdraw or proceed with extra caution."
NSA's Territorial Dispute team maintains a database of digital signatures, like fingerprints for file and snippets from various hacking groups, to track APT operations for attribution.

According to the researchers, when the Shadow Brokers managed to hack the NSA networks and stole a collection of sensitive files in 2013, the agency was tracking at least 45 different state-sponsored APT groups.
It also appears that the NSA hackers were tracking some of the tools from Dark Hotel in 2011—that's about 3 years prior to the wider security community discovered the hacking group.
Dark Hotel is a sophisticated cyber espionage group believed to be from South Korea, well known for targeting hotel Wi-Fi networks to spy on senior-level executives at organisations in manufacturing, defense, investment capital, private equity, automotive and other industries.
The group of researchers has planned to release its findings of the NSA scripts and scanning tools this week at the Kaspersky Security Summit in Cancun, which would help other researchers to dig through the data and identify more of the APT groups the NSA is hunting.
"The team also hopes the information will help the community classify some malware samples and signatures that have previously been uncovered by the security community but remain unattributed to a specific threat group because researchers don’t know to which advanced hacking group they belong," the Intercept says.
Cryptography and System Security (CrySyS Lab) is best known for uncovering an Israeli spying tool called Duqu in 2011, which was believed to be developed by the same Israeli hackers who took the U.S. help to develop the infamous Stuxnet malware for sabotaging Iranian nuclear program.


GCHQ fears energy smart meters could expose millions of Bretons to hack
4.3.2018 securityaffairs BigBrothers

In the United Kingdom, new smart energy meters that are set to be installed in 27 million homes were found vulnerable by GCHQ.
Unsecured IoT devices are a privileged target of hackers and unfortunately, smart energy meters belong to this category.

In the UK, new smart energy meters that are set to be installed in 27 million homes were found vulnerable by GCHQ.

According to the intelligence agency the vulnerabilities could be exploited by hackers to compromise the IoT devices posing a serious risk to the users.

In 2017, some energy providers in the UK, including British Gas, E.on, Npower, Scottish Power and EDF, started testing SMETS 2 smart energy meters, the successor of SMETS 1 meters.

The new model smart energy meters addressed several issues that affected the 8 million of SMETS 1 meters

SMETS 2 smart energy meters solved various problems that both consumers and energy firms faced with first-generation SMETS 1 meters. Unlike the older SMETS 1 meters, the UK, SMETS 2 could be used by energy suppliers to remotely receive meter readings electronically.


The SMETS 2 smart energy meters were also designed to interoperate with different suppliers, consumers can change the energy provider without needing to change the meters.

According to a post published by the Telegraph, the GCHQ has raised concerns over the security of the smart energy meters. Attackers hack them to steal personal details and defraud consumers by tampering with their bills.

“Cyber security experts say that making the meters universal will make them more attractive to hackers because the potential returns are so much greater if they can hack every meter using the same software.” states The Telegraph.

“The cyber criminals are able to artificially inflate meter readings, making bills higher.

They then try to intercept payments, and if they simply skim off the difference between the real reading and the false reading, energy companies will think the bill has been paid normally.”

The intelligence agency also warned attackers could use the devices as a “Trojan horse” to enter in the customers’ networks.

The UK Government also fears that nation-state actors could exploit the flaws in the energy smart meters to create a power surge that would damage the National Grid.

Security experts also warn of BlueBorne attacks that potentially expose smart meters to hack by leveraging Bluetooth connections.

Robert Cheesewright, of Smart Energy GB, the Government-funded agency promoting the smart meter roll-out, tried to downplay the risks explaining that no financial data is directly managed by the devices, but evidently, its explanation doesn’t consider different attack scenarios.

“Smart meters are one of the safest and most secure pieces of technology in your home.” said Robert Cheesewright.

“Only energy data is stored on a meter and this is encrypted. Your name, address, bank account or other financial details are not stored on the meter.”

Risks associated with vulnerable smart meters were already analyzed in the past, in 2014 the security researchers, Javier Vazquez Vidal and Alberto Garcia Illera discovered that millions of Network-connected electricity meters in Spain were are susceptible to cyberattack due to lack of proper security controls.


Cyberattack 'Ongoing' Against German Government Network

2.3.2018 securityweek  BigBrothers

The German government's IT network is under an "ongoing" cyberattack", the parliamentary committee on intelligence affairs said Thursday, without confirming a media report that Russian hackers were behind the assault.

"It is a real cyberattack on parts of the government system. It's an ongoing process, an ongoing attack," said Armin Schuster, chairman of the committee, adding that no further details could be given to avoid passing crucial information on to the attackers.

Interior Minister Thomas de Maiziere said the hacking was "a technically sophisticated attack that had been planned for some time", adding that it had been brought under control.

The highly professional assault had been monitored by the security agencies in order to gain insights into the mode of attack and its targets, said de Maiziere.

German news agency DPA, which first reported the attack the previous day, said Thursday, citing unnamed security sources, that the likely authors were the Russian cyber espionage group "Snake".

DPA had earlier pointed at the Russian hacker group APT28, which has been accused of attacks on Hillary Clinton's 2016 presidential campaign as well as on Germany's parliamentary IT system in 2015.

German security authorities had only detected the online spying in December, DPA has reported, adding that it had infiltrated the systems of the foreign and interior ministries. Konstantin von Notz, deputy of the committee, complained it was "completely unacceptable" that members of the oversight body only learnt of the attack through the media.

- Russian hackers -

Top security officials had repeatedly warned during Germany's 2017 general election campaign that Russian hackers may seek to influence or disrupt the polls.

