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Hardwarové hrozby

 

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ZombieLoad: Cross-Výsledek obrázku pro IT hardware In early 2018, Meltdown first showed how to read arbitrary kernel memory from user space by exploiting side-effects from transient instructions. While this attack has been mitigated through stronger isolation boundaries between user and kernel space, Meltdown inspired an entirely new class of fault-driven transient execution attacks. Particularly, over the past year, Meltdown-type attacks have been extended to not only leak data from the L1 cache but also from various other microarchitectural structures, including the FPU register file and store buffer
RIDLVýsledek obrázku pro IT hardware We present Rogue In-flight Data Load (RIDL)1 , a new class of unprivileged speculative execution attacks to leak arbitrary data across address spaces and privilege boundaries (e.g., process, kernel, SGX, and even CPU-internal operations). Our reverse engineering efforts show such vulnerabilities originate from a variety of micro-optimizations pervasive in commodity (Intel) processors, which cause the CPU to speculatively serve loads using extraneous CPU-internal in-flight data (e.g., in the line fill buffers).
FalloutVýsledek obrázku pro IT hardware Recently, out-of-order execution, an important performance optimization in modern high-end processors, has been revealed to pose a significant security threat, allowing information leaks across security domains. In particular, the Meltdown attack leaks information from the operating system kernel to user space, completely eroding the security of the system. To address this and similar attacks, without incurring the performance costs of software countermeasures, Intel includes hardware-based defenses in its recent Coffee Lake R processors.
DragonbloodVýsledek obrázku pro IT hardware The WPA3 certification aims to secure Wi-Fi networks, and provides several advantages over its predecessor WPA2, such as protection against offline dictionary attacks and forward secrecy. Unfortunately, we show that WPA3 is affected by several design flaws, and analyze these flaws both theoretically and practically. Most prominently, we show that WPA3’s Simultaneous Authentication of Equals (SAE) handshake, commonly known as Dragonfly, is affected by password partitioning attacks. These attacks resemble dictionary attacks and allow an adversary to recover the password by abusing timing or cache-based side-channel leaks.
SPOILER CPU VulnerebilityVýsledek obrázku pro IT hardware Modern microarchitectures incorporate optimization techniques such as speculative loads and store forwarding to improve the memory bottleneck. The processor executes the
load speculatively before the stores, and forwards the data of a preceding store to the load if there is a potential dependency. This enhances performance since the load does not
have to wait for preceding stores to complete. However, the dependency prediction relies on partial address information, which may lead to false dependencies and stall hazards
ThunderclapVýsledek obrázku pro IT hardware Direct Memory Access (DMA) attacks have been known for many years: DMA-enabled I/O peripherals have complete access to the state of a computer and can fully compromise it including reading and writing all of system memory. With the popularity of Thunderbolt 3 over USB Type-C and smart internal devices, opportunities for these attacks to be performed casually with only seconds of physical access to a computer have greatly broadened. In response, commodity hardware and operatingsystem (OS) vendors have incorporated support for Input-Ouptut Memory Management Units (IOMMUs), which impose memory protection on DMA, and are widely believed to protect against DMA attacks.
BLEEDINGBITVýsledek obrázku pro IT hardware

Two vulnerabilities in the Bluetooth chips typically found in access points that provide WiFi service in enterprises allow attackers to take control of the devices without authentication or to breach the network. The vulnerable chips are also present in medical devices (insulin pumps, pacemakers), smart locks and a variety of other types of products that rely on Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) technology for communication. A tally of affected gadgets is currently unavailable.

FaxploitVýsledek obrázku pro IT hardwareFax, the brilliant technology that lifted mankind out the dark ages of mail delivery when only the postal service and carrier pigeons were used to deliver a physical message from a sender to a receiver. Technology wise, however, that was a long time ago. Today we are light years away from those dark days. In its place we have email, chat messengers, mobile communication channels, web-services, satellites using quantum messaging and more.

TLBLEED

Výsledek obrázku pro IT hardware

TLBleed is a new side channel attack that has been proven to work on Intel CPU’s with Hyperthreading (generally Simultaneous Multi-threading, or  SMT, or HT on Intel) enabled. It relies on concurrent access to the TLB, and it being shared between threads. We find that the L1dtlb and the STLB (L2 TLB) is shared between threads on Intel CPU cores.