While authorities did not have concrete proof, they have blamed the malware attack that crippled the Bundestag parliamentary network in 2015 for days on the APT28, also known as "Fancy Bear" or "Sofacy".

The attack netted 17 gigabytes of data which, officials feared, could be used to blackmail MPs or discredit them.

In a separate assault, several German political parties were in September 2016 sent fake emails purporting to be from NATO headquarters which contained a link that installed spying software on victims' computers.

The emails affected party operations such as a regional network of Chancellor Angela Merkel's Christian Democratic Union and the federal offices of the far-left Die Linke party.

Amid the rising frequency of attacks, Germany's defence ministry in 2016 set up a cyber department to coordinate the response to online intrusions.

Merkel, seeking to prepare the German public for more online attacks, has said people should "not allow themselves to be irritated" by such rogue operations.


Russian Hackers Infiltrated German Ministries' Network: Report
1.3.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

Berlin - Russian hackers have infiltrated Germany's foreign and interior ministries' online networks, German news agency DPA reported Wednesday quoting unnamed security sources.

The hacker group known as APT28 -- which has been linked to Russia's GRU military intelligence and accused of attacks on Hillary Clinton's 2016 presidential campaign -- managed to plant malware in the ministries' networks for possibly as long as a year, the news agency said.

German security authorities only detected the online spying in December, it said, adding that an isolated government IT network had also been hit.

If confirmed, the attack would be the biggest to hit the German government.

Top security officials had repeatedly warned during Germany's 2017 general elections that Russia hackers may seek to disrupt the polls.

While authorities did not have concrete proof, they have pinned the malware attack that crippled the Bundestag parliamentary network in 2015 for days on the APT28, also known as "Fancy Bear" or "Sofacy".

The attack netted 17 gigabytes of data which, officials feared, could be used to blackmail MPs or discredit them.

Amid the rising frequency of attacks, Germany's defence ministry in 2016 set up a cyber department to coordinate a response to online intrusions.


DPA Report: Russia-linked APT28 group hacked Germany’s government network
1.3.2018 securityaffairs APT  BigBrothers

Germany Government confirmed that hackers had breached its computer network and implanted a malware that was undetected for one year.
German news agency DPA reported that Russian hackers belonging to the APT28 group (aka Fancy Bear, Pawn Storm, Sednit, Sofacy, and Strontium) have breached Germany’s foreign and interior ministries’ online networks.

The agency, quoting unnamed security sources, revealed that the APT28 hackers planted malware in the ministries’ networks. The malicious code was undetected as long as a year.

“A Russian-backed hacker group known for many high-level cyber attacks was able to infiltrate the German government’s secure computer networks, the dpa news agency reported Wednesday.” reported the ABCnews.

The German Government discovered the intrusion in December but the experts believe that the hackers were inside the networks as long as a year. The DPA also added that hackers were able to penetrate an isolated government IT network.

“within the federal administration the attack was isolated and brought under control.” said the Interior Ministry that also confirmed an ongoing investigation.

“This case is being worked on with the highest priority and considerable resources,” the ministry added.

The hackers exfiltrated 17 gigabytes of data that could be used in further attacks against the German Government.

APT28 targets Germany

This isn’t the first time that Russia-linked APT28 was blamed for a cyber attack against Germany, in 2015 the APT group hacked into the systems of the German Parliament.

What will happen in the future?

Top German intelligence officials are requesting to the government to hack back attackers in case of a cyber attack from a foreign government


From IDF to Inc: The Israeli Cybersecurity Startup Conveyor Belt
28.7.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

Israeli Defense Force (IDF) Unit 820

Understanding Why Israel Produces Many Cybersecurity Firms Starts With Understanding the Talent That Israeli Defense Force (IDF) Unit 8200 Produces

One definition of 'entrepreneur' is "a person who organizes and manages any enterprise, especially a business, usually with considerable initiative and risk." If Israel were a business, then its founders were entrepreneurs; and there is little wonder that the nation is imbued with an entrepreneurial spirit.

This spirit shapes Israeli business. Peter Rousseau, now with The Hackett Group, wrote last year, "Seventy-six Israeli companies are currently traded on the NASDAQ, behind only the United States and China. Israel exports $1,246 worth of hi-tech goods and services per capita compared to $488 for the U.S. and $295 for the rest of the world."

Nowhere is the entrepreneurial spirit better demonstrated than in the quantity and quality of contemporary cybersecurity firms that have come from Israel -- starting, perhaps, with Check Point. Check Point was founded in 1993 by Gil Shwed, Shlomo Kramer, and Marius Nacht. Shwed and Kramer had served together in the Israeli Defense Force (IDF) Unit 8200. One of Check Point's earliest employees was Nir Zuk, who moved on to become the founder and CTO of Palo Alto Networks. Zuk also served in IDF Unit 8200 -- and Unit 8200 is a pervasive thread that dominates Israeli cybersecurity firms.

Unit 8200 is the signals intelligence (SIGINT) and web intelligence (WEBINT) unit of the Israeli military; and is generally considered among the elite of the world's intelligence agencies. It is not the only technology unit in the IDF; but it is the offensive or proactive unit. All young Israelis do between 32 and 36 months military service from the age of 18. Those with a particular aptitude for SIGINT are literally 'creamed off' into Unit 8200.

Development of Israel's SIGINT

Unit 8200 did not spring from nothing with the formation of Israel in 1948. Jewish intelligence groups had been working in Palestine both with the ruling British administration, and against the British and Arabs -- sometimes simultaneously -- for many years. After 1948, the Israeli military became the IDF and established a military intelligence group codenamed 'Rabbit'. Rabbit was charged with intercepting and decoding Arab communications; a charge born of necessity.

Unit 8200 evolved out of Rabbit. Initially with little budget and low manpower, it was forced to develop its own technology and techniques -- the entrepreneurial spirit of the nation co-existed within its intelligence agency from its very origins.

The modern Unit 8200, however, grew out of the Yom Kippur War in 1973. On that Atonement Day, Israel was simultaneously invaded by Egypt and Syria. Although Israel eventually defeated the invaders it was at heavy cost in both lives and finance. Subsequent analysis showed that a failure in intelligence had left the nation unprepared -- and subsequent Unit 8200 reorganization was designed to prevent this ever happening again. Part of this was the conscious encouragement of 'chutzpah', (or audacity) among its staff.

This is the basis of today's Unit 8200: the cream of youth, highly trained in signals intelligence, encouraged to be audacious in thought and action, and imbued with an entrepreneurial spirit. These young people are then released back into society following their required national service in their early twenties. This is a situation unique in the world.

Israeli Cybersecurity Startups

When talented youth join the NSA or FBI or GCHQ or any other national intelligence agency, they are expected to do so for life, not just for three years. No other nation has this constant stream of highly trained, audacious and entrepreneurial young people entering the job market every year. What else should the more entrepreneurial alumni do but start their own firms using the skills they have acquired; and what else should others do but work in the R&D departments of these firms?

IDF's cybersecurity training

SecurityWeek spoke to several founders of Israeli cybersecurity firms. All of them served in technology units, and most in Unit 8200. Other military units have their own technology sections; and these also lead to spin offs. Examples could include Yuval Diskin, former director of Shin Bet, who started the cyber-tech company Diskin Advanced Technologies LTD; and Haim Tomer, formerly head of the Mossad's Intelligence Division, who is now a cybersecurity consultant. Despite such examples, however, it is the alumni of 8200 that dominate the new start-ups.

Understanding why Israel produces so many cybersecurity firms starts with understanding the converyor belt of talent that 8200 produces. Lior Div (CEO), Yossi Nar (CVO), and Yonatan Striem-Amit (CTO) are the three ex-8200 co-founders of Cybereason. "It starts," explains Liv, "with how people are selected to get into 8200. The Unit interviews all new draftees, using a series of tests looking at background, math proficiency, programming capabilities and pure intelligence. 8200 gets 'first pick'."

Just two military units get the lion's share of the best of the best: pilots for the air force, and 8200 for cyber warriors. Draftees serve anything from three to five years. During this period, special talent is fast-tracked. "By the time I was 19, I already had 10 developers reporting to me," said Div.

But it is fast-tracking in a unique environment. In commercial terms, the 'projects' are now well-funded and manned. "You are taught one thing in particular," he continued: "there is no such thing as impossible -- there is no notion of what you can and cannot do. You are given a problem, you work like crazy and eventually you solve the problem. So by the time you are released, around age 22 or 23, you are trained to solve cybersecurity problems."

This training is unique. Having chosen its new intake, said Div, "the military undertakes intensive training. After six months, 'trainees' have learned what a traditional university would take four years to teach -- and they have learned the practice of their subject and not just the underlying theory. By the time they leave, they are trained and confident cybersecurity warriors with new ideas."

This is confirmed by Boris Vaynburg, co-founder and CEO of Solebit. He and his two co-founders, along with 95% of his R&D staff, are all IDF technology unit alumni. He points out that in order to stay one step ahead of Israel's adversaries, Unit 8200 must take advantage of all known and unknown vulnerabilities in order to get into target networks. In essence, 8200 members get constant on-the-job red team training; and by the time draftees leave the military, they have a thorough understanding -- through use -- of the techniques used by hackers.

Eddy Brobitsky, CEO and co-founder of Minerva Labs, did not serve in Unit 8200. "Neither I nor my 2 co-founders served with 8200," he said, "We served in the unit that builds defensive solutions for the IDF. IDF doesn't want to rely on off-the-shelf products only -- it's important to develop your own products, so nobody will know how they work. We were focused on developing scalable products for cybersecurity and IT." It's worth noting that the IDF is, in these terms, the largest company in Israel. Building security defenses suitable for the entire IDF and Israel government is equivalent to building a security product that will scale to the largest commercial organizations.

But it's not just the practical expertise of service that benefits budding entrepreneurs -- it is the whole culture. We've seen that 'nothing is impossible' and chutzpah is encouraged; but there is also a completely different 'product' development culture. "Inside the IDF," explained Brobitsky, "the motivation for developing new security is to save human life. It's not about financial profit. All I had to do was show that a vulnerability existed and that someone could be hurt if there was a compromise, and I would get the budget to execute the project and build a defense."

It's not the same in the commercial world. "Later, when I worked in a bank which was driven by money," he continued, "I needed to show that any investment in cybersecurity would not hurt income but actually increase income. Its a very different approach. For example, if you fail in the IDF, you don't get fired -- you're still in the army. The army is always encouraging you to try and not accept defeat in any project; so it encourages innovation." While serving in the IDF, Brobitsky was involved in the development of between 20 and 30 different cybersecurity solutions for the entire IDF and government.

"So the environment is to try and try again until you succeed. In the real world, if you fail you will sometimes lose your job; and if you've already lost one job through not succeeding, you're always a bit afraid to try a different approach to things wherever you go.