Foreshadow

Výsledek obrázku pro IT hardware

Foreshadow is a vulnerability that affects modern microprocessors that was first discovered by two independent teams of researchers in January 2018, but was first disclosed to the public on 14 August 2018.The vulnerability is a speculative execution attack on Intel processors that may result in the loss of sensitive information stored in personal computers, or third party clouds.There are two versions: the first version (original/Foreshadow) (CVE-2018-3615) targets data from SGX enclaves; and the second version (next-generation/Foreshadow-NG) (CVE-2018-3620 and CVE-2018-3646) targets Virtual Machines (VMs), hypervisors (VMM), operating system (OS) kernel memory, and System Management Mode (SMM) memory

Meltdown

Výsledek obrázku pro IT hardware

Meltdown is a hardware vulnerability affecting Intel x86 microprocessors, IBM POWER processors, and some ARM-based microprocessors. It allows a rogue process to read all memory, even when it is not authorized to do so.

Spectre

Výsledek obrázku pro IT hardware

Spectre is a vulnerability that affects modern microprocessors that perform branch prediction.On most processors, the speculative execution resulting from a branch misprediction may leave observable side effects that may reveal private data to attackers. For example, if the pattern of memory accesses performed by such speculative execution depends on private data, the resulting state of the data cache constitutes a side channel through which an attacker may be able to extract information about the private data using a timing attack.

Rowhammer 2.0Výsledek obrázku pro IT hardwareTentokrát z laboratoří IBM Zurich přichází nová verze tohoto útoku, která umí podobné kousky na SSD discích (namísto původní RAM paměti). Využitím tzv. cell to cell interference dokáží ovlivnit sousední bloky a následně jim v jejich názorném útoku stačí najít blok sousedící s tabulkou i-nodů. Pak již zbývá ovlivnit nový nebo existující i-node tak, aby byl vlastněn rootem a měl nastavený suid bit. Při smíchání všeho dohromady je tak možné využít například shell binárku a nastavit jí potřebné atributy a získat tak oprávnění roota. Jak se dá asi očekávat, nejedná se o triviální útok. Útočníkovi sice stačí přístup k filesystému z pozice běžného uživatele, ale vyžaduje zaplnění počtu i-node na disku a vytvoření alespoň 100 GB souboru, aby měl útok 99,7% šanci na úspěch.

Rowhammer bug

Výsledek obrázku pro IT hardware

Rowhammer je zranitelnost v DRAM zařízeních, která umožňuje útoky, jako je zvýšení úrovně oprávnění a pískoviště útěk. Opakovaně přístup řádek v posledních DRAM zařízení mohou způsobit trochu vyletí v přilehlých řadách, a útoky prokáže a doloží týmem Google Project Zero používali toto chování získat prileges jádra na x86-64 Linux strojích (od neprivilegovaným uživatelské pozemků).

CPUx86 zranitelnost

Výsledek obrázku pro IT hardware

Výzkumníci z Check Pointu (Ohad Bobrov a Avi Bashan) objevili chybu, pomocí níž je možné plně vzdáleně ovládnout téměř jakýkoliv Android. Chybu pojmenovali Certifi-Gate a týka se základní součásti Androidu – Remote Support Tool (mRST). Tato služba běží s nejvyšším oprávněním a není možné ji smazat ze systému. Stovky milionů těchto zařízení jsou tak v nebezpečí a bohužel velká část z nich nebude opravena nikdy, protože výrobci nejsou donuceni k aktualizacím svých upravených verzí Androidu, a tak můžete ještě dnes koupit mobil s Androidem verze 2.3 obsahující minimálně 16 bezpečnostních zranitelností.

UEFI zranitelnost

Výsledek obrázku pro IT hardware

Zranitelnost UEFI Secure bootu u zařízení s MS Windows umožňuje hackerům spuštění bootkitů/rootkitů na zařízeních s MS Windows. Microsoft se sice pokouší tuto chybu opravit, avšak doposud ne zcela úspěšně. Zranitelnost Secure bootu je možné využít k obejití bezpečnostních mechanismů secure bootu a k následné instalaci bootkitu/rootkitu na zařízení s MS Windows. Bezpečnostní analytici se domnívají, že tento bezpečnostní problém nemůže být zcela eliminován