A second difference with the outside world is the extent of 'networking' within Israel's technology world. Although there are different technology units with different priorities, there is constant intercommunication between them. Everybody knows everybody, commented Amit Rahav, VP of business development at Secret Double Octopus, "with veterans of the Israeli intelligence units seeking to hire these young guys righty away, appreciating the pre-selection, training and experience of the units they themselves came out of. This is to some extent similar to what happens at Ivy league MBA programs in the US."

From new idea to new company

From here there is a well-trod path. Turning what has been learned into a new company requires funding. Early-stage venture capital is available in Israel for good ideas. Not all ideas are good; but Israeli investors have become savvy in technology. Nobody wanted to say that there is smart money and dumb money, but it was a common acknowledgment that Israeli money is smart. Good ideas get funded and dumb ideas never get off the ground.

"Israeli venture capital is available, but it is hard to get and getting harder," explained Solebit's Vaynburg. "Any new idea has to be disruptive and unique with a strong team behind it. It's easier to get VC outside of Israel," he continued, "because the Israeli VC firms have become very cybersecurity savvy, and there are so many approaches for what is already an overcrowded market."

At the same time, of course, the cost of getting a product presentation team together and flown to the U.S. to present to a U.S. venture capital firm is exorbitant for what is, at this stage, likely to be not much more than proof of concept on a new idea. Seed funding tends to come from Israel itself.

What this generally means is that when a new cybersecurity firm is ready to expand outside of Israel, it is already a fair bet. That expansion usually means a move to the U.S. rather than the UK or Europe. For this there are three motivations -- all of which SecurityWeek has already heard in different contexts . Firstly there is far more venture capital available in the US than elsewhere. It's just beginning in Europe: there's some in Berlin, but little in London.

Secondly, despite the European Union, there are at least six different cultures and different languages to understand within the member nations, as opposed to, basically, just one American culture and language. Thirdly, and perhaps most importantly, new technology early-adopters are more prevalent in America -- and especially on the West Coast -- than anywhere else.

The real decision is not America or Europe, but West Coast or East Coast. While the majority might be attracted to the entrepreneurial attitude of the West Coast, others are attracted by the big financial customers of the East Coast. Boston-based CyberArk is one. "We figured the biggest adoption for security would first come financial services firms, and that very much lent itself to the East Coast," commented CEO Udi Mokady, another 8200 alumni.

The path from concept to company is illustrated by Solebit itself. "Solebit was established 3 years ago," said Vaynburg. "R&D is based in Israel. Our headquarters, however, is currently relocating to the Bay Area. We raised our seed funding from an Israeli venture capital firm [$2 million from Glilot Capital Partners in 2015], and Round A funding from a U.S. venture capital firm." The Round A funding is so new that, although it has closed, it is yet to be announced.

Lessons from the Israeli cybersecurity model

The sad truth is that the IDF situation in Israel is unique, and could not be copied anywhere else in the world. It provides a constant source of technological competence trained to be audacious, persistent and positive. Other SIGINT organizations around the world do not release their staff on to the job market, preferring to keep them. Retired NSA, CIA and FBI staff tend to join the boards of existing large corporations; they do not tend to start new companies. In the UK, retired GCHQ and Ministry of Defence (MoD) officers might become private consultants, offering experience and expertise -- but rarely new ideas.

One idea alone could translate to other countries. The IDF, the largest company in Israel, funds the university fees for promising students, requiring only that they work for the IDF for a period after graduation. Large western organizations could do similar, finding and nurturing young talent. The idea of serious cybersecurity talent emerging with a sought-after degree and no student debt should be alluring to all sides.


Trump Yet to Order Spies to Retaliate Against Russia: NSA Chief
28.7.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

President Donald Trump has not yet ordered his spy chiefs to retaliate against Russian interference in US elections, the head of the National Security Agency told lawmakers Tuesday.

"We have not opted to engage in some of the same behaviors we are seeing," said Admiral Michael Rogers, who heads both the NSA -- the leading US electronic eavesdropping agency -- and the new US Cyber Command, the military body charged with online combat.

Asked in a Senate Intelligence Committee hearing if he had received orders from Trump to fight back against Moscow's meddling, Rogers said: "No, I have not."

Rogers denied claims that the agency is doing nothing to push back against Russian hacking, theft of US cyber secrets and other activities.

However, he acknowledged: "They have not paid a price that is sufficient to change their behavior."

Rogers echoed the comments he and five other US intelligence chiefs made two weeks ago at the House Intelligence Committee, where all said they had not been ordered by Trump to counter the Russians.

The US has accused Russia of actively interfering in the 2016 presidential election, stealing Democratic party communications and pushing out disinformation through social media.

It also accuses Moscow of stealing hacking secrets of the US intelligence community.

Rogers said an order for Trump is needed before the US intelligence community and military can undertake offensive online operations against the Russians.

"What I see on the Cyber Command side leads me to believe that if we don't change the dynamic here, that this is going to continue, and 2016 won't be viewed as isolated," he said.

But he said that at a lower level, the NSA and Cyber Command could take some unspecified actions to rebuff attackers.

Asked about the exchange in Congress, White House spokeswoman Sarah Sanders suggested the president does not need to act.

"Nobody is denying him the authority," she said of Rogers.


Changes in Apple’s iCloud Security Policies and Argument of China
27.7.2018 securityaffairs BigBrothers

Changes in Apple’s iCloud Security Policies – Apple announced to relocating the encryption key for users data in China; from the United States of America to some country in Asia!
The latest chaos in the digital world regarding Apple has stricken like a bullet, as the iPhone manufacturer announced to relocating the encryption key for users data in China; from the United States of America to some country in Asia!

Well, some security advocates argue that this is incorrect for the corporation itself as well as a privacy threat for users, but according to Apple Company; the codes are secure.
According to the reports, the users of iCloud in China are confused that in what way Apple will manage the confidentiality of their essential data.

Apple too fears that data protection employees have concerns about changing the privacy of iCloud users in China, as per two reports this week.
The classified data such as online emails, photographs, and messages stay protected from hackers by encryption. And now, Apple will store encryption keys in China instead of the United States of America (Reuters and the Wall Street Journal reports).

It means that the Chinese authorities do not need to go to USA law agencies to force Apple to provide the rights to the data. This step in reaction to newly introduced laws in China, according to which iCloud services offered to the citizens, should secure data within premises of the country and can be used by Chinese organizations.

By the end of the coming month, Apple is going to start transmitting coded information to China and will work closely with a Chinese government. Apple did not say when the encryption data keys would move abroad.

Data protection advocates said, “The change can cause problems for political and other dissidents”.
“Given that Apple is going to work in China, it is unlikely that government can get access to Apple’s data from the local community,” said the professor at the Toronto University, studying the actions of the Chinese government carefully.

Apple says, however, that the data keys stored in a secure place, still Apple will control them. Besides, Apple also claimed that it would provide data only on demand to China’s current legislative requirements and did not create loopholes for access.
Apple’s high-level officer said to news agencies that iCloud is a matter of concern for the recently introduced laws.

The spokeswoman also noted that Apple decision to break the service of iCloud in China would lead to reduced client’s interaction with Apple and would reduce the security and confidentiality of data for Chinese users.
Big multinationals like Microsoft and Amazon also work with Chinese companies to provide cloud storage service and use the vast Chinese market. Two technological giants of USA refused to inform the magazine, where the encryption keys of the company’s data store.
Apple informed the news agencies that they sent a warning about the transition to Chinese iCloud users, which will allow them to disable iCloud to avoid data storage in the country. Apple also told that no one will be touched before accepting new terms of use in China.
Users whose configurations allow another nation like Macao and Hong Kong have not registered their data on servers in China.

The Reuters also includes Taiwan in this list; the newspaper does not do this.
Apple Company and Amazon did not respond to our request for additional comments yet. Microsoft also denied giving any further comments.


North Korea's Flash Player Flaw Now Exploited by Cybercriminals
27.2.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

Endpoint security firm Morphisec has spotted a massive campaign that exploits a recently patched Adobe Flash Player vulnerability to deliver malware.

The flaw in question, CVE-2018-4878, is a use-after-free bug that Adobe patched on February 6, following reports that North Korean hackers had been exploiting the vulnerability in attacks aimed at South Korea. The threat group, tracked as APT37, Reaper, Group123 and ScarCruft, has been expanding the scope and sophistication of its campaigns.

After Adobe patched the security hole, which allows remote code execution, other malicious actors started looking into ways to exploit CVE-2018-4878.

Morphisec said it spotted a campaign on February 22, which had been using a version of the exploit similar to the one developed by APT37. However, researchers pointed out that the exploit in the malspam campaign, unlike the one used in the original attacks, did not have a 64-bit version.

The attack starts with a spam email containing a link to a document stored on safe-storage[.]biz. Once downloaded and opened, the document informs users that an online preview is not available and instructs them to enable editing mode in order to view the content.

If users comply, the Flash vulnerability is exploited and the Windows command prompt is executed. The associated cmd.exe file is then injected with malicious shellcode that connects to the attacker’s domain.

A DLL file is then downloaded by the shellcode and executed using the Microsoft Register Server (regsvr32) utility. The legitimate tool is abused in an effort to bypass whitelisting products.

The malicious documents and the Flash exploit were only detected by a few security solutions based on their signature at the time of Morphisec’s analysis.

Since the URLs included in the spam emails were created using Google’s URL shortening service, researchers determined that each of the different links delivered in this campaign had been clicked tens and even hundreds of times within 3-4 days of being created. Users clicked on the links from various browsers and email services, including Outlook, Gmail and Aruba.it.

“As expected and predicted, adversaries have quickly adopted the Flash exploit, which is easily reproducible,” Morphisec’s Michael Gorelik explained in a blog post. “With small variations to the attack, they successfully launched a massive malspam campaign and bypassed most of the existing static scanning solutions once again.”


Pyeongchang – Russia’s GRU military intelligence agency hacked Olympics Computers
26.2.2018 securityaffairs BigBrothers

Pyeongchang – Russia’s GRU military intelligence agency hacked Olympics Computers conducted a false flag operation to make it appear the attack originated in North Korea.
On February 9, shortly before the Pyeongchang opening ceremonies on Friday, televisions at the main press centre, wifi at the Olympic Stadium and the official website were taken down.

According to The Washington Post, the incidents were caused by cyber attacks powered by hackers working at Russia’s GRU military intelligence agency that managed to take control in early February of 300 computers linked to the Olympic organization.

The cyber attacks were a retaliation against the International Olympic Committee for banning the Russian team from the Winter Games due to doping cases of Russian athletes.

“Analysts surmise the disruption was retaliation against the International Olympic Committee for banning the Russian team from the Winter Games due to doping violations. No officials from Russia’s Olympic federation were allowed to attend, and while some athletes were permitted to compete under the designation “Olympic Athletes from Russia,” they were unable to display the Russian flag on their uniforms and, if they won medals, their country’s anthem was not played.” reported The Washington Post.

“As of early February, the Russian military agency GRU had access to as many as 300 Olympic-related computers, according to an intelligence report this month.

The Office of the Director of National Intelligence declined to comment.”

Pyeongchang Olympic Games

The cyber attacks caused severe problems to the Olympic organization, many attendees were unable to print their tickets for the ceremony and were not able to participate the event.

According to the authorities, it is a sabotage, Russian cyber soldiers compromised South Korean computer routers and implanted a strain of “malware” that paralyzed the network.

In order to make hard the attribution of the attack, Russian hackers conducted a false flag operation to make it appear the attack originated in North Korea.

“Russian military spies hacked several hundred computers used by authorities at the 2018 Winter Olympic Games in South Korea, according to U.S. intelligence.” continues the Washington Post.

“They did so while trying to make it appear as though the intrusion was conducted by North Korea, what is known as a “false-flag” operation, said two U.S. officials who spoke on the condition of anonymity to discuss a sensitive matter.”


Russia Hacked Olympics Computers, Turned Blame on North Korea: Report
26.2.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

Russian military spies hacked hundreds of computers used by Winter Olympics organizers and tried to make it look like the work of North Korea, the Washington Post reported Sunday, quoting US intelligence sources.

South Korea had previously announced that it was investigating the failure of several Olympic-linked internet sites and broadcast systems just as the opening ceremonies were taking place on February 9.

The Post reported that Russia's GRU military intelligence agency managed to take control in early February of 300 computers linked to the Olympic organization.

As a result, many attendees were unable to print their tickets for the ceremony, leaving empty seats.

It said the Russians had hacked South Korean computer routers and inserted a form of "malware" that allowed them to gather data and paralyze the network.

The Russians used a North Korean internet provider to make it appear the attack originated in North Korea, in what is known as a "false flag" operation, the Post said.

While American officials quoted in the article were unable to say whether the hackers had activated the malware, they said the cyber attack against the Games -- from which Russia's team was excluded for doping -- was worrisome.

Some analysts believe the cyber attack was retribution for that ban. Some Russian athletes were allowed to compete, but only under the designation of "Olympic Athletes from Russia."

The Winter Games saw dramatic gestures aimed at easing the raw tensions dividing the two Koreas, as both countries' athletes marched together during the opening ceremonies, and they fielded a single women's ice hockey team.

The sister of North Korean leader Kim Jong-Un made several high-profile appearances in the early days of the Games, and a large squad of North Korean cheerleaders drew intense interest.

Finally, at the Games' closing ceremony Sunday, South Korean President Moon Jae-in and North Korean General Kim Yong Chol -- a man considered a "war criminal" by many in the South for his role in two deadly attacks on Southern targets -- exchanged a very public handshake.


Microsoft Data Warrant Case in Top US Court Has Global Implications
26.2.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

Microsoft faces off with the US government before the Supreme Court Tuesday over a warrant for data stored abroad that has important ramifications for law enforcement in the age of global computing.

The case, which dates back to 2013, involves a US warrant ordering Microsoft to turn over the contents of an email account used by a suspected drug trafficker, whose data is stored in a cloud computing center in Ireland.

It has been watched closely because of its implications for privacy and surveillance in the digital age, and specifically how law enforcement can reach across borders to obtain digital evidence that may be scattered across the globe.

Microsoft has maintained that US courts lack jurisdiction over the data stored in Ireland.

The US tech giant, backed by many firms in the sector and civil liberties groups, argues the case is critical in showing that American authorities cannot simply request such data via a warrant without going through the process set out in law enforcement treaties between countries.

- The Snowden effect -

Microsoft president Brad Smith told reporters last week the principle is especially relevant after former intelligence contractor Edward Snowden leaked details on global US surveillance programs in 2013.

"We've always said it was important to win this case to win the confidence of people around the world in American technology," Smith said in a conference call.

Smith said officials in Europe have been notably concerned about the implications of a decision in favor of the US government, and that was made clear during a discussion with a German official on the case after a lower judge ruled against Microsoft.

"He said that unless we persist with this lawsuit and turned it around, no German state would ever store data in a data center operated by an American company," Smith said.

Last year, a federal appeals court sided with Microsoft, overturning a district judge ruling.

Yet the case is complicated by the intricacies of cloud computing, which allow data to be split up and stored in multiple locations around the world even for a single user, and some analysts say the court has no good solution.

"The speed by which data can be moved about the globe, the fact of third-party control and the possibility of data being held in locations that have absolutely no connection to either the crime or target being investigated makes location of the 0s and 1s that comprise our emails a particularly poor basis for delimiting jurisdiction," American University law professor Jennifer Daskal wrote on the Just Security blog.

"Conversely, there is a real risk that a straight-up US government win will -- rightly or wrongly -- be perceived around the world as US law enforcement claiming the right to access data anywhere, without regard to the countervailing sovereign interests. This creates a precedent that foreign nations are likely to mimic."

- 'Larger problem' -

Both sides have said that any court decision may be flawed, and that Congress needs to address the issue by rewriting the 1986 Stored Communications Act at issue.

Microsoft's Smith said he was encouraged by a bill introduced this year called the CLOUD Act that would authorize cross-border data warrants with countries that meet certain standards for privacy and civil liberties.

The proposal has the backing of the tech sector, according to Smith, and respects the laws of each country where a request is made.

John Carlin, a former assistant US attorney general for national security, agreed that a legislative solution is preferable.

"Regardless of how this case turns out, it's not going to solve the larger problem," Carlin said.

Carlin said current law affecting crimes with cross-border components are not designed for the digital age.

"The problem now is there is a lack of clarity over how you can serve traditional legal process for what used to be local crimes," he added. Carlin said the CLOUD bill could address the issues because it "provides incentives for countries that have protections for civil liberties."

But some civil liberties activists have expressed concern the measure would expand US surveillance capabilities.

The measure "would give unlimited jurisdiction to US law enforcement over any data controlled by a service provider, regardless of where the data is stored and who created it," said Camille Fischer of the Electronic Frontier Foundation.

It also "creates a dangerous precedent for other countries who may want to access information stored outside their own borders, including data stored in the United States," she said.


Czech President wants Russian hacker Yevgeni Nikulin extradited to Russia instead of US
25.2.2018 securityafffairs  BigBrothers

Czech President Milos Zeman wants the Russian hacker Yevgeni Nikulin to be extradited to Russia instead of the US, he is charged with hacking against social networks and frauds.
Yevgeni Nikulin (29) was requested by the US for alleged cyber attacks on social networks and by the Russian authorities that charged him with frauds.

According to US authorities, the man targeted LinkedIn and Formspring and hacked into the file hosting service Dropbox.

The Russian criminal was arrested in Prague in October 2016 in an international joint operation with the FBI.

The case in the middle of an arm wrestling between Moscow and Washington, the US Government are accusing Russia to have interfered with 2016 Presidential election through hacking.

Yevgeni Nikulin
Source: US Defense Watch.com

In May, a Czech court ruled that Nikulin can be extradited to either Russia or the United States, leaving the final decision to the Justice Minister Robert Pelikan.

“It is true there have been two meetings this year where the president asked me not to extradite a Russian citizen to the United States but to Russia,” the website of the weekly newspaper Respekt quoted Pelikan as saying.

In 2016, Pelikan did not allow to extradite two Lebanese citizens charged by US court with several crimes, including the sale of ground-to-air missiles and cocaine trafficking.

“Respekt also quoted Babis, who professes a strong pro-EU and NATO stance, as saying earlier this month he would prefer Nikulin to be sent to the United States, but had no power over the decision. His spokeswoman declined comment.” reported the New York Times.

Zeman was re-elected in January, he is known for his pro-Russian line and its opposition to Western sanctions imposed on Russia over its 2014 annexation of Crimea.

The Respekt site said last week Pelikan received Vratislav Mynar, the head of Zeman’s office.

“It’s none of your business, but I have handed the minister a letter from the detained Nikulin’s mother,” Mynar told aktualne.cz.

Nikulin’s lawyer Martin Sadilek told AFP that Nikulin alleges that FBI investigators had tried twice to persuade him to confess to cyberattacks on the DNC.


Czech President Wants Hacker 'Extradited to Russia' Not US
24.2.2018 securityweek BigBrothers

The Czech Republic's pro-Moscow president has repeatedly lobbied for a Russian hacker held in Prague and wanted by the US to be extradited to Russia, the justice minister was quoted as saying Saturday.

Yevgeni Nikulin, sought by the US for alleged cyberattacks on social networks and also by his native Russia on fraud charges, has been in a Prague prison since he was arrested in the Czech capital in October 2016 in a joint operation with the FBI.

The case comes amid accusations by Washington that Russia tried to "interfere" through hacking in the 2016 US election won by Donald Trump, charges the Kremlin has dismissed.

Last May, a Prague court ruled that the 30-year-old Nikulin can be extradited to either Russia or the United States, with the final say left to Justice Minister Robert Pelikan.

"It's true that there have been two meetings this year at which the president (Milos Zeman) asked me to extradite a Russian citizen not to the United States, but to Russia," Pelikan told the aktualne.cz news site.

The site said the meetings had taken place in January, while earlier this week Pelikan received Vratislav Mynar, the head of Zeman's office, who also lobbied for Nikulin's extradition to Russia.

"It's none of your business, but I have handed the minister a letter from the detained Nikulin's mother," Mynar told aktualne.cz.

Zeman's spokesman Jiri Ovcacek declined to comment on the matter when asked by AFP.

Following Nikulin's arrest, Moscow accused Washington of harassing its citizens and vowed to fight Nikulin's extradition.

It then issued a separate arrest warrant for him over alleged theft from the WebMoney settlement system.

The US has charged Nikulin with hacking into social networks LinkedIn and Formspring and into the file hosting service Dropbox, Nikulin's lawyer Martin Sadilek told AFP earlier.

He also said Nikulin alleges that FBI investigators had tried twice to persuade him to confess to cyberattacks on the US Democratic Party.

Zeman, a 73-year-old ex-communist with strong pro-Russian, pro-Chinese and anti-Muslim views, won a second five-year term in a presidential vote in January.


Iran-linked group OilRig used a new Trojan called OopsIE in recent attacks
24.2.2018 securityaffairs BigBrothers  APT

According to malware researchers at Palo alto Networks, the Iran-linked OilRig APT group is now using a new Trojan called OopsIE.
The Iran-linked OilRig APT group is now using a new Trojan called OopsIE, experts at Palo Alto Networks observed the new malware being used in recent attacks against an insurance agency and a financial institution in the Middle East.

One of the attacks relied on a variant of the ThreeDollars delivery document, the same malicious document was sent by the threat actor to the UAE government to deliver the ISMInjector Trojan.

In the second attack detected by PaloAlto, the OilRig hackers attempted to deliver the malicious code via a link in a spear phishing message.

“On January 8, 2018, Unit 42 observed the OilRig threat group carry out an attack on an insurance agency based in the Middle East. Just over a week later, on January 16, 2018, we observed an attack on a Middle Eastern financial institution. In both attacks, the OilRig group attempted to deliver a new Trojan that we are tracking as OopsIE.” reads the analysis from Palo Alto Networks.

The first attack occurred on January 8, 2018, the hackers sent two emails to two different email addresses at the target organization within a six minutes time span. Attackers spoofed the email address associated with the Lebanese domain of a major global financial institution.

OilRig launched another attack on January 16, in this case, the attackers downloaded the OopsIE Trojan from the command and control (C&C) server directly. The same organization was hit by OilRig for the second time, the first attacks occurred in 2017.

The researchers explained that the malware is packed with SmartAssembly and obfuscated with ConfuserEx.

The hackers gain persistence by creating a VBScript file and a scheduled task to run itself every three minutes. The OopsIE Trojan communicates with the C&C over HTTP by using the InternetExplorer application object.

“By using the InternetExplorer application object, all C2 related requests will look as if they came from the legitimate browser and therefore will not contain any anomalous fields within the request, such as custom User-Agents. The OopsIE Trojan is configured to use a C2 server hosted at:

www.msoffice365cdn[.]com” states the analysis.

“The Trojan will construct specific URLs to communicate with the C2 server and parses the C2 server’s response looking for content within the tags <pre> and </pre>. The initial HTTP request acts as a beacon”

OilRig

The Trojan can run a command, upload a file, or download a specified file.

Oilrig will continue to adapt its tactics, the experts believe that it will remain a highly active threat actor in the Middle East region.

“This group has repeatedly shown evidence of a willingness to adapt and evolve their tactics, while also reusing certain aspects as well. We have now observed this adversary deploy a multitude of tools, with each appearing to be some form of iterative variation of something used in the past. However, although the tools themselves have morphed over time, the plays they have executed in their playbook largely remain the same when examined over the attack life cycle,” Palo Alto concludes.


FBI warns of spike in phishing campaigns to gather W-2 information
24.2.2018 securityaffairs BigBrothers

The FBI is warning of a spike in phishing campaigns aimed to steal W-2 information from payroll personnel during the IRS’s tax filing season.
The FBI has observed a significant increase since January of complaints of compromised or spoofed emails involving W-2 information.

“Beginning in January 2017, IRS’s Online Fraud Detection & Prevention (OFDP), which monitors for suspected IRS-related phishing emails, observed an increase in reports of compromised or spoofed emails requesting W-2 information.” states the alert published by the FBI.

W-2 information is a precious commodity for crooks that are showing an increasing interest in tax data.

Law enforcement and security experts observed many variations of IRS and tax-related phishing campaigns, but most effective are mass data thefts, for example, campaigns targeting Human Resource (HR) professionals.

“The most popular method remains impersonating an executive, either through a compromised or spoofed email in order to obtain W-2 information from a Human Resource (HR) professional within the same organization.” continues the alert.

“Individual taxpayers may also be the targeted, but criminals have evolved their tactics to focus on mass data thefts.”

w-2 information

A separate warning od W-2 -related phishing campaigns was issued by the Internal Revenue Service.

“The Form W-2 scam has emerged as one of the most dangerous phishing emails in the tax community. During the last two tax seasons, cybercriminals tricked payroll personnel or people with access to payroll information into disclosing sensitive information for entire workforces.” reads the IRS’s advisory issued in January. “The scam affected all types of employers, from small and large businesses to public schools and universities, hospitals, tribal governments and charities.”

Once cyber criminal obtained the W-2 information, they will request a wire transfer, unfortunately, in the case of businesses and organizations the scam is not discovered for weeks or months.

“The initial email may be a friendly, “hi, are you working today” exchange before the fraudster asks for all Form W-2 information. In several reported cases, after the fraudsters acquired the workforce information, they immediately followed that up with a request for a wire transfer.” continues the advisory.

“In addition to educating payroll or finance personnel, the IRS and Security Summit partners also urge employers to consider creating a policy to limit the number of employees who have authority to handle Form W-2 requests and that they require additional verification procedures to validate the actual request before emailing sensitive data such as employee Form W-2s.”

Phishing scams related W-2 information have been increasing, the number of reports regarding this criminal practice from both victims and non-victims jumped from over 100 in 2016 up to roughly 900 in 2017, The IRS confirmed that more than 200 employers were victimized in 2017.

“Reports to phishing@irs.gov from victims and nonvictims about this scam jumped to approximately 900 in 2017, compared to slightly over 100 in 2016. Last year, more than 200 employers were victimized, which translated into hundreds of thousands of employees who had their identities compromised.” continues the alert.

Let me close with recommendations published by the FBI to avoid being victims of W-2 phishing scams and BEC:

Limit the number of employees within a business who have the authority to approve and/or conduct wire transfers and handle W-2 related requests or tasks
Use out of band authentication to verify requests for W-2 related information or wire transfer requests that are seemingly coming from executives. This may include calling the executive to obtain verbal verification, establishing a phone Personal Identification Number (PIN) to verify the executive’s identity, or sending the executive via text message a one-time code and a phone number to call in order to confirm the wire transfer request
Verify a change in payment instructions to a vendor or supplier by calling to verbally confirm the request. The phone number should not come from the electronic communication, but should instead be taken from a known contact list for that vendor
Maintain a file, preferably in non-electronic form, of vendor contact information for those who are authorized to approve changes in payment instructions
Delay the transaction until additional verifications can be performed such as having staff wait to be contacted by the bank to verify the wire transfer
Require dual-approval for any wire transfer request involving one or more of the following:
A dollar amount over a specific threshold
Trading partners who have not been previously added to a “white list” of approved trading partners to receive wire payments
New trading partners
New bank and/or account numbers for current trading partners
Wire transfers to countries outside of the normal trading pattern